The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles swung onto our television screens, Salman Rushdie published Satanic Verses and farmers' favourite - the Barbour jacket - became inexplicably trendy for city dwellers.

And then there were those Liverpool players, showing remarkable lyrical dexterity for a bunch of footballers, rapping how they had "won the league, bigger stars than Dallas, they got more silver than Buckingham Palace". Welcome to 1988 - the year where the UK charts were topped for five weeks by The Only Way Is Up - at a time when the UK economy was beginning to have other ideas.

Economic growth had peaked and was beginning to slow, while inflation was rising - both precursors of the recession of the early 1990s. Heady days that seem an age away. Or do they?


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The Simpsons


The Simpsons is an American animated television sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a working class American lifestyle epitomized by its eponymous family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional city of Springfield, and lampoons American culture, society, television and many aspects of the human condition. The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a pitch for a series of animated shorts with the producer James L. Brooks.

Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after members of his own family, substituting Bart for his own name. The shorts became a part of The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After a three-season run, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show and was an early hit for Fox, becoming the first Fox series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season (1989–1990).

Since its debut on December 17, 1989 the show has broadcast 464 and counting episodes and the twenty-first season began airing on September 27, 2009. The Simpsons Movie, a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 26 and July 27, 2007, and grossed US$527 million worldwide.


Whitney Houston


The 1980's were a great decade for music, and probably the first that really put the female singer front and center for a time. There were so many great female singers during this decade and while there's no doubt that the three I'll mention here were extremely successful, this list is subject to debate, as it all comes down to a matter of personal preference. I've done my best to narrow it down, but it was naturally a challenge to do so. Anyway, here's my list. 3. Whitney Houston.

A true diva in every sense of the word, Whitney Houston was a legendary R&B singer whose many #1 hits have gone down as 1980s classics. From more upbeat songs like "I Wanna Dance With Somebody" to slower songs like "The Greatest Love of All", Whitney belted out the high notes like no one else in the 1980s. 2. Tina Turner. This legendary singer was already a couple of decades into her career by the 1980s, but that didn't stop her from achieving enormous commercial success.

Some of Tina's biggest years took place in the 1980s, and her many hits were classic 1980s music. 1. Madonna. Were you expecting anyone else? Madonna produced more chart toppers than any female singer in the 1980s, and more than any female singer in history. She truly revolutionized the concept of the female pop star, and she amazingly still produces great music over 25 years later.

The 1980s became the Me! Me! Me! generation of status seekers. During the 1980s, hostile takeovers, leveraged buyouts, and mega-mergers spawned a new breed of billionaire. Donald Trump, Leona Helmsley, and Ivan Boesky iconed the meteoric rise and fall of the rich and famous.

If you've got it, flaunt it and You can have it all! were watchwords. Forbes' list of 400 richest people became more important than its 500 largest companies. Binge buying and credit became a way of life and 'Shop Til you Drop' was the watchword. Labels were everything, even (or especially) for our children. Tom Wolfe dubbed the baby-boomers as the 'splurge generation.' Video games, aerobics, minivans, camcorders, and talk shows became part of our lives.

The decade began with double-digit inflation, Reagan declared a war on drugs, Kermit didn't find it easy to be green, hospital costs rose, we lost many, many of our finest talents to AIDS which before the decade ended spread to black and Hispanic women, and unemployment rose. On the bright side, the US Constitution had its 200th birthday, Gone with the Wind turned 50, ET phoned home, and in 1989 Americans gave $115,000,000,000 to charity. And, Internationally, at the very end of the decade the Berlin Wall was removed.


 Jimmy Carter


The history of the United States (1980-1991) includes the last year of the Jimmy Carter presidency, eight years of the Ronald Reagan administration, and the first two years of the George H. W. Bush presidency, up to the collapse of the Soviet Union.

Plagued by the Iran Hostage Crisis and mounting domestic opposition, Carter lost the 1980 presidential election to Republican Reagan. In his first term, Reagan introduced expansionary fiscal policies aimed at stimulating the American economy after a recession in 1981 and 1982, including oil deregulation policies which led to the 1980s oil glut.

He met with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in four summit conferences, culminating with the signing of the INF Treaty. These actions accelerated the end of the Cold War war, which occurred during the early part of the Bush presidency, and the removal of the Berlin Wall.

The second largest stock market crash (percentage-wise) in United States history occurred in 1987, preceding another recession. The largest scandal of the years was the Iran-Contra affair, wherein weapons had been sold to Iran, and the proceeds used by the CIA to aid Contras in Nicaragua.


Voltron


Many cartoon characters such as Smurfs, Rainbow Brite, Strawberry Shortcake, Care Bears, My Little Pony, GI Joe, Garfield, He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, Thundercats, Voltron, and Transformers appeared in the media and on merchandise, becoming huge trends of the 1980s.

Many of these reappeared about twenty years later in slightly updated versions as decade nostalgia began to take hold. # Martial arts and Ninja mania swept North America due to the popularity of Kung Fu Theater and ninja movies. The Karate Kid became a blockbuster hit film, and raised interest in karate.

The emergence of self-styled martial arts experts gave rise to the so-called "McDojo" and "Bullshido" trends. The cartoon characters Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles became a widely mass-marketed pop culture phenomenon in the late 1980s. "Raybans" or sunglasses became popular "must-wear" items, as well as Nike sneakers, Members Only jackets, men's shorts and other athletic wear such as sweats and jerseys for an active generation of young people.

The decade began with a backlash against disco music and a movement away from the orchestral arrangements that had characterized much of the music of the 1970s. Music in the 1980s was characterized by unheard of electronic sounds accomplished through the use of synthesizers and keyboards, along with drum machines.

The Sheffield (UK) based band The Human League were pioneers of 'synthesized music' and were heavily influential in this genre. This made a dramatic change in music. The music channel MTV had just began so many very creative music videos were being made alongside songs. The very first video to be aired on MTV was Buggles- Video Killed The Radio Star.


