The Beatles' breakup describes the events related to the breakup of The Beatles, one of the most popular and influential musical groups in history. The breakup has become almost as much of a legend as the band itself or the music they created while together. The Beatles were active from their formation in 1960 to the disintegration of the group in 1970.
There were numerous causes for the Beatles' breakup. It was not a single event but a long transition, including the cessation of touring in 1966, and the death of their manager, Brian Epstein, in 1967, meaning The Beatles were personally involved in financial and legal conflicts.
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The activism of the 1960s continued into the '70s, particularly for women and other minorities. As the war in Vietnam came to an end, new social causes came to the fore, especially environmentalism. The country celebrated the first “Earth Day” on April 22, 1970, and while the environmental movement was successful in raising awareness about the need to protect the environment, it did not win all of its political battles.
Activists triumphed, for instance, when plans for SST (Supersonic Transport) planes were scrapped because of noise pollution and danger to the ozone level. However, they were unable to prevent construction from starting on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline in 1973.
Besides continued activism on several fronts, the United States also faced significant changes in its demographic portrait because of the economic problems the country faced and changes in immigration laws.
Women continued to campaign, with mixed success, for both political and economic equality through such organizations as the National Organization for Women (NOW) and the National Women's Political Caucus (1971).
In 1972, Congress approved the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which stated that “equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state on account of sex.” The constitutional amendment was quickly approved by 28 states before determined opposition mounted, and it failed to win ratification by the required three-fourths of the states.
Meanwhile, in the landmark 1973 Roe v. Wade decision, the Supreme Court struck down laws in 46 states that limited a woman's access to abortions in the first three months of pregnancy.
Those opposed to abortion began to organize as the “Right-To-Life” movement, pushing for a constitutional amendment to ban abortion. Congress cut off Medicaid funding for most abortions in 1976, limiting the access of poor women to the procedure.
Economic equality of the sexes still proved an elusive goal. Even as women moved into non-traditional jobs and many companies established new job-training programs and opened day care centers for working mothers, disparities in pay for men and women doing the same job remained significant.
Businesswomen pointed to the existence of a “glass ceiling,” meaning that women could go so far up the corporate ladder but no farther. At the same time, gender stereotyping began to wane. The use of gender-neutral terms for certain jobs became part of the American lexicon — policemen became police officers, firemen became fire fighters, mailmen are now mail carriers, and stewardesses are flight attendants.
The status of minorities. With Jim Crow discrimination essentially eliminated through civil rights legislation and court decisions, the issue for minorities in the 1970s was how to combat inequality not rooted in laws and how the impact of past discrimination could be remedied. De-segregation efforts in public education shifted from the South to the urban North, where housing patterns resulted in all-minority inner-city schools.
The reliance on busing to achieve racial balance in Los Angeles and Boston generated considerable controversy, and the Supreme Court ruled in 1974 that requiring the transfer of students from city to suburban schools to achieve integration was unconstitutional. Through affirmative action programs, employers were expected to make every effort to hire and promote minority workers, and a similar approach was taken to increase minority enrolment in higher education.
Critics maintained that such programs were tantamount to reverse discrimination, or discrimination against the dominant group in the population, especially white males. In 1978, the Supreme Court limited the use of numerical quotas but recognized that race could be used as one of the factors in admissions policies of colleges and universities.
The case involved a white applicant who was not accepted to a medical school that set aside a specific number of places for non-white candidates. Among minorities, Mexican-American and Native-American groups especially achieved significant advances in the '70s.
The Mexican-American-based United Farm Workers, for example, won an important victory in 1975 when California required growers to collectively bargain with the elected representatives from the union. Additionally, La Raza Unida (The United People) party, which was founded in Texas in 1970, promoted Mexican-American candidates for political office in the Southwest and West. Meanwhile, in 1973, Native Americans occupied Wounded Knee, South Dakota, the site of the last confrontation between the Sioux and the Army in 1890.
Although the occupation attracted headlines, the government was already making considerable changes in its Native-American policy. Nixon rejected “termination” in favor of supporting tribal autonomy, and as a result, the Indian Self-Determination Act (1974) gave the tribes control over federal-aid programs that benefited them. The tribes also became more active in legal action pressing for the treaty rights to land, mineral resources, water, and fisheries.
Jim Crow and Civil Rights in North Carolina Segregation shaped black-white interactions in the post-Civil War North Carolina, where it reigned from the white supremacy revolt of 1898 until the 1960s. Jim Crow period was a crucial phase of race relations in American society. However, racial segregation had far deeper roots in the North Carolina past.
Before the Civil War, slaveholders needed few regulations to isolate slaves and free people of color, who were kept apart by custom. After the Civil War, a white backlash against the former slaves began to legalize the customary distance between blacks and whites. Planters intended to defy the emancipation guaranteed by the Thirteenth Amendment and exploit ex-slave workers. White employers flogged and even killed freed people who dared to assert their new liberties, even in the face of Union garrisons and Republican authority.
While the state constitution of 1868 confirmed abolition and legitimated previous black and mixed-race births, it plainly stated that Black children and white children should study in different public schools (Franklin 73). Despite the presence of federal and state militias, the Ku Klux Klan terrorized Republican voters and officeholders, black and white. In 1870, when conservative Democrats regained a legislative majority, Klansmen murdered 16 Republicans and whipped at least 121 (Franklin 88).
An act of 1874 proclaimed that no white child could be apprenticed to a black adult. The amended state constitution in 1875 prohibited between white people and African-Americans and it reiterated the requirement for dual schools (Evans 55). The legislature soon established industrial and normal colleges for blacks, but it ignored the terror that drove thousands of them to Kansas and Indiana in 1879-80. Blacks continued to vote and hold office in much of eastern North Carolina, backing "the Party of Lincoln" despite facing dangerous opposition (Anderson 37).
For instance, between 1868 and 1889, fourteen black Republicans were elected to seventeen state house and six state senate terms from New Hanover County, home of Wilmington (Evans 54). Between 1874 and 1890, three blacks also won terms in Congress from the Second Congressional District, "a Republican and black stronghold." (Anderson 34). Legislators in 1892 proposed to segregate railway travel, as eight other Southern states already had done. Republican and Populist assemblymen opposed the enabling bill. Oppression increased as black North Carolinians persevered.
Their votes enabled Fusion men to gain 74 of the 120 General Assembly seats in 1894 and win the governorship in 1896, while electoral reforms passed by the Fusionist legislature helped blacks to regain numerous local offices (Anderson 93). By 1897, in Wilmington, four aldermen, an audit board member, a justice of the peace, the deputy clerk of court, and the coroner were black (Edmonds 162). Clearly, 1898 marked a turning point in Jim Crow.
The election that year brought into relief not only extreme white racism, but also fallout from the legal disfranchisement of blacks in South Carolina (1895) and the Supreme Court's "separate but equal" decision in Plessy v. Ferguson ( 1896) (Edmonds 165). Klansmen and White Supremacy Clubs frequently demonstrated at black and Fusion rallies, intimidating the crowds by a show of guns. In 1897-99 seven lynchings were reported in North Carolina, and racial intimidation and terrorism reached into even the most remote crossroads and towns during the fall of 1898 (Evans 87). Democrats reclaimed five of the state's nine congressional seats; Republicans retained three seats, reelecting the nation's only black congressman, George H. White, from the Second District (Evans 88).
