The Summer of Love refers to the summer of 1967, when an unprecedented gathering of as many as 100,000 young people converged on the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco, creating a phenomenon of cultural and political rebellion.

While hippies also gathered in New York, Los Angeles, Atlanta, Chicago, and across Europe, San Francisco was the epicentre of the hippie revolution, a melting pot of music, psychedelic drugs, sexual freedom, creative expression, and politics. The Summer of Love became a defining moment of the 1960s, as the hippie counter culture movement came into public awareness.

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"By and large, the past two generations have made such a colossal mess of the world that they have to step down and let us take over." "Pete Townsend"

Let it be, let it be, whisper words of wisdom, let it be, croons The Beatles on someone's radio in the Sixties. In some other part of the universe, the Russians explored space and Martin Luther King Jr. led the Civil rights movement. On the same era, man landed on the moon, thus changing history books forever. The 1960s which is more popularly known as The Sixties is a time of complex political, cultural, arts and entertainment trends worldwide.

This period has been marked with revolt against the various barriers of class and age and the division of popular and high culture. Join me as we look back on the most memorable fashion trends, cars, music, films and games of the 1960s, the era which marked the dawn of the pop culture.

Fashion Trends Colourful coats, dyed artificial furs and attractive suits were usually worn by people as they stroll on the streets during the day. Beatles inspired outfits, pants and boots are also getting more popular at this time. Hats were replaced by a bandanna. This was also the the time for growing hair and beards as the unisex hippies look had been gaining popularity.

Class and sophistication had also been seen with memorable 1960s fashion icons such as US First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy and actress Audrey Hepburn. 2. Cars American companies built 93% of the cars sold in the US and 48% of the world sales in the 1960s. Some of the best 1960s cars include the Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac GTO and ofcourse, the Ford Mustang. 3. Music This period is the start of the British rock scene with The Beatles introducing soul, rhythm and blues, and surf music.

Elvis hits UK and various artists have begun singing songs that range from RnB to Pop. Music has become a mirror of some of the movements during that time. 4. Films Some of the best loved classics were created in this era. The popular 1960s movies include The Sound of Music, The Jungle Book, Mary Poppins, and 101 Dalmatians. 5. Toys and Games Who doesn't enjoy a classic game of Twister. This classic 1960s game is still loved by everyone at present. Included in the famous 1960s toys are bowling games, Hands Down, and foldaway dollhouse.

Other sixties games include The Game of Life, Three Musketeers, and Lines of Actions. One of the biggest events that happened in this era is when Hassenfeld Brothers changed its name to Hasbro Industries, an American multinational toy and board game company famous for games like G.I. Joe, Sesame Street, Jurassic Park, Pokemon, Star Wars and Transformers.

One cannot help but look back and feel nostalgic as we think about the 1960s. It also can't be helped if at present a lot of the Sixties trends, especially in games and fashion, are making a comeback. At present, there are also websites such as 1967 that feature games for the vintage lovers. Truly, the 1960s is an era that is worth remembering.


No sooner had 1967's "summer of love" passed than it all started to come undone in 1968. In that year both Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King were assassinated. LBJ had so escalated America's involvement in the Viet Nam conflict that across the nation's campuses students were rioting, while the "war on poverty" seemed to be going nowhere. The constant criticism from every corner finally convinced Johnson not to run for re-election. There were riots in the inner cities of many urban centers around the country (which would continue to occur each summer for the next several years).

The civil rights movement gave up its nonviolence philosophy as SNCC was taken over by radical extremists; in Oakland the Black Panther movement, the extremest of the extreme, was born. Richard Nixon was elected president, and Ronald Reagan was elected governor of California; both ran on strong law-and-order campaigns.

Rock music took a step back from its drugfueled experiments of just a year before, and turned to less-experimental sounds, while the topics became angrier. Creedence Clearwater Revival was the most successful of the roots rock groups, with hits ranging from "Green River" and "Proud Mary" to the ferocious anti-Viet Nam song "Fortunate Son." Even mainstream acts like Elvis Presley and the Supremes released protest songs.

The Yardbirds broke up, and Led Zeppelin, the quintessential seventies hard rock band, grew up out of its ashes (that was also the year that the first version of Pink Floyd appeared, although it would still take a couple years of tinkering with the line-up to create the progressive-album-rock juggernaut that would reign over the FM airwaves in the next decade). Finally, the rise of the Black Power movement helped spur soul music to heights of popularity never before experienced. Otis Redding and Aretha Franklin became major stars.

Woodstock Hippy van

The next year, 1969, saw two important rock festivals, Woodstock in August and Altamont in December. While people tend to remember Woodstock fondly because the hippies were mostly able to organize and run a 450,000-person three-day festival with few major problems, in retrospect its overwhelmed facilities (only 200,000 had been expected) and lousy weather were a symbol that Woodstock was in reality the end of an era, not the dawning of the Age of Aquarius.

Only a few months later, at a concert in Altamont, California, (which was documented in the movie "Gimme Shelter,") a fan was knifed to death in the audience as the Rolling Stones performed on stage. In 1969, Charles Manson and his gang were living in Beach Boy Dennis Wilson's house, sponging off Dennis and using his credit cards. Manson was writing songs and trying to break into the music business. At the same time he was also trying to build up a new religion with himself as God, with followers who were willing to do his bidding.