This video heavily showed off the use of synthesizers as they were new to many people and the sounds they produced had been unheard of. * Michael Jackson revolutionized music with his best-selling album Thriller. Thriller, released in 1982, is the world's all-time best selling album with over 104 million sold copies. His mannerisms and trends were copied repeatedly, from the single-glove, to the various jackets he wore, and the now-famous moonwalk.

In the United States, MTV was launched and music videos began to have a huge effect on the record industry. The first video aired was Video Killed the Radio Star by the British band The Buggles, and it proved oddly prophetic. Bands such as Duran Duran made lavish music videos which made MTV a cultural phenomenon.

Early eighties groups such as Devo and Haircut 100 were pioneers. Pop artists such as Madonna and Michael Jackson mastered the format and turned it into big business. * New Wave and Synthpop were developed by artists such as The Cars, Duran Duran, A Flock of Seagulls, Gary Numan, Depeche Mode, Japan, Soft Cell, Bananarama, New Order, and Tears for Fears, and become popular phenomena throughout the decade, especially in the early eighties. * Artists with Gender Bender styles such as Boy George, Annie Lennox, Pete Burns, and Marilyn were popular in America and Europe.

The famous drag queen Divine even had a top 20 hit in the UK (#16 in 1984) with You Think You're A Man. * Heavy metal, Big Hair Bands and Glam metal, experienced extreme popularity in 1980s, becoming one of the most dominating music genres of the 1980s with artists such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Van Halen, KISS, Twisted Sister, Aerosmith, Poison, Ratt, Skid Row, Hanoi Rocks, Mötley Crüe, Def Leppard, Queen, Whitesnake, Quiet Riot, Bon Jovi, Guns N' Roses, AC/DC, and Rush, all receiving extensive airplay. * Thrash metal appeared and became an underground sensation originating mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area, and New York City.

A few of these acts, such as Metallica, Megadeth (formed in Los Angeles), Anthrax and Slayer (formed in Huntington Beach), managed to achieve mainstream exposure (especially during the early 1990s), and were frequently seen as alternatives to the poppier "glam metal" bands of the day. * Extreme metal began, with bands such as Venom, Bathory, Hellhammer, Celtic Frost, Death, Possessed, Morbid Angel and gained prominence in the underground.

House music was a new development in dance music mid-way through the decade, growing out of the post-disco scene early in the decade and later developed into acid house, a harder form of dance often associated with the developing late 1980s drug culture. * Hip hop and rap music, introduced by urban youths of predominantly African American descent, debuted in the pop culture scene as early as 1979, with the Sugar Hill Gang's single release Rapper's Delight.

MTV picked up on this movement with "Yo! MTV Raps", a one-hour show dedicated to hip-hop music videos,which began to air in 1988 and hip hop became popular in 1986 when the golden age started. The Hip hop scene evolved to become a powerful musical force, bringing with it several dance styles and began to diverse. As hip hop artists such as Run-D.M.C.,Beastie Boys and LL Cool J were the first to gather mainstream attention and by 1986 Hip Hop broke into the mainstream and became diverse, also Hip-Hops first female group called Salt-n-Pepa marked the rise of women in Hip hop.

Alternative rock appeared as a then-aptly titled alternative to the mainstream rock trends of the day, with American bands such as R.E.M., The Replacements, Sonic Youth, They Might Be Giants, Camper Van Beethoven, the Violent Femmes and the Pixies, and British bands such as The Cure, The Smiths and Echo and the Bunnymen, as pioneers. This style of music was widely popular with college students and received almost all of its airplay from college radio stations, to the extent that it was known as college rock in the US for much of the decade.


 Lady Diana and Prince Charles


The wedding of Lady Diana and Prince Charles (1981): On July 29, 1981, Lady Diana Spencer (20 years old) married Prince Charles (32 years old) at St. Paul's Cathedral. Their wedding was large, extravagant, and wondrous. It was the wedding of the decade. Nearly 3,500 people attended personally, 600,000 people lined the streets of London hoping to catch a peek, and approximately 750 million people from around the world watched it on television.

The ceremony began at 11:20 a.m. with Archbishop of Canterbury Dr. Robert Runcie officiating. Lady Diana's wedding gown, designed by Elizabeth and David Emanuel, was made of ivory silk taffeta with antique lace and had a 25-foot-long train. This is princess Diana's romantic wedding to the man she was in love with, prince Charles. It's a selection of pictures and film footage. The marriage turned out to be a nightmare for her, but the wedding was a fairytale for sure! If only they had lived happily ever after...


Space Shuttle Challenger


The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster occurred on January 28, 1986 when Challenger, a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, consisting of an orbiter vehicle named Challenger, designated OV-099, an External Tank (ET) containing liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer, and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), broke apart 73 seconds into its flight leading to the deaths of its seven crew members. The spacecraft disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of central Florida, United States at 11:39 a.m. EST (16:39 UTC).

Disintegration of the shuttle stack began after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The O-ring failure caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing a flare (of pressurized hot gas from within the solid rocket motor) to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB attachment hardware and external fuel tank.

The SRB breach flare led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft attachment and the structural failure of the external tank, dumping the liquid hydrogen fuel load all at once and causing a massive explosion as this fuel was immediately ignited by various present flame sources. Aerodynamic forces promptly broke up the orbiter after this event caused loss of attitude control.

The crew compartment and many other vehicle fragments were eventually recovered from the ocean floor after a lengthy search and recovery operation. The crew were probably killed by impact of their crew compartment with the ocean surface, although they might have suffered lethal injuries from the forces of the disintegration.


collapse of the Berlin Wall


On November 9, Germany celebrated the 15th anniversary of the collapse of the 97-mile long Berlin Wall. This wall famously divided the city of Berlin and the country of Germany into the West, a democratic area, and the East, a communist area. On November 9, 1989, this wall was torn down after dividing the country for 28 years.