In state contests Democrats took ninety-four house and forty senate seats to the Republicans' twenty-three (four black) and seven (one black) and Populists' three and three (Evans 95). During the Wilmington Race Riot of 1898 legally selected Republicans were overthrown by white Democrats. As the result, Democrats established the government which was based upon white supremacy (Wilmington Race Riot 1). It symbolized the creation of a codified and brutal color line, one that would last through the first half of the twentieth century. In 1899 lawmakers adopted voting restrictions based on the Louisiana model of a literacy test, poll tax, and grandfather clause.
Scheduled for a referendum in 1900, the suffrage amendment promised significant reduction of the black electorate, thereby undermining a multiracial or working-class challenge to Democratic and white dominance. Adult illiteracy then was 40 percent for black males, compared to 20 percent for white males (Edmonds 180). Registrars did not expect or permit black men to read and explain a section of the state constitution as specified in the amendment. Nor could most blacks afford to pay poll taxes, for they earned only subsistence incomes.
Virtually none had grandfathers who voted prior to January 1867, so, as descendants of freedmen, they lost by fiat the protection given to illiterate white men. The assault on democratic citizenship quickened. At least two acts proscribed racially mixed fraternal orders and mental hospitals; five empowered the utilities commission to enforce Jim Crow in transport. In 1900 black leaders issued "An Address to the White People of North Carolina" protesting the imminent passage of the constitutional amendment that would disfranchise blacks (Edmonds 195).
Legal separation proceeded apace. The state required the board of education to operate all-black school districts and dictated that school librarians "fit up and maintain a separate place for the use of the colored people who may come to the library." (Jim Crow Laws, Libraries). One statute allowed for relief and pension benefits to "fire companies composed exclusively of colored men." (Edmonds 199). Furthermore, a "person of negro descent to the third generation, inclusive" was defined as black (Jim Craw Laws, Intermarriage). Any officer who failed to confine black and white prisoners separately should be considered guilty, according to an order on prisons.
Three orders similarly charged operators of streetcars and trains. The legal and informal contours of Jim Crow covered a wide domain. The restrictions betrayed white fears of black-Indian cooperation, black educational progress and competition for jobs, interracial sex, and blacks' political dissent. To wit, the state reordered the segregation of Indians in jails, homes of the aged, and hospitals. It warranted a curriculum of only "practical agriculture and the mechanical arts and such branches of learning as relate thereto" for black colleges (Murray 332).
Toilets had to be "lettered and marked in a distinct manner, so as to furnish separate facilities for white males, white females, colored males and colored females." (Murray 339). Indeed, by the eve of World War I, almost every visible space had been separated. During the war, the state stopped the "organization of colored troops . . . where white troops are available, and while permitted to be organized, colored troops shall be under the command of white officers." (Murray 342). Even a breach of the color line among convicts meant a fine or jail sentence for their jailers.
A sample of legislative acts from 1917 to 1945 can be useful to suggest the vagaries of Jim Crow. Of sixty-one Jim Crow statutes enacted in that period, three concern black aliens (Anderson 90). Education is the subject of nineteen, including a 1935 stipulation that "books shall not be interchangeable between the white and colored schools, but should continue to be used by the race first using them." (Murray 331) An act detailing punishment for violations of the toilet restriction applies to all categories of labor. Seventeen measures relate to provisions for the handicapped, and fifteen cover buses and trains (Murray 338). Not until 1947 did the state restrict cemeteries, which had long been separated by tradition.
Till Death Us Do Part was a BBC television sitcom series written by Johnny Speight that ran from 1966 until 1975. The programme starred Warren Mitchell as the racist East End misogynist (and Rudyard Kipling lookalike) Alf Garnett. Also appearing in the series were Dandy Nichols as Alf's long-suffering wife, Else Garnett, Una Stubbs as Rita, his daughter, and Anthony Booth as Mike, his layabout son-in-law, whose socialist leanings were the cue for many of Alf's more offensive outbursts.
The series was remade in the United States as All in the Family (1971–79), in Brazil (1972-75) as A Grande Família ("The Big Family"), in Germany (1973–76) as Ein Herz und eine Seele ("One Heart and One Soul") and in Hong Kong (1994–96) as Sei Hoi Yut Gar ("All in a Family"). In the Netherlands ("In voor en tegenspoed") (1991, 1993, 1995 en 1998).
The series became an instant hit because, although a comedy, in the context of its time it did deal with aspects of working class life comparatively realistically. It addressed racial and political issues at a difficult time in British society. The attitude of those who made the programme was that Alf's views were so clearly unacceptable that they were risible, but some considered the series uncomfortable and disturbing. Some were oblivious to the fact that Johnny Speight was satirising racist attitudes.
Ironically, many who held similar opinions to the character enjoyed the show, perhaps missing the point that Alf's opinions were considered offensive and that they were being ridiculed. Mitchell imbued the character of Alf Garnett with an earthy charm that served to humanise Alf and make him likable. According to interviews he gave, the fact that some viewers overlooked Alf's views and regarded him as a rough diamond isappointed Speight.
The show captured a key feature of Britain in the 1960s - the widening generation gap. Alf (and to a lesser degree his wife) represented the old guard, the traditional and conservative attitudes of the older generation. Alf's battles with his left-wing son-in-law were not just ideological but generational and cultural. His son-in-law and daughter represented the younger generation. They saw the positive aspects of the new era such as relaxed sexual mores, fashions, music, etc.
The same things were anathema to Alf - and indicative of everything that was wrong with the younger generation and the liberal attitudes they embraced. Alf was portrayed as the archetypal working-class Conservative. The subjects that excited him most were football and politics, though his actual knowledge of either was limited. He used language not considered acceptable for television in the 1960s. He often referred to racial minorities as "coons" and similar terms.
He referred to his Liverpudlian son-in-law as "Shirley Temple" or a "randy Scouse git" (Randy Scouse Git, as a phrase, caught the ear of Micky Dolenz of The Monkees who heard it while on tour in the UK - and who co-opted it as the title of the group's following single - though their record label (incorrectly) renamed it 'Alternate Title' (it should have been 'Alternative Title') in the UK market to avoid controversy) and to his wife as a "silly [old] moo" (a substitute for 'cow' which was vetoed by the BBC's head of comedy Frank Muir).
However, Michael Palin writes in his diary 16 July 1976 that Warren Mitchell told him that "silly moo" wasn't scripted, "It came out during a rehearsal when he forgot the line "Silly old mare"." Controversially, the show was one of the earliest mainstream programmes to feature the swear word 'bloody'. The show was one of many held up by Mary Whitehouse as an example of the BBC's moral laxity.
During the Seventies, support for the British royal family was thought to have dwindled, but the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II in 1977 assuaged the family's fears of being irrelevant in a more modern Britain. Elaborate parades and street parties were thrown in the Queen's honour, and the Queen met with millions of her subjects on a tour throughout the Commonwealth.
In spite of such widespread support, an emerging class of people voiced opposition to the monarchy, epitomized in the Sex Pistols' song "God Save the Queen". About two thousand people died in political violence between the police, British army and paramilitary groups during the seventies.
Mother Teresa (26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), born Agnesë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu (pronounced [ans nd?e bjad?iu]), was an Albanian Catholic nun with Indian citizenship who founded the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata (Calcutta), India in 1950. For over 45 years she ministered to the poor, sick, orphaned, and dying, while guiding the Missionaries of Charity's expansion, first throughout India and then in other countries. Following her death she was beatified by Pope John Paul II and given the title Blessed Teresa of Calcutta.
The Munich massacre is an informal name for events that occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage and eventually murdered by Black September, a militant group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. The commando operation was officially named "Ikrit and Biram", after two Christian Palestinian villages whose inhabitants had been killed or expelled by the Hagannah in 1948.