Musically, he got as far as to get the Beach Boys to record one of his songs ("Never Learn Not to Love," on the album 20/20), before Dennis got fed up and kicked him and his gang out. A month later, Manson and his followers committed the infamous Tate-LaBianca murders.

The grizzly multiple murder was part ritual sacrifice to show loyalty to Manson, and part warning to the music business not to mess with Charlie (a producer used to own the house in which the murders took place). One of the clues that led to their finally being caught was the fact that Manson had smeared "Helter Skelter" (a Beatles song title from the White Album) in blood on the walls at the scene of the crime. Seems like '60's rock no longer pointed the way to a better world.

Janis Joplin

By the end of 1969, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones, and Jimi Hendrix had all died of drug overdoses. In England, the Beatles produced a documentary ("Get Back") that had been meant as a kind of new start for the group, but which instead showed how the boys could barely stand to be in the same room with each other anymore.

In America, on the tiny island of Chappaquiddick off Martha's Vineyard, Senator Edward Kennedy was involved in a car crash in which a young woman died. The bizarre and ambiguous circumstances surrounding the fatal accident put a stain on the remaining Kennedy brother's reputation that he was never able to shake. In 1969 Neil Armstrong walked on the moon, but when that singular moment in the history of mankind was announced at an Earth-bound rock festival, the self-absorbed audience booed the news. A year later, the Beatles broke up and Diana Ross left the Supremes; one year after that, Berry Gordy moved his Motown operations from Detroit to Los Angeles. The musical decade of the sixties was over.

Haight-Ashbury district

The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. The term also refers to an era more often called The Sixties, denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and political trends which occurred roughly during the years 1958-1974 in Western countries, particularly Britain, France, the United States, Italy and West Germany. Social and political upheaval was not limited to these nations, but included such nations as Japan, Mexico, Canada, and others.

The term is used descriptively by historians, journalists, and others documenting our collective past; nostalgically by those who participated in the counter-culture (or wish they had); The hippies did not pick that name for themselves: it was given to them by Michael Fallon, a reporter for the San Francisco Examiner, in a 1965 story about the new bohemian lifestyle that was developing in the city's Haight-Ashbury district (named for two streets that converge there — also called the Haight).

Fallon got the name by shortening Norman Mailer's term hipster, and he applied it to the second generation of beatniks who had moved into the Haight from nearby North Beach. This new generation of dropouts was more optimistic than the beatniks, however, more prone to talk about love, more flamboyant. They belonged to groups such as the Legalized Marijuana Movement and the Sexual Freedom League. In the summer of 1965 the hippies were few in number but were well on their way to creating a small, thriving society — a counter culture.

Kent State massacre

The Kent State shootings, also known as the May 4 massacre or Kent State massacre, occurred at Kent State University in the city of Kent, Ohio, and involved the shooting of unarmed college students by members of the Ohio National Guard on Monday, May 4, 1970.

The guardsmen fired 67 rounds over a period of 13 seconds, killing four students and wounding nine others, one of whom suffered permanent paralysis. Some of the students who were shot had been protesting against the American invasion of Cambodia, which President Richard Nixon announced in a television address on April 30.

Other students who were shot had been walking nearby or observing the protest from a distance. There was a significant national response to the shootings: hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools closed throughout the United States due to a student strike of four million students, and the event further divided the country, at an already socially contentious time, about the role of the United States in the Vietnam War.

Brian Matthew

Sounds of the 60s is a long-running Saturday morning programme on BBC Radio 2 that features recordings of popular music made in the 1960s. It was first broadcast on 12 February 1983 and introduced by Keith Fordyce who had been the first presenter of the TV show Ready Steady Go! in 1963. Since 1990 the presenter has been Brian Matthew Subsequent presenters included Simon Dee (b. 1935), the first voice to have been heard on Radio Caroline in 1964, and, for the greater part of its run, Brian Matthew, who had introduced Saturday Club on the BBC Light Programme until 1967.

Dee's tenure in 1988 provided a boost to the show and his initial contract was extended. However, he seems to have fallen out with those producing the programme, notably over his wish for it to be based in London rather than Bristol Matthew first presented Sounds of the 60s in April 1990 and was still doing so in 2007, his place being taken temporarily between September 2006 and February 2007 by former Radio Caroline and BBC Radio 1 disc jockey Johnnie Walker (and, during Walker's own absence in December 2006, by three guest presenters: Sandie Shaw, Joe Brown and Suzi Quatro). Matthew returned on 10 February, revealing that his prolonged absence had been due to a viral infection contracted while in hospital for a routine operation.


Marijuana first became popular in the United States with Mexican immigrants in the 1920's and was quickly adopted by those in the jazz community. Later, the Great Depression of the 1930's led to a growing hostility toward the increase in marijuana use that was linked to immigration.

The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 placed control of the Cannabis plant into the hands of the federal government, which released very exaggerated portrayals of marijuana's effects (i.e., "Reefer Madness") and made the drug illegal. These stories, paired with the ban on private use, kept marijuana use fairly uncommon until the 1960's. After the "hippie" counter-culture rediscovered marijuana in the 1960's, demand for, and use of, the substance grew until about 1978, when the favourable attitude toward the substance reached a peak.

Since then, public attitudes have varied greatly from complete intolerance to ideas of legalization. In 1970, marijuana was listed as a Schedule I drug where it still remains today; however, the medical use of marijuana has been a hot topic for the last decade, along with the advent of synthetic forms of THC (i.e., Marinol).