Fifteen years ago, the collapse of the Berlin Wall was greeted with joyous celebrations throughout Berlin. Yet the opening of the wall was almost an accident. Access between East and West Berlin had been denied for almost thirty years, but on November 9, 1989, Guenter Schabowski, a spokesman for East Germany’s communist government, announced that East Germany would lift traveling restrictions to the West. When asked when this would happen, Schabowski spontaneously announced “immediately, without delay,” though this had not been previously planned.

That night, East Berliners arrived at the wall in such numbers that the armed guards gave up and allowed them unrestricted access. Some of the most lasting memories of that night include Berliners from both sides dancing on the wall in celebration. Eleven months later, East and West Germany unified into the Germany that exists today.


Klaus Barbie


Klaus Barbie, the Nazi Gestapo chief of Lyons, France, during the German occupation, is arrested in Bolivia for his crimes against humanity four decades earlier. As chief of Nazi Germany's secret police in occupied France, Barbie sent thousands of French Jews and French Resistance members to their deaths in concentration camps, while torturing, abusing, or executing many others.

After the Allied liberation of France, he fled to Germany, where under an assumed identity he joined other ex-Nazi officials in the formation of an underground anti-communist organization.

In 1947, the U.S. Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) broke up the organization and arrested its senior members, although Barbie remained at large until the CIC offered him money and protection in exchange for his cooperation in countering Soviet espionage efforts. Barbie worked as a U.S. agent in Germany for two years and in 1949 was smuggled to Bolivia, where he assumed the name of "Klaus Altmann" and continued his work as a U.S. agent.

In addition to his work for the Americans, he performed services for Bolivia's various military regimes, especially that of Hugo "El Petiso" Banzer, who came to power in 1971 and became one of the country's most oppressive leaders. Barbie provided a similar expertise for Banzer as he had for the Nazis, torturing and interrogating political opponents and dispatching many of them to internment camps, where many were executed or died from mistreatment.

It was at this time that Nazi hunters Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie's whereabouts, but Banzer refused to extradite him to France. In the early 1980s, a liberal regime came to power in Bolivia and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid to the destitute nation.

In January 1983, Barbie was arrested, and he arrived in France on February 7. Legal wrangling, especially between the groups representing his Jewish and French Resistance victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on May 11, 1987, the "Butcher of Lyons," as he was known in France, went on trial for 177 crimes against humanity.

In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers--an Asian, an African, and an Arab--who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crimes against humanity as Barbie or any other Nazi. Barbie's lawyers were more interested in putting France and Israel on trial than in actually proving their client's innocence, and on July 4, 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes, Klaus Barbie was sentenced to spend the rest of his life in prison, France's highest punishment. He died in prison of cancer on September 25, 1991, at the age of 77.



As had happened in the late 1950s, in the late 1970s and early 1980s the Soviet Union and the United States both enhanced their nuclear arsenals. This development reignited a peace movement worldwide. For New Zealanders there was a South Pacific focus.

Initially provoked by French nuclear testing, from 1975 it was directed more at the United States' nuclear presence in the region. Reinforced by world trends, the New Zealand movement exploded in size in the early 1980s. In 1985 the fourth Labour government clashed with the United States over its ban on port visits by nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships.

This distanced New Zealand from its Cold War allies and led the United States to suspend its ANZUS obligations to New Zealand. Nevertheless, the depth of sentiment in New Zealand was such that the National Party also adopted Labour's 'anti-nuclear' stance in 1990. By then, with Soviet control having collapsed in east and central Europe, the Cold War was approaching its end. The end of the Cold War The Berlin Wall came down in 1989.

The demise of the Soviet Union itself at the end of 1991 completed the process. Some commentators saw the massive build-up of the American nuclear arsenal in the 1980s as a crucial factor, given that the Soviet Union proved unable to match it. The collapse of Soviet power probably owed more to Eastern European resentment of Soviet domination, and to internal factors, in particular the declining ability of the Soviet system to meet its citizens' needs, and the loss of legitimacy on the part of the country's governing Communist Party.


Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan


Developing countries across the world facing increasing economic and social difficulties as they suffer from multiple debt crises in the 1980s, requiring many of these countries to apply for financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Ethiopia witnessed widespread famine in the mid-1980s, resulting in the country having to depend on foreign aid to provide food to its population and worldwide efforts to address and raise money to help Ethiopians, such as the famous Live Aid concert in 1985. Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan were the leaders of the UK and the USA. Both leaders led the revival of right-wing politics.

These policies eventually became known as Thatcherism and Reaganomics respectively in their home countries. The western world witnessed the political revival of right-wing politics and advancement of neoliberalism with the rule of politicians including Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Ronald Reagan as President of the United States, Helmut Kohl as Chancellor of Germany, Brian Mulroney as Prime Minister of Canada and Carlos Salinas de Gortari as President of Mexico.

In the UK, although the blood transfusion cases had widened public perception of who was vulnerable to AIDS, it was clear that those affected by it in the UK at this point were mostly homosexual, and that many had a history of sex with US nationals.

A number of newspapers ran articles that labelled AIDS ‘the gay plague’.8 In July, there was discussion in the House of Commons after press reports suggested that the large number of gay men planning to attend a forthcoming festival could pose a public health risk: “Scottish health experts are worried that the Edinburgh international festival next month may become a breeding ground for the spread of the mystery disease acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome” - The Times, July 1983. In the same month, Dr Tony Pinching and his colleagues at St Mary’s Hospital in London released preliminary results of a study of 97 gay men in the capital. The study showed that a high proportion of these men had immune cell abnormalities, and a decreased ability to fight off disease.

It was believed that these abnormalities might represent a latent phase of AIDS. One of the most well-know eras of music is the nineteen-eighties. In this period the virus AIDS hadn't been quite discovered yet and everyone was still under the notion that having a good time with as many people as possible was the best way to live. Hair styles and clothing looked as weird they could, with long hair and mullets being in fashion throughout the decade.