By the end of the ordeal, the terrorists had killed eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and one West German police officer. Five of the eight members of Black September were killed by police officers during a failed rescue attempt.
The three surviving terrorists were captured, but later released by West Germany following the hijacking by Black September of a Lufthansa airliner. Israel responded to the massacre with Operation Spring of Youth and Operation Wrath of God, as well as a series of airstrikes and assassinations of those suspected of planning the kidnappings.
Shortly after 4am on 5 September 1972, eight heavily armed militants from Black September, a faction of the PLO, arrived on the outskirts of Munich and scaled a perimeter fence protecting thousands of athletes sleeping in the Olympic Village.
Carrying assault rifles and grenades, the Palestinians ran towards No 31 Connollystrasse, the building housing the Israeli delegation to the Munich Olympic Games. Bursting into the first apartment, they took a group of Israeli officials and trainers hostage: Yossef Gutfreund, Amitzur Shapira, Kehat Shorr, Andrei Spitzer, Jacov Springer and Moshe Weinberg. In another apartment, they captured the Israeli wrestlers and weightlifters Eliezer Halfin, Yossef Romano, Mark Slavin, David Berger (an Israeli-American law graduate) and Zeev Friedman.
When the tough Israelis fought back, the Palestinians opened fire, shooting Romano and Weinberg dead. The other nine were subdued and taken hostage. The Palestinians then demanded the release of 234 prisoners held in Israeli jails. So began a siege and a tragedy that remains one of the most significant terror attacks of modern times. The assault, and the nature of the Israeli response, thrust the Israeli-Palestinian crisis into the world spotlight, set the tone for decades of conflict in the Middle East, and launched the new era of international terrorism
. By the 1970s she was internationally famed as a humanitarian and advocate for the poor and helpless, due in part to a documentary and book Something Beautiful for God by Malcolm Muggeridge. She won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979 and India's highest civilian honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1980 for her humanitarian work.
Mother Teresa's Missionaries of Charity continued to expand, and at the time of her death it was operating 610 missions in 123 countries, including hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children's and family counselling programs, orphanages, and schools.
Chaos, unrest, and panic broke out as hysterical South Vietnamese officials and civilians scrambled to leave Saigon. Martial law was declared. American helicopters began evacuating South Vietnamese, U.S., and foreign nationals from various parts of the city and from the U.S. embassy compound.
Operation Frequent Wind had been delayed until the last possible moment, because of U.S. Ambassador Graham Martin's belief that Saigon could be held and that a political settlement could be reached. Schlesinger announced early in the morning of 29 April 1975 the evacuation from Saigon by helicopter of the last U.S. diplomatic, military, and civilian personnel.
Frequent Wind was arguably the largest helicopter evacuation in history. It began on 29 April, in an atmosphere of desperation, as hysterical crowds of Vietnamese vied for limited seats. Martin pleaded with Washington to dispatch $700 million in emergency aid to bolster the regime and help it mobilize fresh military reserves.
But American public opinion had soured on this conflict halfway around the world. In the U.S., South Vietnam was perceived as doomed. President Gerald Ford had given a televised speech on 23 April, declaring an end to the Vietnam War and all U.S. aid. Frequent Wind continued around the clock, as North Vietnamese tanks breached defenses on the outskirts of Saigon.
The song "White Christmas" was broadcast as the final signal for withdrawal. In the early morning hours of 30 April, the last U.S. Marines evacuated the embassy by helicopter, as civilians swamped the perimeter and poured into the grounds. Many of them had been employed by the Americans and were left to their fate. On 30 April 1975, VPA troops overcame all resistance, quickly capturing key buildings and installations.
A tank crashed through the gates of the Presidential Palace, and at 11:30 a.m. local time the NLF flag was raised above it. Thieu's successor, President Duong Van Minh, attempted to surrender, but VPA officers informed him that he had nothing left to surrender.
Minh then issued his last command, ordering all South Vietnamese troops to lay down their arms. The Communists had attained their goal: they had toppled the Saigon regime. But the cost of victory was high. In the past decade alone, one Vietnamese in every ten had been a casualty of war—nearly a million and a half killed, three million wounded.
By war's end, the Vietnamese had been fighting foreign involvement or occupation (primarily by the French, Chinese, Japanese, British, and American governments) for 116 years.
Computer engineer, Ray Tomlinson invented internet based email in late 1971. Under ARPAnet several major innovations occurred: email (or electronic mail), the ability to send simple messages to another person across the network (1971). Ray Tomlinson worked as a computer engineer for Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN), the company hired by the United States Defense Department to build the first Internet in 1968.
Ray Tomlinson was experimenting with a popular program he wrote called SNDMSG that the ARPANET programmers and researchers were using on the network computers (Digital PDP-10s) to leave messages for each other. SNDMSG was a "local" electronic message program.
You could only leave messages on the computer that you were using for other persons using that computer to read. Tomlinson used a file transfer protocol that he was working on called CYPNET to adapt the SNDMSG program so it could send electronic messages to any computer on the ARPANET network. Ray Tomlinson chose the @ symbol to tell which user was "at" what computer
. The @ goes inbetween the user's login name and the name of his/her host computer. First Email;The first email was sent between two computers that were actually sitting besides each other. However, the ARPANET network was used as the connection between the two. The first email message was "QWERTYUIOP". Ray Tomlinson is quoted as saying he invented email,"Mostly because it seemed like a neat idea." also no one was asking for email.
By the end of the ordeal, the terrorists had killed eleven Israeli athletes and coaches and one West German police officer. Five of the eight members of Black September were killed by police officers during a failed rescue attempt. The three surviving terrorists were captured, but later released by West Germany following the hijacking by Black September of a Lufthansa airliner. Israel responded to the massacre with Operation Spring of Youth and Operation Wrath of God, as well as a series of airstrikes and assassinations of those suspected of planning the kidnappings.
The Beatles' breakup describes the events related to the breakup of The Beatles, one of the most popular and influential musical groups in history. The breakup has become almost as much of a legend as the band itself or the music they created while together. The Beatles were active from their formation in 1960 to the disintegration of the group in 1970.
There were numerous causes for the Beatles' breakup. It was not a single event but a long transition, including the cessation of touring in 1966, and the death of their manager, Brian Epstein, in 1967, meaning The Beatles were personally involved in financial and legal conflicts. Conflict arose from differences between each member's artistic vision.
Both George Harrison and Ringo Starr temporarily 'left' the group at various points during 1968-1969 and all four band members had begun working on solo projects by 1970 as the appeal of working together as a group began to wane. Ultimately, animosity made it impossible for the group to continue working together and Paul McCartney made the breakup public knowledge as part of the press release for his first solo album, McCartney.
Although there were sporadic collaborative recording efforts among the band members (most notably Starr's Ringo, 1973 being the only time that the four have—albeit on separate tracks—appeared on the same album post-breakup), all four Beatles never simultaneously collaborated as a recording or performing group ever again while all four members were alive, and Starr's 1976 album Ringo's Rotogravure album is the last post-breakup album to which all four Beatles contribute and are credited on the same album: besides Ringo's drumming and song writing contributions, Lennon, McCartney, and Harrison are all credited with composing one track apiece.
After John Lennon's death in 1980, McCartney, Harrison, and Starr reconvened for Harrison's "All Those Years Ago". The trio reunited as The Beatles for the Anthology project in 1994; using the two unfinished Lennon demos "Free as a Bird" and "Real Love" for what would be the last two songs under The Beatles name.