The Texas Chain Saw Massacre poster

What can you say about a film that's been talked about to death? Just this: If you've never seen it, you owe it to yourself to do so, not because it's a way of paying homage to the one true master of modern film, but because it's so fun to watch. Related Articles Insidious Movie Review The Texas Chain Saw Massacre Website to DOWNLOAD & WATCH HORROR MOVIES from The Mid 20th Century DOWNLOAD Best & Collectibles Horror Movies that Result in Goosebumps & Horror Kind of Movies DOWNLOADS Janet Leigh plays a bored office drone who decides to steal some loot from her boss's obnoxious client and parlay it into a new life with her all-too-distant boyfriend.

All is going more or less according to plan until she stops in at the wrong motel, where she befriends a friendly if somewhat nerdy desk clerk only to find it causes problems with that clerk's possessive mother, who as her boy explains, "is not herself today."

I'll say she isn't, and so would Leigh's Marion Crane, who maybe should have put up that "Do-Not-Disturb" sign before taking a shower. You can feel the decade literally shifting out of '50s and into '60s with this one. Even the opening shot, where the camera looks over a Western U.S. city in the middle of the afternoon and zooms in on what looks exactly like the Texas School Book Depository overlooking Dealey Plaza.

Norman Rockwell touches abound, like the decor of the motel, but look at what's going on around it. People dress well, they still wear fedoras and jackets, but in their tense conversations and hooded gazes you can feel the culture just ticking away like a time bomb waiting to explode.

Then there's Anthony Perkins, who plays motel clerk Norman Bates in a very oddly naturalistic way, complete with facial tics and half-swallowed words, not the polished image one expected to see then. Just compare him with John Gavin, who plays Marion's boyfriend in the standard-actor-of-the-day way.

Perkins manages to be so weirdly magnetizing, even in small moments like the way he stumbles on the word "falsity" or notes how creepy he finds dampness to be. He shines in bigger scenes, too, like his tense chat with Martin Balsam's boorish but diligent private detective character, Arbogast, who along with Perkins and Leigh delivers a landmark performance. The way both actors play out the awkwardness in their conversation makes you literally sweat. Then again, you're always uneasy around Norman.

You definitely feel wary of him right away, but you find yourself liking him, too, even when he's busy covering up "Mother's" misdeeds. Not since Bela Legosi played Dracula did you get a horror movie with such a compelling central figure. If you are sampling the many other comments here, be sure to look up Merwyn Grote's. He makes an interesting, compelling case for how director Alfred Hitchcock used his television series as a template for "Psycho." Certainly "Psycho" looks more like early 1960s television than any of the more sumptuous fare Hitchcock had been bringing to screen at the time.

Not only is it in black-and-white, not colour, but the sets; a ramshackle motel, a mothbally old house, a couple of cheap looking bedrooms, a bathroom in a used-car dealership, are deliberately low class. It's thrilling to see Hitchcock move so effectively outside his normal element, and move things along with such clinical detachment and low-key technical finesse.

Thrilling, too, to realize this is one of his most accomplished products; made by a man who was experienced enough to know how the game was played, and daring enough still to break the rules; indeed, start a whole new ballgame.

Is it the best Hitchcock movie? It's definitely one of his best, right up there with "The 39 Steps" and "Strangers On A Train" and "Sabotage" and "Shadow Of A Doubt." He only once again came close to making as good a film, with "The Birds," while Janet Leigh and Anthony Perkins never escaped the greatness they helped create here. Poor John Gavin had to quit the biz entirely, and became an ambassador. Often imitated, parodied, referenced, and analyzed to death, "Psycho" still isn't played out nearly 45 years after it came out. You owe it to yourself to pay a visit to the Bates Motel; Norman has a room ready.

As in any other decade, a series of brief fashions in dress and pastimes captured the public's imagination during the 1950s. Many of these fads were inspired by what Americans saw on television, which most of them encountered for the first time during the decade. In 1955 children and adults alike were swept up in the merchandising blitz surrounding Walt Disney's television series "Davy Crockett." Four million recordings of "The Ballad of Davy Crockett," the show's theme song, and fourteen million Davy Crockett books were sold to eager fans.

Little pioneers wore replicas of the coonskin cap their hero wore, so that the price of raccoon tails shot from twenty-five cents to eight dollars a pound. Some three thousand items of merchandise were licensed to cash in on the popularity of the Tennessee woodsman, including lunch boxes, bath towels, ukuleles, and women's underwear. Minor sports such as professional wrestling and roller derby were also extremely popular during the decade primarily because of exposure on television. The new medium itself, in fact, was something of a fad during the 1950s because of its novelty, and early stars and shows fascinated the public as few have since.

American Bandstand,

Dance crazes of the 1950s were also influenced by television. Young people watched Dick Clark's "American Bandstand," which debuted in 1957, to learn the latest steps. The stroll, a line dance with hand clapping, was especially popular. For their parents, "The Arthur Murray Party" was broadcast weekly throughout the decade; dance instructor Murray popularized several ballroom dances, including the cha-cha and the merengue.

College Fads College students, always on the lookout for new fads, latched on to quite a few. Panty raids were popular during the 1950s and were, as Peter L. Skolnik puts it, "generally greeted with equal enthusiasm by the raiders and the raided." Only occasionally did the raids get out of hand and turn into full-scale riots. Mostly they were harmless fun.