And of course, the musical genre was forever changed as many, many rock bands made a name for themselves and created well-known hits we still play on the radio today. The eighties was a great time period for musical lyrics, and this article will focus on what made them so great and some of the more popular ones that were created. To start out with, the nineteen-eighties was the time to rock and roll. Many songs words said nothing besides this fact. Everyone wanted to rock and roll and they went ahead and did so.

The songs would often be filled only with fun lyrics, as the American economy and culture prospered throughout the decade without any problems, none like we have today at least. In addition, a common theme attached to rock and roll was sex and drugs.

Drugs were not as highly banned as they are today, and it would be quite common to see people smoking a bag of weed or other drugs while at a concert of a high profile rock band. It makes sense, therefore, that many rock hits focused on the good times of this era and what made it so great. Upbeat is the keyword when it comes to the eighties. It would be a hard matter indeed to find musical lyrics as depressing as sad as one can find today.

Whereas today it is easy to hear about child abuse, suicide, and massive terrorist attacks through the radio, those were topics unheard of in this golden era of rock and roll. Many songs would focus on dancing and having a good time, as mentioned before. But there would also be songs intending to lift the spirits of the listeners. The most popular of these was written and performed by Journey. "Don't Stop Believin'" is still a popular hit for people of all ages even to this day. Van Halen was another popular eighties band that was good for many great lyrical music pieces.

While their hits about being hot for a teacher, smoking in school, or running with the devil certainly aren't as deep as some of the hits today, that doesn't change the fact that they reflected the time period they played in perfectly. Eighties lyrics, above anything else, showcased the prosperity and good times of the decade we left behind twenty years ago.

Overall, the eighties was a great time for the country and nation as a whole and it shows in the musical lyrics still played on radio stations today. While the clothing and hair styles have long since been out of fashion, the music remains to inspire and cheer up people all over the world and sends the message that good times do exist and can happen.


Aids 1980s


It was discovered that a number of people in the UK had developed AIDS following blood transfusions. This problem particularly affected haemophiliacs, whose condition made them dependent on blood products. The Mail on Sunday ran a story about ‘killer blood’ in UK hospitals, describing how two male haemophiliacs had discovered that they had AIDS after routine blood transfusions.5 On TV, a Horizon programme entitled “The Killer in the Village” and a Panorama special on AIDS were both screened.

The British media were starting to pay more attention to AIDS. By June, epidemiological studies in the US had led researchers to conclude that AIDS was “most likely to be caused by an agent transmitted by intimate sexual contact, through contaminated needles, or, less commonly, by percutaneous inoculation of infectious blood or blood products.

No evidence suggests transmission of AIDS by airborne spread.” They also suggested that AIDS may be transmitted from mother to child before, during, or shortly after birth. Huge Poison Gas Leak in Bhopal, India (1984): During the night of December 2-3, 1984, a storage tank containing methyl isocyanate (MIC) at the Union Carbide pesticide plant leaked gas into the densely populated city of Bhopal, India. It was one of the worst industrial accidents in history.

Union Carbide India, Ltd. built a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India in the late 1970s in an effort to produce pesticides locally to help increase production on local farms. However, sales of pesticide didn't materialize in the numbers hoped for and the plant was soon losing money. In 1979, the factory began to produce large amounts of the highly toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC), because it was a cheaper way to make the pesticide carbaryl. To also cut costs, training and maintenance in the factory were drastically cut back. Workers in the factory complained about the dangerous conditions and warned of possible disasters, but management did not take any action.

Sport became more international in the 1980s as satellite television grew, with many sporting events reaching more countries than before. Examples include the first live broadcasts of the Super Bowl in the United Kingdom. In 1980, the US Olympic hockey team defeated the Soviet Union 4 to 3, bolstering many U.S. citizens' feelings of national pride in what was termed a Miracle On Ice.

In this decade, the West Indies established themselves as the unofficial world champions of cricket, though in a shock upset, they lost the 1983 Cricket World Cup to India. This victory is cited as the reason cricket is almost a religion in India.


Zilog Z80


Despite the relatively low clock speed of 1 Mhz, the 6502's performance was actually competitive with other CPUs using higher clock speeds in the late 1970's and early 1980's (the Zilog Z80 for example). It has only very few registers - one 8-bit accumulator register (A), two 8-bit index registers (X and Y), an 8-bit processor status register (P), an 8-bit stack pointer (S), and a 16-bit program counter (PC) and a quite simple instruction set.

The 16 bit address but allowed to allocate up to 64 kb of memory. One of the first computers to use the 6502 were the Apple I (1976), the Apple II, and the Commodore PET, the Atari home computers and the BBC Micro. The famous Commodore 64 used a MOS 6510, which was a successor of the 6502 with a digital I/O port and a three-state bus. The 6507, a simplified version of the 6502, was used in the Atari 2600 videogame console. The 8502 was a 2 Mhz version of the 6502 which was used in the Commodore 128. Millions of computer systems with MOS 6502 processors shipped during the 1980's.

The MOS 6502 had been very popular among assembly language programmers (mostly because if it's simplistic design), and even 31 years later it is today used to teach assembly language and computer architecture by many universities. Several companies produced 16 bit derivatives of the 6502, for example the Western Design Center 65C816 (still widely used today) or the (not fully compatible) Mitsubishi 65816. A planned Synertek SY6516 was never released. 32-bit derivatives include the Western Design Center W65T32 Terbium, a 6502 compatible chip with a 32-bit address bus, a 16-bit data bus, and a variable length instruction set.

The MOS 6502 clearly dominated the 8 bit home computer and video game world, but then Apple, Commodore and Atari all switched to the Motorola 68K architecture with their next generation 16 bit computers (the Macintosh, the Amiga and the ST). Although the 6502 architecture faded in the home computer and video game market, it still remains a quite popular design that can still be found as the core of many microcontroller chips today.