In 1977 the film Saturday Night Fever was released. The film was marketed specifically to broaden disco's popularity beyond its primarily gay and black audience. It was a huge success, helping to make disco a worldwide phenomenon.
In December 1977, it became the best-selling soundtrack of all time. Disco's popularity led many non-disco artists to record disco songs at the height of its popularity. Many of these songs were not "pure" disco, but were instead rock or pop songs with (sometimes inescapable) disco influence or overtones.
Notable examples include Blondie's ""Heart of Glass" (1978), Barry Manilow’s "Copacabana" (1978),David Bowie "John I'm Only Dancing (Again)" (1975), Rod Stewart's "Da Ya Think I'm Sexy?" (1979), Electric Light Orchestra’s "Shine a Little Love" and "Last Train to London" (1979), George Benson's "Give Me the Night" (1980), Queen's "Another One Bites the Dust" (1980), Paul McCartney & Wings' "Goodnight Tonight" (1979), Pink Floyd's "Another Brick in the Wall (part II)" (1979), and KISS' "I Was Made For Lovin' You" (1979).
The Rubik's Cube is a 3-D mechanical puzzle invented in 1974 by Hungarian sculptor and professor of architecture Erno Rubik. Originally called the "Magic Cube", the puzzle was licensed by Rubik to be sold by Ideal Toys in 1980 and won the German Game of the Year special award for Best Puzzle that year. As of January 2009, 350 million cubes have sold worldwide making it the world's top-selling puzzle game. It is widely considered to be the world's best-selling toy.
In a classic Rubik's Cube, each of the six faces is covered by 9 stickers, among six solid colours (traditionally white, red, blue, orange, green, and yellow). A pivot mechanism enables each face to turn independently, thus mixing up the colours. For the puzzle to be solved, each face must be a solid colour. Similar puzzles have now been produced with various numbers of stickers, not all of them by Rubik. The original 3×3×3 version celebrated its twenty-fifth anniversary in 2005.
The red telephone box, a public telephone kiosk designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, is a familiar sight on the streets of the United Kingdom, Malta and Gibraltar, and despite a reduction in their numbers in recent years, red boxes can still be seen in many places. The rainy British climate necessitates protection of callers from the elements.
The colour red was chosen to make them easy to spot. The perception of the established institutions of nuclear family, religion and trust in one's government continued to lose ground during this time. Major developments of the sexual revolution included the awareness of the impact of contraceptive pills on social-interactional relationships, and an increase in divorce rates, single parent households, and pre-marital sex.
By the end of the decade, the feminist movement had helped change women's working conditions. The Gay Rights movement became prominent, and the hippie culture, which started in the 1960s, peaked in the early 1970s and carried on through the end of the decade.
The United States' withdrawal from its extensive military involvement in Vietnam and the resignation of Richard Nixon helped bring about a sense of malaise and mistrust in political authority. The United States experienced an economic recession, but the economy of Japan prospered. The economies of many third world countries continued to make steady progress in the early 1970s, because of the green revolution.
They might have thrived and become stable in the way that Europe recovered after the war through the Marshall Plan; however, their economic growth was slowed by the oil crisis. Women were finally entitled to equal pay (whether they got it or not was a different matter), the first kidney transplant was televised and dog spectacles were patented. Womblemania hit Britain, and building blocks had never been so much fun. Lego was Toy of the Year for the second year running and parents had to get used to finding lumps of plastic embedded in their bruised feet.
The wedge-shaped Lotus Esprit, which later found fame as James Bonds ride in "For Your Eyes Only", was launched. Sadly conventional models would not operate under water. The pop video was born. A seven minute rock opera complete with dodgy visuals gave Freddie Mercurys Queen their first number one single, "Bohemian Rhapsody". The world was in danger of exploding in a burst of static as polyester ruled disco fashion. Only animals wore fur, as lobbyists took to throwing blood or paint over wealthy women draped in dead fox or mink.
The first ethos of the 1970s emerged from a transition of the global social structure. It reflected the transition from the decline of colonial imperialism since the end of World War II to globalization and the rise of a new middle class in the developing world. Globally, the 1970s had several features that were similar and definitive across economic levels and regions.
These aspects and essence that make up global essence of the 1970s are the defining points of the 1970s: the Bretton Woods system and its subsequent failure, the impact of the contraceptive pill on social-interactional dynamics, the rising of the Black community and the oil shock of 1973.
The early 1970's brought a lot of inspiration to the fashion world today. The best part of the 70's was the fabulous singers and their rockin style. Hence the term GLAM Rock was invented. The music that rockers like David Bowie, Kiss, and Slade produced had hypnotic sounds and booming bass.
Of course they had to have an image to go with the sound. Glamour Rock more than achieved their vision. It's common for entertainers to use their image to amaze fans. Glam Rock style is a term used to describe the over the top, eye catching stage wardrobe the stars would wear. This fashion style began in the United Kingdom in the 70's. Lady GAGA's style is the perfect example of Glam Rock Fashion.
It's usually exaggerated and over the top. The colors are random and the designs have more of an artistic note to them. Glam rock can be very flamboyant in design and have gender bending qualities. The more over the top the outfit the better. It doesn't matter what color the garment is or even material, Glam Rock style is only for the truly daring fashionista.
In order to achieve Glam Rock style you have to have a personality that matches it. Are you someone who cares what others think? Do you march to the beat of a different drum? Do you feel comfortable in any type of clothing? If you answered yes to 2 out of three, then Glam Rock is for you. It's easy to achieve this look, usually people who are very creative work this look effortlessly. In the book FRUiTS by Shōichi Aoki, they take pictures of people in Japan who have over the top fashion and proudly show it.
Usually performers utilize Glam Rock to make their shows memorable, but artist like Nikkie Minaj have made this trend cool to wear on an everyday basis. This style is unique because it totally bypasses all the fashion rules ever made. There should never be a rule for fashion, because it's a means of personal expression.
The more detailed and creative someone is, the better they will be at styling the Glam Rock Way. The world of fashion is glamorous. Clothes have always been used as a tool to market an artist or express a truly unique image. Glam rock is a tool for anyone to be expressive, whether it's over the top, or just minimal. You don't have to be a rock star to feel good wearing elaborate styles, all you need is to have confidents in styling. It's all in the personality; don't dress over the top for a fad. In a world full of millions of people, it's hard to stand out in the crowd. Start with fashion and no matter what, you will get noticed.
When journalist Tom Wolfe (1931–) surveyed the changes that had swept America in the past few years, he gave the decade a label that has stuck: “The Me Decade.” Wolfe and others noticed that the dominant concerns of most people had shifted from issues of social and political justice that were so important in the 1960s to a more selfish focus on individual well-being.
What was behind this sudden change in the American mood? Economic and political shifts help to explain much of the change. From the end of the World War II (1939–45) until the end of the 1960s, the American economy had enjoyed one of its longest extended periods of growth. That growth came screeching to a halt in the 1970s, and matters got worse as the decade continued.
An Arab oil embargo halted shipments of oil to the United States, forcing gas prices to raise dramatically and forcing rationing. Another oil crisis in 1979 continued the economic shock. The automobile industry was hit hard by the oil crises and by competition from car makers in Japan. To make economic matters worse, inflation was rising, which meant that the relative prices of goods were climbing faster than wages were. Many Americans turned inward and focused their attention on their economic problems rather than on problems of politics or social justice.