Collegians also stuffed themselves into cars (a variation of the telephone-booth stuffing of old). In 1959 "hunkering" was a popular campus fad: students squatted on their haunches to study or just hang around. Many new toys, some made possible by technological advances from World War II, competed for the attention of the country's youngest consumers.

The success of western movies and television shows led to heavy sales of toy guns, holsters, and spurs, to the tune of $283 million. Thirty million children wore propeller beanies in 1952. Slinkies, wire coils that walked down stairs "alone or in pairs," were popular toys during the decade, as was Silly Putty, a moldable glob of silicone, thirty-two million of which were sold between 1949 and 1954.

John F. Kennedy told the nation in 1960

The early 1960s in America were a time of hope, energy, and prosperity, a time when the United States settled confidently into its role as a superpower possessed of military might and financial clout. "It is a time for a new generation of leadership, to cope with new problems and new opportunities," the new president

John F. Kennedy told the nation in 1960. 'For there is a new world to be won.' "Much of the optimism had gone out of American life by the end of the 1960s; it was replaced with grief, cynicism, and fear. John F. Kennedy, the president who had for many symbolized hope of America; Martin Luther King, Jr., the Nobel Prize-winning leader who had promoted non violence to redress social injustice; Malcolm X, the forceful advocate of black pride; and Robert Kennedy, the presidential candidate who promised peace and order, were all assassinated."

John F. Kennedy

On November 22, 1963 in Dallas, Texas, the 35th president of the US, John F. Kennedy became the third president to be assassinated, after William McKinley, John Garfield and Abe Lincoln. He was traveling on an open top Lincoln continental limo with his wife Jackie and the Texas Governor Connally and his wife and was fatally shot on a slow motorcade along Elm Street through Dealey Plaza.

Questions abound on the circumstances before, during and after Kennedy was assassinated, among other things: Related Articles Kennedy Half Dollars Reference Guide Remembering John F. Kennedy Assassination—Account from 6-Year Old Living in Dallas that Fateful Day Erykah Badu Tickets – Undressing On Elm Street For Window Seat Top 10 Bestselling Books Why was the presidential limousine fully open in a slow motorcade down a road where the buildings around it had not been properly secured and in a state known to be hostile territory? Either the Secret Service blundered in their responsibility to protect the president or there was something deliberate.

What caused the change in the identification of the rifle used in the assassination from a 7.68 Mauser to a 6.5 Italian Mannliicher Carcano? Was there a change of heart in pointing to a fall guy? In the 8 mm Zapruder film, Kennedy slumped backward from the fatal shot when the rifle trajectory was supposed to be from behind coming from the 6th floor window of the Texas School Book Depository building.

The autopsy showed that a large right rear part of the head had been blown off indicating an exit wound with the obvious conclusion that Kennedy must have been shot in the front with a trajectory level from the ground, not from a height. In addition a second possibly earlier bullet hit the nape and exited on the front neck to cause the president to choke but would not have been fatal.

This showed he was shot from two directions at different heights. Why was the lone suspect Lee Oswald immediately shot to death by Jack Ruby when he could have provided vital information behind the assassination as being the lone suspect, this was the best course to silence any information source that could point elsewhere. The Warren Commission's 10-month investigative effort to uncover the truth behind the Kennedy assassination found no persuasive evidence to any conspiracy and that the alleged assassin Oswald acted alone and so was his killer Jack Ruby.

Immediately after the report became public, questions started to bring the findings to disrepute and suspicion of a concerted conspiracy from the CIA, Secret Service and the FBI as well as parties who would benefit from his death like LB Johnson who succeeded him as the 36th president. In addition, other parties like the Cuban exiles with an axe to grind in the failed Operation Mongoose could have been behind the assassination. Underworld Mafia bosses, teamsters and mobsters as well as foreign government like Cuba and the Soviet Union stood to gain from his death.

1960 Hot Wheels

The 1950s brought with it some famous toys, the Frisbee, the hula hoop, and silly putty just to name a few. But could the toys from the 1960's top the accomplishments of the 1950s? Let's have a look at some of the most famous 1960's toys: Hot Wheels - The husband of the Barbie doll inventor, Elliot Handler invented Hot Wheels whist doing some experimentation.

It's funny how the most famous toys are discovered by accident. In the first year of release, Hot Wheels sold more than ten times more than what was expected making it to this day, one of the most well sold toys ever produced. The car's ability to conduct tricks was one of the main reasons why it was so successful. LEGO - The famous Lego brand and toy was invented in this decade.

Lego has been one of the most popular toys ever and is still played with by countless millions of children around the world today - One of the most famous of 1960's toys. G.I Joe - The history or should I say, the beginnings of G.I Joe are not well understood with certain myths floating around as to how the toy was created. But regardless of that, G.I Joe was the first toy to be ever called an "action figurine". Easy Bake Oven - One of the most famous toys associated and marketed to young girls, the easy bake oven was the first toy oven ever produced.

It was manufactured by Kenner Products or now more commonly known as Hasbro. In the first year of sales, more than half a million easy bake ovens were sold making it one of the most well sold toys in its first year. As you can see, 1960's toys are probably even more famous than those manufactured in the previous decade. Collecting vintage and antique toys usually begins with toys that bring back fond memories from the past.