Exxon Valdez


On March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez, en route from Valdez, Alaska to Los Angeles, California, ran aground on Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The vessel was traveling outside normal shipping lanes in an attempt to avoid ice. Within six hours of the grounding, the Exxon Valdez spilled approximately 10.9 million gallons of its 53 million gallon cargo of Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Eight of the eleven tanks on board were damaged.

The oil would eventually impact over 1,100 miles of non-continuous coastline in Alaska, making the Exxon Valdez the largest oil spill to date in U.S. waters. The response to the Exxon Valdez involved more personnel and equipment over a longer period of time than did any other spill in U.S. history.

Logistical problems inproviding fuel, meals, berthing, response equipment, waste management and other resources were one of the largest challenges to response management. At the height of the response, more than 11,000 personnel, 1,400 vessels and 85 aircraft were involved in the cleanup. 1989: Massacre in Tiananmen Square Several hundred civilians have been shot dead by the Chinese army during a bloody military operation to crush a democratic protest in Peking's (Beijing) Tiananmen Square.

Tanks rumbled through the capital's streets late on 3 June as the army moved into the square from several directions, randomly firing on unarmed protesters. The injured were rushed to hospital on bicycle rickshaws by frantic residents shocked by the army's sudden and extreme response to the peaceful mass protest. Demonstrators, mainly students, had occupied the square for seven weeks, refusing to move until their demands for democratic reform were met.

The protests began with a march by students in memory of former party leader Hu Yaobang, who had died a week before. But as the days passed, millions of people from all walks of life joined in, angered by widespread corruption and calling for democracy. Tonight's military offensive came after several failed attempts to persuade the protesters to leave.

Throughout the day the government warned it would do whatever it saw necessary to clamp down on what it described as "social chaos". But even though violence was expected, the ferocity of the attack took many by surprise, bringing condemnation from around the world. US President George Bush said he deeply deplored the use of force, and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said she was "shocked and appalled by the shootings". Amid the panic and confusion students could be heard shouting "fascists stop killing," and "down with the government".

At a nearby children's hospital operating theatres were filled with casualties with gunshot wounds, many of them local residents who were not taking part in the protests. Early this morning at least 30 more were killed in two volleys of gunfire, which came without warning. Terrified crowds fled, leaving bodies in the road. Meanwhile reports have emerged of troops searching the main Peking university campus for ringleaders, beating and killing those they suspect of co-ordinating the protests.

The demonstrations in Tiananmen Square have been described as the greatest challenge to the communist state in China since the 1949 revolution. They were called to coincide with a visit to the capital by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, by students seeking democratic reform.

Troops were used to clear the square despite repeated assurances from Chinese politicians that there would be no violence. It has been suggested that the Communist leader Deng Xiaoping personally ordered their deployment as a way of shoring up his leadership. Hundreds, and possibly thousands, of people were killed in the massacre, although it is unlikely a precise number will ever be known. Peking has since become more widely known as Beijing.


Pan Am Flight 103

Pan Am Flight 103 Is Bombed Over Lockerbie (1988): At 7:03 p.m. on December 21, 1988, Pan Am Flight 103, a London to New York flight, exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland. A total of 270 people were killed, 259 of which had been on board the plane and another 11 had been killed from the debris that hit the ground. An investigation into the explosion focused on terrorist motives for the bombing.

Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi and Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah were blamed for the bombing. After eleven years of negotiating for their extradition from Libya, Libya finally granted extradition in 1999. In 2000, a trial began. In early 2001, Megrahi was found guilty of murder and Fhimah was acquitted.

Lockerbie Disaster.

Pan Am Flight 103 was a Boeing 747-100 named Clipper Maid of the Seas. The jumbo jet was the fifteenth 747 ever built and was delivered in February 1970, one month after the very first 747 had entered service with Pan Am. On Wednesday 21 December 1988, Clipper Maid of the Seas touched down at London's Heathrow Airport at noon from San Francisco.

The aircraft was parked at stand Kilo 14, Terminal 3, where it was guarded for two hours by Pan Am's security company, Alert Security, but otherwise was not watched. The first leg of Pan Am Flight 103's journey began as the Boeing 727 feeder flight, PA103A, from Frankfurt International Airport, West Germany to London Heathrow. Forty-seven of the 89 passengers on the Boeing 727, which was parked at stand Kilo 16 adjacent to the Boeing 747, transferred to PA103 for the transatlantic flight from London Heathrow to New York JFK.

There were 243 passengers and 16 crew members on board, led by pilot Captain James Bruce "Jim" MacQuarrie[, First Officer Raymond Ronald "Ray" Wagner, and Flight Engineer Jerry Don Avritt. Mary Murphy served as the head purser. The flight was scheduled to depart at 6:00, and pushed back from the gate at 6:04, but because of a rush-hour delay, it took off from runway 27L at 6:25, flying northwest out of Heathrow, a so-called Daventry departure.

Once clear of Heathrow, the crew steered due north toward Scotland. At 6:56, as the aircraft approached the border, it reached its cruising altitude of 31,000 feet (9,400 m), and MacQuarrie throttled the engines back to cruising power.

At 7:00, PA103 was picked up by the Scottish Area Control Centre at Prestwick, Scotland, where it needed clearance to begin its flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Alan Topp, an air traffic controller, made contact with the clipper as it entered Scottish airspace. Captain MacQuarrie replied: "Good evening Scottish, Clipper one zero three. We are at level three one zero." Then First Officer Wagner spoke: "Clipper 103 requesting oceanic clearance." Those were the last words heard from the aircraft.



Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan were the leaders of the UK and the USA. Both leaders led the revival of right-wing politics. These policies eventually became known as Thatcherism and Reaganomics respectively in their home countries. The western world witnessed the political revival of right-wing politics and advancement of neoliberalism with the rule of politicians including Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Ronald Reagan as President of the United States, Helmut Kohl as Chancellor of Germany, Brian Mulroney as Prime Minister of Canada and Carlos Salinas de Gortari as President of Mexico.