What We Said:
1970s reviewBogue: Disgusting or distasteful. “Don’t leave home without it”: An advertising line used by American Express to remind its customers that they could use their cards nearly anywhere. Advertising-saturated Americans began using this slogan in everyday speech. Dweeb: A loser or social outcast. “Get a clue!”: A warning that one should figure out what is going on. Gnarly: Very cool or good. Groupies: Fans—usually women—who followed rock stars from concert to concert, sometimes offering sexual favors. “Like”: An interjection used by teenagers to interrupt and add emphasis to their speech, as in “She was, like, so bogue.”
When combined with “totally,” it could be used to express real approval: “Like, totally!” Male chauvinist pig: A man who thinks women are inferior. This label was used by feminists in the women’s liberation movement to blast those men who resisted their efforts to gain equal rights. Archie Bunker of TV’s All in the Family was often called a male chauvinist pig.
Me Generation: A term used to describe people who left behind the social activism of the 1960s and focused on improving their own souls through a variety of self-help methods. “Plop, plop, fizz, fizz, oh what a relief it is” (1977): Part of a popular advertising jingle for Alka-Seltzer, this catchy phrase was used to describe anything that brought relief. “Yo!”: Similar to “Hi” or “Hey,” this greeting was popularized by Sylvester Stallone in the movie Rocky (1976).
American popular culture continued to thrive in the 1970s, driven forward by the most popular form of entertainment, the television. By the 1970s, virtually every American had access to a color TV, and programming expanded to include both UHF and VHF broadcasts. By mid-decade, Americans in some cities could access cable TV, which offered even more channels.
The quality of TV programming increased in the 1970s, and not just on PBS. In fact, the networks offered a number of intelligent, socially relevant shows. Still, most Americans preferred situation comedies (sitcoms) and detective shows. Sports also remained a popular preoccupation, especially for men, who could watch pro sports on TV all year long. Music went through some exciting changes in the decade.
Rock and roll continued to evolve, producing new variations such as punk rock, new wave, and heavy metal. Funk emerged as a uniquely African American musical form, and disco stole elements of funk and rock to create a popular music and dance craze. Other common global ethos of the seventies world include: increasingly flexible and varied gender roles for women. More women could enter the work force rather than remain housewives.
However, the gender role of men remained as that of a bread-winner. The period also saw unprecedented socio-economic impact of an ever-increasing number of women entering the non-agrarian economic workforce, and the sweeping cultural-religious impact of the Iranian revolution toward the end of the 1970s. The global experience of the cultural transition of the 1970s and an experience of a global zeitgeist revealed the interdependence of economies since World War II, and showed the huge impact of American economic policies on the world.
The 1970s was perhaps the worst decade of Western and American economic performance since the Great Depression. Although there was no severe economic depression as witnessed in the 1930s, economic growth rates were considerably lower than previous decades. As a result, the 1970s adversely distinguished itself from the prosperous postwar period between 1945 and 1968.
Then, the world economy was buoyed by the Marshall Plan and the robust American economy. However, the high standing enjoyed by the American economy gradually became discomposed by years of loose domestic spending (particularly the Great Society campaign) and funding for the Vietnam war.
The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 added to the existing ailments and conjured high inflation throughout much of the world for the rest of the decade. Soaring oil prices compelled most American businesses to raise their prices as well, with inflationary results. The average annual inflation rate from 1900 to 1970 was approximately 2.5 percent.
From 1970, however, the average rate hit about 6 percent, topping out at 13.3 percent by 1979. This period is also known for "stagflation", a phenomenon in which inflation and unemployment steadily increased, therefore leading to double-digit interest rates that rose to unprecedented levels (above 12% per year). The prime rate hit 21.5 in December 1980, the highest in history.
By the time of 1980, when President Jimmy Carter was running for re-election against Ronald Reagan, the misery index (the sum of the unemployment rate and the inflation rate) had reached an all-time high of 21.98 percent. In Eastern Europe, Soviet-style command economies began showing signs of stagnation, in which successes were persistently dogged by setbacks. The oil shock increased East European, particularly Soviet, exports, but agriculture became a growing annoyance to such economies.
In the United Kingdom, colour channels were now available; three stations had begun broadcasting in colour between 1967 and 1969. Notable UK dramas included Play for Today and Pennies From Heaven. The science fiction show Doctor Who reached its peak. Many popular British situation comedies (sit-coms) were gentle, innocent, unchallenging comedies of middle-class life; typical examples were Terry and June, Sykes, and The Good Life.
A more diverse view of society was offered by series like Porridge and Rising Damp. In police dramas there was a move towards increasing realism; popular shows included Dixon of Dock Green, Softly, Softly, and The Sweeney. In the 1970s, the renegade sports leagues of the National Basketball Association (founded in 1946), the World Hockey Association (lasting from 1972 through 1979), and the World Series Cricket (lasting from 1977 to 1979) challenged older, established organizations.
The "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs, who proclaimed the women's game to be inferior, was a turning point in sports during the decade; after King's victory, the match was heralded as a major victory for women in athletics. The 1970s marked a boom in the popularity of distance running, especially in the United States.
The 1972 Summer Olympics were marred by terrorism and Cold War-related international controversy. Among the competition's highlights was the performance of swimmer Mark Spitz, who set seven World Records to win a record seven gold medals in one Olympics, bringing his total to nine. The 1976 Summer Olympics were highlighted by the legendary performance of Romanian female gymnast Nadia Comaneci and the strong U.S. boxing team.
Seventies clothing holds its own special place in American culture. Ranging from late 60's hippie looks to the eye popping styles of the disco era, 70's clothes were not designed to be ignored. The decade of the 1970s began as a carry over of late '60s fashion.
The hippie influence was still very present. Shirts of tie dye and worn jeans were the look of the day. Hip huggers and bell bottom jeans were popular and were likely to be customized and decorated by the person wearing them. Donning patches and using a variety of bleaching and tie dying techniques was popular. Jean jackets of the day were often stylized by their owners with a variety of patches carrying whatever message the wearer felt like sharing.
Young women of the day could be quite unpredictable in their choice of fashion. The same girl wearing torn and faded jeans might next be seen in "hot pants" accompanied by long knee socks or wearing a floral patterned granny dress, all on top of very high and clunky looking heels.
Women were asserting themselves in fashion and it was difficult to miss. The mini skirt was still alive and well but "midi" dresses that came to the mid calf region and ankle length "maxi" dresses were also popular, especially in more formal situations. You never knew what to expect.
Fashions in the 1970's were far more relaxed than those in the 1960's before, many emerging design showed signs of nostalgia with designers taking influence from previous decades. Laura Ashley was noted as being heavily influenced by Edwardian style dresses and prints. Barbara Hulanicki's Biba label produced a 20's/30's influenced look with long cotton skirts, long sleeved shirts or smock and a floppy brimmed hat.
The use of 30's inspired colourings, the two tone black and cream or brown and cream, could be seen in shoes and 'office work wear' styles. By looking back the fashion designers were still continuing the new fashion trends for the new ideas, ideologies and social freedoms that were sought for both men and women. Distinct fashion styles for certain youth groups became apparent again through this decade in the attempt of identification of the differing subcultures.
Several mainstream trends came and went such as the glam fashion (David Bowie inspired) and disco fashion. (John Travolta in Saturday Night Fever 1977) The hippie/ethnic fashion trends of flared jeans, tie die shirts, peasant blouses, hair-bands and sandals continued from the sixties. More influence from other cultures became incorporated as social awareness of social and environmental issues increased. In the early seventies the short skirts and 'hot pants' launched by Mary Quant in the 60's were still very popular, dresses however were available for all in three established lengths, the mini (as the mini skirt), the midi (calf length) and the maxi (ankles).