Neil Alden Armstrong (born August 5, 1930) is a former American astronaut, test pilot, university professor, and United States Naval Aviator. He was the first person to set foot on the Moon. His first space flight was aboard Gemini 8 in 1966, for which he was the command pilot.

On this mission, he performed the first manned docking of two spacecraft together with pilot David Scott. Armstrong's second and last space flight was as mission commander of the Apollo 11 moon landing mission on July 20, 1969.

On this famous "giant leap for mankind", Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin descended to the lunar surface ("The Eagle has landed") and spent 2.5 hours exploring while Michael Collins orbited above. Armstrong is a recipient of the Congressional Space Medal of Honour.

Before becoming an astronaut, Armstrong was in the United States Navy and saw action in the Korean War. After the war, he served as a test pilot at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) High-Speed Flight Station, now known as the Dryden Flight Research Center, where he flew over 900 flights in a variety of aircraft.

As a research pilot, Armstrong served as project pilot on the F-100 Super Sabre A and C aircraft, F-101 Voodoo, and the Lockheed F-104A Starfighter. He also flew the Bell X-1B, Bell X-5, North American X-15, F-105 Thunderchief, F-106 Delta Dart, B-47 Stratojet, KC-135 Stratotanker and Paresev. He graduated from Purdue University.

Muhammad Ali

Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. on January 17, 1942) is a retired American boxer and former three-time World Heavyweight Champion and winner of an Olympic Light-heavyweight gold medal. In 1999, Ali was crowned "Sportsman of the Century" by Sports Illustrated and the BBC. Ali was born in Louisville, Kentucky. He was named after his father, Cassius Marcellus Clay Sr., who was named for the 19th century abolitionist and politician Cassius Clay.

Ali changed his name after joining the Nation of Islam in 1964, subsequently converted to Sunni Islam in 1975 and then Sufism Ali was best known for his fighting style which he described as "Float like a butterfly, sting like a bee". His movement is often described as a dance; some go so far as to call it beautiful.

"I am the greatest; I said that even before I knew I was." Do you know the name of the person who said this? It's none other than Muhammad Ali, the heavy weight boxing champion of all times. There are very few people who call themselves greatest and yet receive all the glory.

He was one such person who demanded glory and got it for himself. One can only dream of becoming a person like him for the things that he has believed and stood for are things not everyone can do. He remained an iconic figure and the king of heavy weight champions. He made himself known to the world in the 1960 Olympics in Rome when he won the light heavyweight championship.

He was then fighting under the name of Cassius Clay which was his name by birth. Related Articles Unbelievable Discounts On Promotion Codes For Verizon FiOs A Verizon FiOS Promo Code is Your Ticket to Savings Internet TV Questions and Answers 3 Reasons to Use Verizon FiOS Specialized Channels Ali came from a middle class family and was raised in Louisville, Kentucky. Do you want to know how he landed to boxing? When he was twelve years old, his new bicycle got stolen.

That was the incident that motivated him to learn boxing. He was determined never to become victimized again and so he resorted to boxing and concentrated completely on changing his mind and body for the sport. He became a Golden Gloves champion at the age of 17, an Olympic gold medalist at age of 18, and an undefeated heavyweight champion at the age of 22. But all these titles were only the beginning of his career. Little did he know what awaited him in the future. He followed a highly unorthodox style of boxing. He was a person who got his inspirations from challenges.

His biggest strengths were the combination of extreme speed followed by immense power. With this particular talent, he was able to taste victory thrice in the world heavyweight championship. Watching him fight with force and grace was indeed a visual treat for the spectators.

As the years passed by, his speed slowed down but he used his intelligence in the ring and it was a breathtaking experience to watch. But one could say that he experienced moments of glory in his personal life more than being a sports person. He has always stood up as a strong and determined individual in his personal life. He was against racial segregation and he still remains the champion of the civil rights movement. He converted to the religion of Islam and refused to join the U.S Military as he was against fighting the Vietnam War.

He was ripped off the heavyweight title but he became a stronger person and decided to live his life with dignity according to his own conviction. Very few champions have adorned the glory and glamour like Muhammad Ali. Ali finally retired in the year 1981 and he had achieved a record of 56 wins, 37 by knockout, and five losses in 61 bouts.

Tragedy struck in his life in the year 1984 when he was diagnosed with a neurological disorder called the Parkinson syndrome. Little did he think about the side effects of the repeated head injuries he attained during his career.

It had affected his brain and caused a hormonal imbalance. The imbalance caused involuntary movement, decreased movement, rigidity, and abnormal walking and posture. But he still had his moments of glory and in the year 1996, he lit the Olympic torch and declared the games open in Atlanta. Despite his advancing age, the fame and glory which he earned still remains as strong and fresh as ever.

He has remained a boxer, philanthropist and social activist all his life. Millions of people still throng to meet him when he makes a public appearance. I recently watched a program about Ali which was aired on TV through one of the service providers FiOS TV. However these days, he hardly speaks in public as he is overcome by fatigue. Although he has turned 70, he will continue to remain a champion and a legend in the truest sense.

During his career Ali made a name for himself with great hand speed, as well as fast feet and taunting tactics. While Ali was renowned for his fast, sharp out-fighting tye, he also had a great chin, and displayed a great heart and ability to take a punch in his 1974 fight against George Foreman in Zaire, called the Rumble in the . Muhammad Ali is a mere mortal.