Major civil discontent and violence occurs in the Middle East including the Iran-Iraq War, major conflict and violence in Lebanon from 1982 to 1983, U.S. military action against Libya in 1985, and the First Intifada in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.

In the eastern world, hostility to authoritarianism and the failing command economies of communist states resulted in a wave of reformist policies by communist regimes such as the policies of perestroika and glasnost in the USSR, along with the overthrows and attempted overthrows of a number of communist regimes, such as in Poland, Hungary, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in China, the Czechoslovak velvet revolution, and the overthrow of the dictatorial regime in Romania and other communist Warsaw Pact states in Central and Eastern Europe.

It came to be called as the late 1980s purple passage of the autumn of nations. By 1989 with the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact, the Soviet Union announced the abandonment of political hostility to the western world and thus the Cold War ended. These changes continued to be felt in the 1990s and into the 21st century.


Fashions in the 1970's


Fashions in the 1970's were far more relaxed than those in the 1960's before, many emerging design showed signs of nostalgia with designers taking influence from previous decades. Laura Ashley was noted as being heavily influenced by Edwardian style dresses and prints. Barbara Hulanicki's Biba label produced a 20's/30's influenced look with long cotton skirts, long sleeved shirts or smock and a floppy brimmed hat. The use of 30's inspired colourings, the two tone black and cream or brown and cream, could be seen in shoes and 'office work wear' styles.

By looking back the fashion designers were still continuing the new fashion trends for the new ideas, ideologies and social freedoms that were sought for both men and women. Distinct fashion styles for certain youth groups became apparent again through this decade in the attempt of identification of the differing subcultures. Several mainstream trends came and went such as the glam fashion (David Bowie inspired) and disco fashion. (John Travolta in Saturday Night Fever 1977)

The hippie/ethnic fashion trends of flared jeans, tie die shirts, peasant blouses, hair-bands and sandals continued from the sixties. More influence from other cultures became incorporated as social awareness of social and environmental issues increased. In the early seventies the short skirts and 'hot pants' launched by Mary Quant in the 60's were still very popular, dresses however were available for all in three established lengths, the mini (as the mini skirt), the midi (calf length) and the maxi (ankles).

Long flowing 'boho' skirts and the inspired hippie styles were very popular. Footwear started to become more exotic with the platform shoes that appeared in the early seventies, their huge soles of several inches thickness for mainly women and some men! Health warnings accompanied this fashion about potential damage to your back, although you do not hear many people saying they injured their back in the 70's wearing platform shoes! Men's clothing continued on the brighter flamboyant note from the previous decade.

Flared denim jeans, once a symbol of manual work and now a fashion statement, along with a cheesecloth shirt is perhaps the most common image associated with men from the 70's. However the glitter, heels, bright colours and disco-wear was available for all genders as the trends passed through. Lapels on all shirts and jackets grew in size and the kipper tie appeared to be necessary for the smarter male outfit. Longer hair and beards were considered very fashionable for men, the hippie and psychedelic influences were still in the fashion statements although the pop music had started to move on.

By the end of the seventies it was socially acceptable for most people to wear jeans and mostly flared jeans at that. Printed T-shirts became very popular in this decade along with trainers and canvas shoes. The inspiration and ideals behind the hippie styles from the late 60's were not as apparent in society but the fashions stayed.

Then Punk Fashion emerged onto the scene with the original Punk band, The Sex Pistols. The legendary Vivien Westwood was the partner of The Sex Pistols' promoter, Malcolm McLaren, and is credited with creating the original Punk look. This look was based around black leather, ripped denim and slogans on T-shirts intended to provoke and insult people who thought along what was considered mainstream ideals. The punk message was 'destroy'. This destruction was of anything considered as mainstream good taste. Spiked hair dyed bright colours and second hand clothes ripped to shreds to demonstrate a rejection of the accepted fashions and ideals. The punk trend continued well into the 1980's.


The Goodies


Growing up in England during the 1970's one of the funniest and most hilarious comedy shows on the BBC was the "The Goodies" which starred Tim Brooke Taylor, Bill Oddie and Graham Gardner. An early title which was considered for the series was "Narrow Your Mind" and prior to this it had the working title "Super Chaps Three".

The show mixed surreal madness with genius comedy to create one of the funniest shows on British TV. The Goodies was a ground breaking 1970 British comedy series, not nearly as well-known outside of Great Britain as its contemporary, Monty Python's Flying Circus. (Some view it as the Beatles to the Python's Rolling Stones.) Born from the same generation of comic talents that infused British TV in the 1960s and 1970s with such innovative work.

The Goodies was far more plot-oriented than Python (it was nominally a Situation Comedy when it premièred), but at the same time it was also far more anarchic and surreal. The Goodies basic structure revolved around the trio, always short of money, offering themselves for hire — with the tag line "We Do Anything, Anywhere, Any time" — to perform all sorts of ridiculous but generally benevolent tasks.

The BBC's own historical reference for the show describes it as a "live action version of a typical Warner Brothers cartoon", which is quite accurate, although sidestepping completely much of the thinly veiled social satire the show was inclined towards. Entire episodes were devoted to poking fun at topical subjects as diverse as TV censorship, Mary Whitehouse, Nuclear testing, Saturday Night Fever and Black Puddings. Central to the show were the exaggerated versions of themselves that the leads played — conservative royalist Tim, twisted Inventor Graeme and Hippy Bill.

The intersection of these three personalities generated as much comedy as the increasingly-bizarre situations that they found themselves in. Their trademark was the "Tandem" — a bicycle-built-for-three which they invariably mounted and fell off of once per episode before riding to their next adventure. Many episodes parodied current events, such as an episode where the entire black population of South Africa emigrates to Great Britain to escape apartheid.

As this means that the white South Africans no longer have anyone to exploit and oppress, they introduce a new system called "apart-height", where short people (Bill and a number of jockeys) are discriminated against. Other story lines were more abstractly philosophical, such as an episode in which the trio spend Christmas Eve together waiting for the Earth to be blown up by prior arrangement of the world's governments.