Long flowing 'boho' skirts and the inspired hippie styles were very popular. Footwear started to become more exotic with the platform shoes that appeared in the early seventies, their huge soles of several inches thickness for mainly women and some men! Health warnings accompanied this fashion about potential damage to your back, although you do not hear many people saying they injured their back in the 70's wearing platform shoes! Men's clothing continued on the brighter flamboyant note from the previous decade.
Flared denim jeans, once a symbol of manual work and now a fashion statement, along with a cheesecloth shirt is perhaps the most common image associated with men from the 70's. However the glitter, heels, bright colours and disco-wear was available for all genders as the trends passed through. Lapels on all shirts and jackets grew in size and the kipper tie appeared to be necessary for the smarter male outfit. Longer hair and beards were considered very fashionable for men, the hippie and psychedelic influences were still in the fashion statements although the pop music had started to move on.
By the end of the seventies it was socially acceptable for most people to wear jeans and mostly flared jeans at that. Printed T-shirts became very popular in this decade along with trainers and canvas shoes. The inspiration and ideals behind the hippie styles from the late 60's were not as apparent in society but the fashions stayed.
Then Punk Fashion emerged onto the scene with the original Punk band, The Sex Pistols. The legendary Vivien Westwood was the partner of The Sex Pistols' promoter, Malcolm McLaren, and is credited with creating the original Punk look. This look was based around black leather, ripped denim and slogans on T-shirts intended to provoke and insult people who thought along what was considered mainstream ideals. The punk message was 'destroy'.
This destruction was of anything considered as mainstream good taste. Spiked hair dyed bright colours and second hand clothes ripped to shreds to demonstrate a rejection of the accepted fashions and ideals. The punk trend continued well into the 1980's.
The Post Punk movement that originated in the late 1970s both supported Punk Rock's rule breaking while rejecting its back to raw rock music element. Post Punk's mantra of constantly moving forward lent itself to both openness to and experimentation with elements of disco and other styles. Public Image Limited is considered the first Post Punk group. The groups second album Metal Box fully embraced the studio as instrument methodology of disco.
The groups founder John Lydon told the press that disco was the only music he cared for at the time. No Wave was a sub genre of post punk centered in New York City. For shock value, James Chance who was a notable member of the No Wave scene penned an article in the East Village Eye urging his readers to move uptown and get "trancin' with some superadioactive disco voodoo funk".
His band James White and the Blacks wrote a disco album Off White. Their performances resembled those of disco performers (horn section, dancers etc). In 1981 ZE Records led the transition from No Wave into the more subtle Mutant disco (post-disco/punk) genre. Mutant disco acts such as Kid Creole and the Coconuts, Was Not Was, ESG and Liquid Liquid influenced several British Post Punk acts such as New Order, Orange Juice and A Certain Ratio.
In April 1975, Dahl was in a bar listening to his friends complain about their pets. This gave him the idea for the perfect "pet": a rock. A rock would not need to be fed, walked, bathed, groomed and would not die, become sick, or be disobedient.
He said they were to be the perfect pets, and joked about it with his friends. However, he eventually took the idea seriously, and went home and drafted an "instruction manual" for a pet rock. It was full of puns, gags and plays on words that referred to the rock as an actual pet.
Star Wars is an epic space opera franchise conceived by George Lucas. The first film in the franchise was originally released on May 25, 1977, by 20th Century Fox, and became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon, spawning two immediate sequels, released at three-year intervals. Sixteen years after the release of the trilogy's final film, the first in a new prequel trilogy of films was released, again released at three-year intervals, with the final film released on May 19, 2005.
As of 2008, the overall box office revenue generated by the six Star Wars films has totalled approximately $4.3 billion, making it the third-highest-grossing film series, behind only the James Bond and Harry Potter films. The Star Wars film series has spawned other media including books, television series, video games, and comic books.
These supplements to the film trilogies comprise the Star Wars Expanded Universe, and have resulted in significant development of the series' fictional universe. These media kept the franchise going in the interim between the film trilogies. In 2008, Star Wars: The Clone Wars was released to theaters as the first ever worldwide theatrical Star Wars film outside of the main trilogies.
It was the franchise's first animated film, and was intended as an introduction to the Expanded Universe series of the same name, a 3D CGI animated series based on a previous 2D animated series of a similar name.
Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program. It was the first spacecraft to successfully land on Mars and perform its mission, and holds the record for the longest Mars surface mission of 6 years and 116 days (from landing until surface mission termination, Earth time). The instruments of the orbiter consisted of two vidicon cameras for imaging (VIS), an infrared spectrometer for water vapor mapping (MAWD) and infrared radiometers for thermal mapping (IRTM). The orbiter primary mission ended at the beginning of solar conjunction on November 5, 1976.
The extended mission commenced on December 14, 1976 after solar conjunction. Operations included close approaches to Phobos in February 1977. The periapsis was reduced to 300 km on March 11, 1977. Minor orbit adjustments were done occasionally over the course of the mission, primarily to change the walk rate — the rate at which the planetocentric longitude changed with each orbit, and the periapsis was raised to 357 km on July 20, 1979. On August 7, 1980 Viking 1 Orbiter was running low on altitude control gas and its orbit was raised from 357 × 33943 km to 320 × 56000 km to prevent impact with Mars and possible contamination until the year 2019. Operations were terminated on August 17, 1980 after 1485 orbits.
They worked tirelessly at their goal and were soon rewarded with another job in the following election year: derailing the Democratic ticket. On June 17, 1972 a group of men broke into the DNC Headquarters to find what they could and to bug the offices. A sharp-eyed security officer saw the break in, called the police and the burglars were quickly taken into custody. Over the next few days and months, amazing insights into these men came out. One of the burglars used to be a GOP security aide, another was found to have a 25,000$ check that was supposed to have gone to Nixon’s re-election campaign.
In fact, it turned out that all of the burglars were on the payroll of the Committee to Re-Elect the President (C.R.E.E.P.). As this unfolded, Nixon went on to win the presidential election in one of the biggest landslides in history. It would be Nixon’s last big win. Following his re-election the repercussions from the Watergate break-in grew larger. Several of the burglars went to jail.
As the connection between these burglars and the Republican White House grew stronger, several White House staffers were forced to resign and White House Chief Counsel John Dean resigned. Rumors swirled about the break-in, the similar events that many believed had also occurred and Nixon’s involvement in it all. In May of 1973 the Senate opened up hearings on the Watergate break-in and under intense pressure, Nixon had Archibald Cox appointed as Special Prosecutor to the case.
The Senate investigation went forward and immediately became damaging to the President in June as John Dean became the first (former) White House staff member to admit that he had discussions with the President concerning Watergate and how to cover it up. In July things got worse as it was revealed in the Senate hearings that Nixon had a sophisticated taping system set up in the Oval Office with which he had taped all of his conversations. The Senate Committee and Special Prosecutor Cox immediately requested that Nixon hand those tapes over.
Citing everything from National Security to Executive Privilege, Nixon refuses to hand over the tapes. The pressure on Nixon continued to grow strong, so much so that on October 20, 1973 he was moved to commit the ‘Saturday Night Massacre’. Unable to shake Cox’s pressure, Nixon contacted Attorney General Elliott Richardson and ordered him to fire Cox. Richardson refused and was himself immediately fired. Nixon then turned to the Assistant Attorney General to fire Cox. He too refused and was fired. Nixon finally found someone who would fire Cox but the resulting backlash forced Nixon to have a new Special Prosecutor appointed.