But in the eyes of millions he is a legend, immortalised forever by the energy and incredible talent he brought in and out of the boxing ring. Muhammad Ali belongs to a generation of the history's best boxers, when there were a dozen top draws like George Foreman, Ken Norton, Sonny Liston, Joe Frazier, and Floyd Patterson. Despite the greatness of his peers though, Muhammad Ali stood apart as the greatest of all time.

Muhammad Ali was first and foremost a great boxer that's what brought Ali to prominence. But he was also a champion of the Civil Rights movement, and an involved activist who used his power and fame to push noble social change.

1960 Spencer Davis Group

One of the most exciting and influential groups to come out of Birmingham in the early 1960s, the Spencer Davis Group is recognized for their classic and ground-breaking recordings as well as for launching Steve Winwood's music career. Spencer Davis was born on July 17, 1941 in Swansea, South Wales.

He moved to London as a teenager where he played in skiffle bands and became heavily influenced by imported American blues music. In 1960 he relocated to Birmingham and studied German at Birmingham University before working as a teacher at Whittington Oval Junior School in Yardley. In the evenings, he would play his 12 string guitar and sing blues at various venues in the city and for a short time formed a duo with future Fleetwood Mac member Christine Perfect.

Barbie doll

One of the most popular toys for young American girls during the last several decades has been the Barbie doll, which debuted by the Mattel company in 1959 at the New York Toy Fair. The first Barbies were slim but shapely, eleven and a half inches tall, and sold for $3.00.

Girls could not only collect the dolls but a whole range of fashions ("authentic in every detail," her makers proudly proclaimed) for the Barbie to wear. Although the earliest dolls had dead white skin and limp hair, by the early 1960s her skin tone was more natural and her designers were giving her a variety of hair-styles, especially the beehives and bubble cuts that were popular at the time.

Barbie's ever-changing wardrobe also reflected the fashions of the time, from the elegance of first lady Jacqueline Kennedy to the short-skirted "Carnaby Street" look imported along with the British Invasion of 1964. Like every popular teenager, Barbie soon had a circle of friends for girls to collect, as well.

Her boyfriend Ken was introduced in 1961. (Barbie and Ken made it official in 1965, when Mattel offered a wedding ensemble for the two.) In 1963 Barbie gained a best girlfriend, Midge. In 1964 and 1966 Barbie's makers offered siblings for her: first her little sister Skipper, and then the twins Tutti and Todd.

In 1966 the public was introduced to Francie, Barbie's mod cousin, and in 1968 Christie, a black friend, was added to the group. There was, of course, plenty for all of Barbie's friends to wear, too: the designers at Mattel added hundreds of new pieces to the group's wardrobe each year.

Flower power

Flower power was a slogan used by hippies (aka Flower Children) during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a symbol of non-violence ideology. It is rooted in opposition to the Vietnam War. They burned their draft cards and created a hippy culture. They dressed in flowery clothing and wore flowers in their hair. The expression is said to have been coined by the US poet Allen Ginsberg in 1965. It has since been used in many places when referring to the sixties, including countless films, TV programs and documentaries.

The "meeting place" for the Flower Power movement was based in Amsterdam, the Netherlands in a club called Paradiso. The hippies chose this club because of the name paradiso, which reminded them of a peaceful place, paradise. Artists such as Yoko Ono have since been performing there on occasional visits. Nowadays it is found next to a Hard Rock Cafe and is a centre of music for all groups of people, including followers of movements such as the Rastafari movement.

Flower Power also celebrated symbolic action such as giving flowers to policemen and putting flowers into the barrels of ROTC rifles. A Pulitzer-nominated photograph (with the same title) by Washington Star photographer Bernie Boston has been a classic image of the Vietnam War era protests.

The photo, taken at the October 21, 1967, "March on the Pentagon", showed a young, long-haired man in a turtleneck sweater, placing carnations into the rifle barrels of military policemen. The young man turned out to be George Edgerly Harris III, an 18 year old actor from New York. Harris later took on the stage name of "Hibiscus".


The 1960s brought us hippies, the Civil Rights Movement, the British Invasion and so much more. The decade also brought us a whole new lingo that was used by everyone. Below is a small list of the slang used in the 1960s. Some are still commonly used today, while others are not and some are just clearly dated but we love them anyway.

Slang Still Commonly Used Today Crash: to go to sleep or be worn out. "After protesting on Washington all day, I crashed on my couch." Dibs: to own or possess something. "I've got dibs on that tie dye shirt." Jinx, you owe me a soda: shouted out after two people say the exact same thing at the exact same time. Old Lady: refers to your own or someone's mother.

"My old lady is in love with Breakfast at Tiffany's." Peace Out: a way of saying goodbye. "I'm heading to San Francisco for the Summer of Love, peace out." Scarf: to eat quickly. "I'm so hungry, I'm going to scarf down a whole pie." Slang Still Used Today but Dated by the 1960s Boogie: to leave. "This party is lame, let's boogie." It can also mean to dance. "I want to boogie down to Motown tonight." Dig: to understand. "Can you dig what I'm saying?" Far Out: something that is cool and exciting.