The "Christmas Eve" episode titled "Earthanasia" was one of the two episodes which took place entirely in one room. The other episode called, "The End" Where Graeme accidentally had their office encased in an enormous block of concrete. These episodes were made when the entire location budget for the season had been spent, forcing the trio to come up with a script shot entirely on the set that relied entirely on character interaction. These enclosed episodes often worked particularly well.

The Goodies have won many prizes including A special episode, which was based on the original 1971 Goodies' - "Kitten Kong" episode, which was called "Kitten Kong: Montreux '72 Edition", and was first broadcast in 1972.

The Goodies won the Silver Rose in 1972 for this special episode at the Festival Rose d'or which was held in Montreux, Switzerland. The Goodies also won the Silver Rose in 1975 at the Festival Rose d'Or for their episode The Movies.

More inclined to British Variety like humour than the Pythons, the Goodies never quite got the respect they deserved — despite the fact that they lasted at least three times as long on the air. All told 74 episodes from the television series were produced: Series 1–8 — (1970–1980) Which were shown on BBC2. The last Series 9 — (1981–1982) — was made by LWT for ITV.


Duran Duran


During the late 1970's Punk Rock became popular and those of us who were fans of Disco ignored punk rock as a passing fad. In the late 1970's and early 1980's as an alternative to Punk a new type of music appeared in London called The New Romantics.

They could be identified by their Big hair and make up – both Men and Women. It was often associated with the New Wave music scene that had become popular during that time. It has seen several revivals since then, and continues to influence popular culture. Developing in London nightclubs such as Billy's and The Blitz, the movement was associated with bands such as Visage, Culture Club, Adam and the Ants, Ultravox, Duran Duran, Japan and Spandau Ballet.

Other artists, such as Brian Eno and Roxy Music had significant influence on the movement. The term New Romantic was coined by Richard James Burgess in an interview with reference to Spandau Ballet. As a whole, the movement was largely a response to the ethos and style of early punk rock, which had been enjoying widespread popularity around this time.

Although punk initially had great appeal as a vehicle of self-expression and entertainment, by the final days of the 1970s, some had felt that it had lost its original excitement and degenerated into an overly political and bland movement instead. The New Romantic image ultimately sought to contrast with the austerity of punk as a whole by celebrating artifice in music and culture as opposed to rejecting it.

New Romantic music is influenced by many genres such as Disco, Rock, R&B and early electronic pop music. Since the New Romantic movement began in and was largely based in nightclubs, a great amount of the music associated with the movement was meant to be suitable for dancing.

Glam rock acts of the 1970s such as David Bowie (whose 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes" was influenced by and considered a New Romantic anthem, Roxy Music and Brian Eno have been cited as major influences on the music and image, the bands. Kraftwork, a German band pioneering electronic music, also heavily impacted many of the artists. Since each of the bands associated with the movement took a different approach to their music, it is difficult to define what constitutes New Romantic music.

Contrasting with the punk rock which was popular at the peak of the movement, New Romantic music tends to be elaborate and highly stylized. The musical structures are usually consistent with those of pop music, as are the lyrics, which are often very emotional, which deal with themes such as love, dancing, history, the future and technology.

The lyrics of New Romantic music also tend to be far more apolitical than those of punk rock or other songs written in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Many of the bands featured synthesizers and electronic drums or drum machines in their music, often alongside bass and lead guitar.

While some bands such as Ultravox or Duran Duran consciously synthesized rock and electronic elements, others such as Culture Club or Spandau Ballet drew greater influence from R&B and soul music while still employing electronic instrumentation, albeit to a lesser extent.

Some bands, such as Visage, made music that was almost entirely electronic; often many early British electronic bands such as the Human League and Depeche Mode have been connected to the New Romantic movement, although some sources, sometimes including the individual members of such bands, deny the association. 


Jimi Hendrix


In his brief four-year reign as a superstar, Jimi Hendrix expanded the vocabulary of the electric rock guitar more than anyone before or since. Hendrix was a master at extracting all manner of unforeseen sonics from his instrument, often with innovative amplification experiments that produced astral-quality feedback and roaring distortion.

His frequent hurricane blasts of noise and dazzling showmanship he could and would play behind his back and with his teeth and set his guitar on fire has sometimes obscured his considerable gifts as a songwriter, singer, and master of a gamut of blues, R&B, and rock styles. When Hendrix became an international superstar in 1967, it seemed as if he had dropped out of a Martian spaceship, but in fact he served his apprenticeship the long, mundane way in numerous R&B acts on the chitlin circuit.

During the early and mid-60s, he worked with such R&B/soul greats as Little Richard, the Isley Brothers, and King Curtis as a backup guitarist. Occasionally he recorded as a session man(the Isley Brothers 1964 single Testify is the only one of these early tracks that offers even a glimpse of his future genius). But the stars didn't appreciate his show-stealing showmanship, and Hendrix was straight-jacketed by sideman roles that didn't allow him to develop as a soloist.

The logical step was for Hendrix to go out on his own, which he did in New York in the mid-60s, playing with various musicians in local clubs, and joining white blues-rock singer John Hammond Jr.s band for a while.

It was in a New York club that Hendrix was spotted by Animals bassist Chas Chandler. The first lineup of the Animals was about to split, and Chandler, looking to move into management, convinced Hendrix to move to London and record as a solo act in England.

There a group was built around Jimi, also featuring Mitch Mitchell on drums and Noel Redding on bass, that was dubbed the Jimi Hendrix Experience. The trio became stars with astonishing speed in the U.K., where Hey Joe, Purple Haze,and The Wind Cries Mary all made the Top Ten in the first half of 1967. These tracks were also featured on their debut album, Are You Experienced? A psychedelic meisterwerk that became a huge hit in the U.S. after Hendrix created a sensation at the Monterey Pop Festival in June of 1967.