Leon Jaworski was given that task and immediately began pressing Nixon to hand over the tapes. Throughout the rest of 1973 the country stood by breathlessly as Nixon, the Senate and the prosecutors went round and round. First Nixon said that one of the key tapes which the prosecutors wanted had an 18 ½ minute gap on it, then Nixon tried to send written (and heavily edited) transcripts of many of the taped conversations in lieu of the actual tapes. The pressure continued to be placed on Nixon though to hand over the tapes. In July of 1974 Jaworski had no other choice but to name Nixon as an un-indicted co-conspirator in the obstruction of justice over the Watergate matter.
Nixon continued to claim Executive Privilege in his refusals to hand the materials over. The matter was taken up by the Supreme Court who unanimously rejected Nixon’s argument and ordered that he turn the tapes over. When he refused, the House of Representatives, three days later, voted to impeach the President.
Nixon now realized that he was into a corner from which there was only one way out and so it was that on August 8, 1974 Richard M. Nixon became the first United States President to resign. Gerald Ford, who had become Vice President upon the resignation of Nixon’s Original VP Spiro T. Agnew, assumed the highest office of the land. Days after becoming President, Ford pardoned Nixon completely.
Nixon was the only ‘Watergate conspirator’ who spent no time in jail. The lessons learned by these events are enormous. The story of Watergate is a complex and deep one full of intrigue and back room deals, public politics and personal motivations. It is a deeply American event that touched the world. Idi Amin (also known as Idi Amin Dada) was the nutty, ruthless dictator of the African nation of Uganda during the 1970s. He started out as a soldier in the British colonial army in 1946 and became one of its first Ugandan commissioned officers.
Amin rose through the ranks and was eventually made the army's chief of staff under Uganda's first president, Milton Obote. In 1971 Amin overthrew Obote and seized power. He became internationally famous in 1976 when he provided a safe haven for hostage-holding Palestinian hijackers, who were then attacked and killed at Entebbe by Israeli forces.
In 1978 Amin's forces invaded neighboring Tanzania, but Tanzanian forces drove them back and invaded Uganda, forcing Amin to flee. Amin used brutal force against opponents during his reign, and it is estimated that he is responsible for at least 100,000 deaths (some estimates run as high as 500,000). After fleeing Uganda he settled in Saudi Arabia. He died there in 2003, apparently succumbing to a mixture of hypertension, kidney failure and other ailments.
The Hues Corporation's 1974 "Rock The Boat", a U.S. #1 single and million-seller, was one of the early disco songs to hit #1. Other chart-topping songs included "Walking in Rhythm" by The Blackbyrds, "Rock Your Baby" by George McCrae and "Love's Theme" by Barry White's Love Unlimited Orchestra. Also in 1974, Gloria Gaynor released the first side-long disco mix vinyl album, which included a remake of The Jackson 5's "Never Can Say Goodbye" and two other songs, "Honey Bee" and "Reach Out (I'll Be There)".
Also significant during this early disco period was Miami's KC and the Sunshine Band. Formed by Harry Wayne Casey ("KC") and Richard Finch, KC and the Sunshine Band had a string of disco-definitive top-five hits between 1975 and 1977, including "Get Down Tonight", "That's the Way (I Like It)", "(Shake, Shake, Shake) Shake Your Booty", "I'm Your Boogie Man" and "Keep It Comin' Love". The Bee Gees used Barry Gibb's falsetto to garner hits such as "You Should Be Dancing", "Stayin' Alive", "Night Fever" and "More Than A Woman". In 1975, hits such as Van McCoy's "The Hustle" and Donna Summer's "Love to Love You Baby" and "Could It Be Magic" brought disco further into the mainstream.
Other notable early disco hits include The Jacksons’s "Dancing Machine" (1974), Barry White’s "You're the First, the Last, My Everything" (1974), LaBelle’s "Lady Marmalade" (1975) and Silver Convention’s "Fly Robin Fly" (1975). Chic's "Le Freak" (1978) became a classic and is heard almost everywhere disco is mentioned; other hits by Chic include the often-sampled "Good Times" (1979) and "Everybody Dance" (1978).
In a year otherwise lacking in street cred, the ultimate "cool" sport of snowboarding was born and the car to drive was the Austin Allegro, preferably in brown, with velour trim and square "quartic" steering wheel. Daredevil motorcycle stunt rider Evel Knievel was the man of the moment. Chopper even launched a Knievel push-bike, complete with fake exhaust pipe.
Making good use of the things that they find, the Wombles emerged from their Wimbledon Common burrow for the first time to tidy Britain (and eat Madame Cholets cakes). Women were allowed onto the floor of the Stock Exchange in London for the first time on the 1st of February.
Priests were called out to calm audiences as the most reviled horror movie of all time, The Exorcist, opened in cinemas. Never again would absent-minded smokers return home from the pub gutted, after lending their brand new Zippo to "that bloke on the pool table".
The Bic disposable lighter was born. Not quite a crisp, not quite an alien spaceship. Not even a drummer in a band. Golden Wonder introduced Ringos. The developing nations experienced economic growth that came in the wake of political independence. However, several African economies declined and political states became dictatorial regimes.
Many Middle Eastern democracies crumbled into chaotic regimes with pseudo-democratic governments. The 1970s ethos in much of the developing world was characterized by the constant need to re-define social norms to newer socio economic systems. As well, people were influenced by the rapid pace of change of the new social influences and the constant aspiration for a more egalitarian society in cultures that were long colonized and have an even longer history of hierarchical social structure.
The first facelifts were attempted in the 1970s. The 1970s saw the rise of experimental classical music and minimalist music by composers such as Philip Glass, Steve Reich and Michael Nyman. This was a break from the intellectual serial music of the tradition of Schoenberg which lasted from the early 1900s to 1960s. Experimental classical music influenced both art rock and progressive rock as well as the punk rock and New Wave genres.
Hard rock also emerged among British bands Deep Purple, Uriah Heep, Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath. In Europe, there was a surge of popularity in the early decade for glam rock. The mid-seventies saw the rise of punk music from its protopunk/garage band roots in the 1960s and early 1970s. Major acts include The Ramones, Blondie, the Sex Pistols, and The Clash.
The rise of disco music, which first crept into dance clubs in the mid-seventies, was another major trend. Disco soon fell out of favor in the early 1980s, however, due to a religious revival and the rise of conservatism. The first half of the 1970s saw many jazz musicians from the Miles Davis school achieve cross-over success through jazz-rock fusion.
In Germany, Manfred Eicher started the ECM label, which quickly made a name for 'chamber jazz'. Towards the end of the decade, Jamaican reggae music, already popular in the Caribbean and Africa since the early 1970s, became very popular in the U.S. and in Europe, mostly because of reggae superstar and legend Bob Marley.
The late '70s also saw the beginning of hip hop music with the song Rapper's Delight by Sugarhill Gang. Country music remained very popular in the U.S. In 1977 it became more mainstream after Kenny Rogers became a solo singer and scored many hits on both the country and pop charts. Hollywood emerged from its early 1970s slump with young film-makers taking greater risks and exploring more adult subject matter in movies such as A Clockwork Orange and The Godfather.
The nostalgic Love Story was a huge commercial and critical hit. The 1970s saw a rebirth of the action film with movies like The French Connection. Airport was hugely successful and launched a series of disaster-related films, such as Earthquake.
Throughout the seventies, the horror film developed into a lucrative genre of film; notable examples include The Exorcist, The Omen, Halloween, and The Texas Chain Saw Massacre. Blaxploitation also emerged as a genre. Top-grossing Jaws(1975) ushered in the blockbuster era of film-making, though it was eclipsed two years later the science-fiction epic Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977).