"Neil Armstrong landing on the moon is far out." Funky: something that is great and unique. "Sonny and Cher's new song is funky." It can also mean something is rotten. "Your flip flops smell funky." Groovy: also means something is cool or great. "Elvis Presley is a groovy guy." Hang Loose: to relax. "Let's hang loose at your old lady's pad tonight." Slang Not Commonly Used Today Blitzed: to be drunk. "I got blitzed at Woodstock this summer."

Dude: a nerd or geek, different than how we use it today. "That dude from math class lost his pocket protector." Gas: to have fun. "I had a real gas at the Beetles concert last night." Gutt Waddin': fast food or a quick snack to fulfill your hunger. "Let's grab some gutt waddin' before we head to the drive-in theater." Hook: to steal. "He hooked that Mustang from his old man." Panty Waist: another term for a nerd or a mama's boy. "That Panty Waist is too scared to see Psycho."

The Beatles

The Cultural Sixties began with the assassination of John F Kennedy in 1963. The Beatles invaded in 1964 changing our music and our culture. Cassius Clay changed his name to Muhammad Ali and became the athlete of the century.

The Rolling Stones hit big with Satisfaction in 1965. Bob Dylan turned on the Beatles who began putting more thought into both their music and lyrics giving rise to what is said to be the greatest studio album of all time, Sargent Peppers Lonely Heartclub Band.

In 1966 the war in Vietnam was building into a political problem on the homefront and we first heard of the hippies and the music which was to define the decade. In 1967 Israel won the 6 Day War in the Middle East, Senator Eugene McCarthy entered the race for President giving the struggling peace movement momentum. In 1968 Lyndon Johnson refused to run again for President, Martin Luther King and Robert Kennedy were assassinated and the Vietnam war escalated. 1968 also had Americans orbiting the moon while riots dominated the Democratic Convention in Chicago.

In 1969 Richard Nixon became President, American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walked on the Moon, Jimi Hendricks played Woodstock and bikers killed a fan at a free Rolling Stones concert at Altamont Speedway and Easy Rider with Jack Nicholson became a hit. In 1970 the United States began B-52 bombing of Cambodia, in protest four students were shot by the National Guard at Kent State Univeristy. 1970 was also the year the Beatles broke up and Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin died in drug-related deaths. In 1972 came All in the Family with Archie Bunker. and in 1974 Richard Nixon resigned and The Sixties ended with President Gerald Ford's words, "Our long national nightmare is over."

Chubby Checker 1960

The beginning of Rock and roll started with The Twist. by Chubby Checker This song changed our dancing moves. Other dance songs that helped this period of rock and roll along include: The Mash Potato, The Monster Mash ,the Pony, The Swim, The Jerk, The Monkey, and The Hully Gully. The first New York white rock star was Dion. He was the lead singer of the band the Belmonts. He was one of the the few rockers in his generation to evidence serious artistic growth (Unterberger).

He moved into Country Blues, and Dylan material with sensitivity ,but drug problems slowed his progress until the late 60s. He made a comeback as a folk-rock singer with his song Abraham ,martin and John. Dion was one of several Italian-Americans to make important pop rock in the 60s. Other big American Rock groups of the 60s include: The Beach Boys, the four Seasons, and Frankie Valli.

They had songs which included Sherry, Walk like a man, Candy Girl, Dawn, and Rag doll. Joey Dee was the most popular white twist artist of the 60s with his hit Peppermint Twist. Other members of Joey Dees band formed another Band called the Nucleus of the rascals. This band Featured a thick Organ sound of Felix cavaliere,They had a number one hit titled Good Lovin in 1966.

1960s hits UK A 1 Michael Holliday - "Starry Eyed" January 29 for 1 week 2 Anthony Newley - "Why" February 5 for 4 weeks 3 Adam Faith - "Poor Me" March 4 for 2 week 4 Johnny Preston - "Running Bear" March 17 for 2 weeks 5 Lonnie Donegan - "My Old Man's a Dustman (Ballad of a Refuse Disposal Officer)" March 31 for 4 weeks 6 Anthony Newley - "Do You Mind" April 28 for 1 week 7 Everly Brothers - "Cathy's Clown" May 5 for 7 weeks 8 Eddie Cochran - "Three Steps to Heaven" June 23 for 2 weeks 9 Jimmy Jones - "Good Timin'" July 7 for 3 weeks 10 Cliff Richard & The Shadows - "Please Don't Tease" July 28 for 1 week 11 Johnny Kidd & The Pirates - "Shakin' All Over" August 4 for 1 week 12 Cliff Richard & The Shadows - "Please Don't Tease" August 11 for 2 weeks 13 The Shadows - "Apache" August 25 for 5 weeks 14 Ricky Valance - "Tell Laura I Love Her" September 29 for 3 weeks 15 Roy Orbison - "Only the Lonely (Know How I Feel)" October 20 for 2 weeks 16 Elvis Presley - "It's Now or Never" November 3 for 8 weeks 17 Cliff Richard & The Shadows - "I Love You" December 29 for 2 weeks.


Originally, hippies were part of a youth movement composed mostly of white teenagers and young adults, between the ages of 15 and 25 years old, who inherited a tradition of cultural dissent from the earlier Bohemians and the beatniks.Hippies rejected established institutions, criticized middle class values, opposed nuclear weapons and the Vietnam War, embraced aspects of Eastern philosophy,championed sexual liberation, were often vegetarian and eco-friendly, promoted the use of psychedelic drugs to expand one's consciousness, and created intentional communities or communes.