Are You Experienced was an astonishing debut, particularly from a young R&B veteran who had rarely sung, and apparently never written his own material, before the Experience formed. What caught most peoples attention at first was his virtuosic guitar playing, which employed an arsenal of devices, including wah-wah pedals, buzzing feedback solos, crunching distorted riffs, and lightning, liquid runs up and down the scales. But Hendrix was also a first-rate songwriter, melding cosmic imagery with some surprisingly pop-savvy hooks and tender sentiments.

He was also an excellent blues interpreter and passionate, engaging singer (although his gruff, throaty vocal pipes were not nearly as great assets as his instrumental skills). Are You Experienced was psychedelia at its most eclectic, synthesizing mod pop, soul, R&B, Dylan, and the electric guitar innovations of British pioneers like Jeff Beck, Pete Townshend, and Eric Clapton. Amazingly, Hendrix would only record three fully conceived studio albums in his lifetime.

Axis Bold As Love and the double-LP Electric Ladyland were more diffuse and experimental than Are You Experienced? On Electric Ladyland in particular, Hendrix pioneered the use of the studio itself as a recording instrument, manipulating electronics and devising overdub techniques (with the help of engineer Eddie Kramer in particular) to plot uncharted sonic territory.

Not that these albums were perfect, as impressive as they were, the instrumental breaks could meander, and Hendrix's songwriting was occasionally half-baked, never matching the consistency of Are You Experienced? (although he exercised greater creative control over the later albums). The final two years of Hendrix's life were turbulent ones musically, financially, and personally.

He was embroiled in enough complicated management and record company disputes (some dating from ill-advised contracts he had signed before the Experience formed) to keep the lawyers busy for years. He disbanded the Experience in 1969, forming the Band of Gypsies with drummer Buddy Miles and bassist Billy Cox to pursue funkier directions.


Hendrix


He closed Woodstock with a sprawling, shaky set, redeemed by his famous machine-gun interpretation of The Star Spangled Banner. The rhythm section of Mitchell and Redding were underrated keys to Jimis best work, and the Band of Gypsies ultimately couldn't measure up to the same standard, although Hendrix did record an erratic live album with them. In early 1970, the Experience re-formed again and disbanded again shortly afterwards.

At the same time, Hendrix felt torn in many directions by various fellow musicians, record-company expectations, and management pressures, all of whom had their own ideas of what Hendrix should be doing.

Coming up on two years after Electric Ladyland, a new studio album had yet to appear, although Hendrix was recording constantly during the period. While outside parties did contribute to bogging down Hendrix's studio work, it also seems likely that Jimi himself was partly responsible for the stalemate, unable to form a permanent lineup of musicians, unable to decide what musical direction to pursue, unable to bring himself to complete another album despite jamming endlessly.

A few months into 1970, Mitchell, Hendrix's most valuable musical collaborator came back into the fold, replacing Miles in the drum chair, although Cox stayed in place. It was this trio that toured the world during Hendrix's final months.

It's extremely difficult to separate the facts of Hendrix's life from rumors and speculation. Everyone who knew him well, or claimed to know him well, has different versions of his state of mind in 1970. Critics have variously mused that he was going to go into jazz, that he was going to get deeper into the blues, that he was going to continue doing what he was doing, or that he was too confused to know what he was doing at all.

The same confusion holds true for his death, contradictory versions of his final days have been given by his closest acquaintances of the time. He had been working intermittently on a new album, tentatively titled First Ray of the New Rising Sun, when he died in London on September 18, 1970, from drug-related complications. Hendrix recorded a massive amount of unreleased studio material during his lifetime. Much of this (as well as entire live concerts) was issued posthumously; several of the live concerts were excellent, but the studio tapes have been the focus of enormous controversy for over 20 years.

These initially came out in haphazard drabs and drubs (the first, The Cry of Love, was easily the most outstanding of the lot). In the mid-70s, producer Alan Douglas took control of these projects, posthumously overdubbing many of Hendrix's tapes with additional parts by studio musicians.

In the eyes of many Hendrix fans, this was sacrilege, destroying the integrity of the work of a musician known to exercise meticulous care over the final production of his studio recordings. Even as late as 1995, Douglas was having ex-Knack drummer Bruce Gary record new parts for the typically misbegotten compilation Voodoo Soup.

After a lengthy legal dispute, the rights to Hendrix's estate, including all of his recordings, returned to Al Hendrix, the guitarists father, in July of 1995. With the help of Jimi's step-sister Janie, Al set up Experience Hendrix to begin to get Jimi's legacy in order.

They began by hiring John McDermott and Jimi's original engineer, Eddie Kramer to oversee the remastering process. They were able to find all the original master tapes, which had never been used for previous CD releases, and in April of 1997, Hendrix's first three albums were reissued with drastically improved sound. Accompanying those reissues was a posthumous compilation album (based on Jimi's handwritten track listings) called First Rays of the New Rising Sun, made up of tracks from the Cry of Love, Rainbow Bridge and War Heroes.

Later in 1997, another compilation called South Saturn Delta showed up, collecting more tracks from posthumous LPs like Crash Landing, War Heroes, and Rainbow Bridge (without the terrible 70s overdubs), along with a handful of never-before-heard material that Chas Chandler had withheld from Alan Douglas for all those years.

More archival material followed; Radio One was basically expanded to the two-disc BBC Sessions (released in 1998), and 1999 saw the release of the full show from Woodstock as well as additional concert recordings from the Band of Gypsies shows entitled Live at the Fillmore East. 2000 saw the release of the Jimi Hendrix Experience four-disc box set, which compiled remaining tracks from In the West, Crash Landing and Rainbow Bridge along with more rarities and alternates from the Chandler cache.

The family also launched Dagger Records, essentially an authorized bootleg label to supply hardcore Hendrix fans with material that would be of limited commercial appeal. Dagger Records has released several live concerts (of shows in Oakland, Ottawa and Clark University in Massachusetts) and a collection of studio jams and demos called Morning Symphony Ideas. 


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