In the United States, long-standing trends were declining. The Red Skelton Show and The Ed Sullivan Show, long-revered American institutions, were cancelled. The "family sitcom" saw its last breath at the start of the new decade with The Brady Bunch. Television was transformed by what became termed as "social consciousness" programming such as All in the Family, which broke down television barriers.
The television western, which had been very popular in the 1960s, slowly died out during the 1970s, with The High Chaparral, The Virginian, and Gunsmoke ending their runs.
By the mid- to late 1970s, "jiggle television"--programs centred around sexual gratification and bawdy humor and situations such as Charlie's Angels and Three's Company--became popular. Soap operas expanded their audience beyond housewives with the rise of All My Children and As the World Turns.
Game shows such as The Hollywood Squares and Family Feud were also popular daytime television. Another influential genre was the television newscast, which built on its initial widespread success in the 1960s. Finally, the variety show received its last hurrah during this decade, with shows such as The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour and Donny & Marie.
In 1970s European cinema, the failure of the Prague Spring brought about nostalgic motion pictures such as István Szabó's Szerelmesfilm (1970). German New Wave and Rainer Fassbinder's existential movies characterized film-making in Germany. The movies of the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman reached a new level of expression in motion pictures like Cries and Whispers (1973). Asian cinema of the 1970s catered to the rising middle class fantasies and struggles.
In the Bollywood cinema of India, this was epitomised by the movies of Bollywood superhero Amitabh Bachchan. Another Asian touchstone beginning in the early '70s was traditional Hong Kong martial arts film which sparked a greater interest in Chinese martial arts to the West. Martial arts film reached the peak of its popularity largely in part due to its greatest icon, Bruce Lee. Fiction in the early '70s brought a return to old-fashioned storytelling, especially with Erich Segal's Love Story.
The seventies also saw the decline of previously well-respected writers, such as Saul Bellow and Peter De Vries, who both released poorly received novels at the start of the decade. Racism remained a key literary subject. John Updike emerged as a major literary figure. Reflections of the 1960s experience also found roots in the literature of the decade through the works of Joyce Carol Oates and Morris Wright. With the rising cost of hard-cover books and the increasing readership of "genre fiction," the paperback became a popular medium.
Criminal non-fiction also became a popular topic. Irreverence and satire, typified in Kurt Vonnegut's Breakfast of Champions, were common literary elements. The horror genre also emerged, and by the late seventies Stephen King had become one of the most popular genre novelists.
In non-fiction, several books related to Nixon and the Watergate scandal topped the best-selling lists. 1977 brought many high-profile biographical works of literary figures, such as those of Virginia Woolf, Agatha Christie, and J.R.R. Tolkien.
Books discussing sex such as Everything You Wanted to Know About Sex but Were Afraid to Ask were popular as authors took advantage of the lifted censorship laws on literature in the sixties. Exposés such as All the President's Men were also popular. Self-help and diet books replaced the cookbooks and home fix-it manuals that topped the sixties charts.
The 1970 FIFA World Cup, the ninth staging of the World Cup, was held in Mexico, from May 31 to June 21. Mexico was chosen as hosts by FIFA in October 1964. The 1970 tournament was the first World Cup hosted in North America, and the first held outside South America and Europe. In a match-up of teams that had won the World Cup twice, the final was won by Brazil, who beat Italy 4-1.
This means Brazil were the first three-time world champions and were allowed to keep the Jules Rimet Trophy permanently. The Brazilian team, featuring the likes of Pelé (who was in his fourth and final World Cup), Carlos Alberto, Clodoaldo, Gérson, Jairzinho, Rivelino, and Tostão, is usually regarded as the greatest attacking World Cup team ever. This tournament saw the return of free-flowing, attacking play after the physical battles of 1962 and 1966, and is still considered by many fans to be the finest World Cup in history.
Paul Robeson (1898 – 1976) was one of the most controversial African Americans of his time. He was also one of the most talented people of his time, of any race, something that would be attested to by historians and biographers of all races. Like Barack Obama he was a high profile figure around whom there was considerable controversy and fear. One might even hear those echoes using different words but the same theme as "who is Barack Obama" as recited by Sarah Palin and John McCain in McCarthy hearings about Paul Robeson. Born of a runaway slave, Paul Robenson was a man whose talents and achievements were far ranging.
He spoke out against the treatment of the African Americans throughout much of his life. He was an actor, singer, All-American football player, law graduate, orator and writer. Despite the openly racist and violent opposition he faced, Robeson became a twelve letter athlete excelling in baseball, basketball, football, and track. He was named twice to the All American Football team, received a Phi Beta Kappa from Rutgers University, and was the valedictorian of the graduating class of that institution in 1919. His brilliant singing voice, a resonant base, made him a high-demand concert singer both in the United States and abroad. He won high recognition for the film Emperor Jones made in 1925 and his stage performances in Porgy and Bess and Othello on the European stage.
He also became known for the song "Ol Man River, the theme song of the play, Showboat, which later became a movie musical. Robeson's spirituals became widely known and appreciated. By the 1930's he often refused to sing before segregated audiences. During his travels to Europe, where he lived for 11 years in the late 1920's to the late 1930's, Robeson visited Russia.
There he won the International Stalin Peace Prize in 1952 during the McCarthy years, which brought him to the attention of the anti-communist committee hearings in the Senate during those years. Although Robeson declared that he was a socialist, as opposed to communist, but he was painted with the brush of the latter.
Concert dates were cancelled, and Robeson became vilified to the extent that he was seldom given much press or recognition for later achievements. Robeson's passport had been taken away from him in 1950 so that he had been unable to leave the country until the Supreme Court ruling on another case like his and his passport restored. By then he had lost his status and his money, became seriously depressed, and tried twice to commit suicide, according to a music historian who wrote about his life.
Robeson's problems continued unabated. His biography, written in 1958, was not even reviewed by the major journals of the time. After living in Russia and Africa, and continuing his travels in Europe, he returned to the United States in 1963 . By the 1960's and 1970's he was virtually unknown, and his health deteriorated dramatically. Robeson died after suffering a stroke in 1976 in the Philadelphia area.
His autobiography Here I Stand gives his life view and documents his beliefs and experiences to 1958. Despite his many accomplishments during the 20th century, and his recognition by many scholars connected with Princeton and Rutgers Universities as being perhaps one of the greatest geniuses of that century, he is seldom, if ever, shown in history books.
Despite that omission, however, on January 20, 2004 a postal stamp honoring Paul Robeson was unveiled in Princeton, New Jersey and is now part of the Black Heritage Stamp Collection. The sad thing is that this great talent is largely unknown by young people of color let alone most white Americans living today.
Still his legacy continues in the music he gave that provides some sense of immortality for him. One of Paul Robeson's songs shows the conviction that everyone can and should contribute equally in America, which Robeson believed and spoke about, despite his interest in political issues that forced him to live many years in relative exile. He wanted to perform equally, as he had found in Europe, and mourned the segregation in America. Like Barack Obama as a young man Paul Robeson believed in the virtues of America, despite the great prejudices of his time.
He had a vision of unity in diversity. The song, "Ballad of America," is a riveting example of the power of his voice in song and speech. Here are some of its words: "--From her plains and mountains, we have sprung, To keep the faith with those who went before. . . . Our marching song will come again, Simple as a hit tune, deep as our valleys. High as our mountains, strong as the people who made it. For I have always believed it and I believe it now and you know who I am."
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