They used alternative arts, street theatre, folk music, and psychedelic rock as a part of their lifestyle and as a way of expressing their feelings, their protests and their vision of the world and life. Hippies opposed political and social orthodoxy, choosing a gentle and non doctrin ideology that favored peace, love and personal freedom,perhaps best epitomized by The Beatles' song "All You Need is Love". They perceived the dominant culture as a corrupt, monolithic entity that exercised undue power over their lives, calling this culture "The Establishment", "Big Brother", or "The Man".

Noting that they were "seekers of meaning and value", scholars like Timothy Miller describe hippies as a new religious movement. The roots of British popular music for the rest of the 20th century and into the next were set during the 1950s.

In the aftermath of World War 2, the economy was still performing poorly. Many consumer goods were not available, and there was little high-wage labor. American media was popular, and the British youth grew infatuated with the apparent wealth of their American counterparts. The economy of the United States was booming, and the images on TV made it appear as though American teens were able to purchase much that the British could not.

At the same time, a legion of American musical innovators, including Elvis Presley and Chuck Berry, were adapting African American rock and roll for mainstream audiences, and American folk bands like The Weavers were fomenting a roots revival of old time music. Indigenous styles of music production and performance dominated the United Kingdom until the late 1950s, when imported American rock and roll, pop-folk and rockabilly gained fans among British youth, while American roots music, especially the blues, found its own devoted fanbase. Joe Boyd brought the "Blues and Gospel Caravan" to England in April 1964 (including Muddy Waters and Otis Spann). He found the English audiences more enthusiastic than the US ones (see ""White Bicycles" chapter 2). Many USA blues artists followed in their trail.

The Six Day War occurred against the background of continuing Arab world hostility to the State of Israel, which had begun with the War of Independence. In that war, the newly created state of Israel had defeated the Arab armies that had invaded it, and expanded its territory. The war had created about 700,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, who fled or were expelled in 1948.

Officially, no Arab country recognized the armistice lines of 1949 as international borders, and no Arab country recognized Israel, diplomatically. Israel, according to Arab rhetoric, had no right to exist, and was referred to as "The Zionist entity." Defeating and destroying Israel and "reversing the results of 1948" became central goals of Arab political rhetoric. Prestige and leadership of the Arab world were based on leadership in confrontation of Israel. Gamal Abdul Nasser and his fellow officers had taken power in Egypt, in order they claimed, to modernize the country and undo the shame of the lost 1948 war.

However, in 1956, after Nasser closed the straits of Tiran and Suez canal to Israeli shipping and moved terror squads into the Sinai peninsula, Israel, Britain and France attacked Egypt. Israel captured the entire Sinai peninsula in 100 hours.

Before agreeing to withdraw, Israel got an Aide de Memoire from the US that it would support Israel's right to unrestricted access to the straits of Tiran, in accordance with international law, and the UN agreed to station an emergency force in Sinai (UNEF). Nasser claimed a "victory" in that he had gotten Israel, Britain and France to withdraw, but the UNEF and the free access of Israeli shipping were a constant shameful reminder.

Nasser bid to lead the Arab world, but his plans foundered in economic woes and a failed war in Yemen, evoking inter-Arab rivalry. Constant taunts dared Nasser to dismiss the UNEF and close the straits of Tiran. Tension began developing between Israel and Arab countries in the 1960s. Israel began to implement its National Water Carrier plan, which pumps water from the Sea of Galilee to irrigate south and central Israel.

The project was in accordance with a plan proposed by US envoy Eric Johnston in 1955, and agreed to by Arab engineers. Arab governments refused to participate however, because of the implied recognition of Israel. In secret meetings, Israel and Jordan agreed to abide by the water quotas set by the plan.

The newly formed Palestinian Fatah movement seized on the Israeli diversion as an "imperialist event" that would catalyze their revolution, and Yasser Arafat began calling for war to eliminate Israel. In the Fatah newspaper, Filistinunah, ("our Palestine") Arafat ridiculed Egyptian President Nasser and other Arab leaders for their impotence, and called for effective action against Israel. Nasser decided to found the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) as a "tame" alternative to the Fatah, and placed Ahmed Shukhairy, an ineffective and bombastic diplomat at its head.

The Syrians, who had broken with Nasser's pan-Arabism, countered by supporting Fatah and attempted to take over the Fatah group. Syrian army intelligence recruited terrorists for actions against Israel, giving credit for the operations to Fatah. The first of these actions was announced on December 31, 1964, an attack on the Israel water carrier at Beit Netopha, but in fact no attack had taken place.

A second attempt was made on January 2, 1965, but the explosives charge was disarmed. However, successful attacks soon followed on January 14 and February 28. In the 18 months preceding the war, there ware 120 terror attacks, resulting in 11 fatalities.

These minor terrorist activities received great publicity in the Arab world, and were contrasted with the lack of action and bombastic talk of Gamal Nasser, challenging Nasser's leadership. This ferment is considered the catalyst of the events that brought about the Six day war. It is a moot point whether it is to be attributed to Syrian rivalry with Nasser, or as Yasser Arafat and the Palestinians claim, to the Fatah movement. Faced with the "heroic" deeds of the Palestinians under Syrian tutelage, Nasser was pushed to an increasingly bellicose stance.

The Six Day War

While the first contemporary musicians to be influenced by psychedelic drugs were in the jazz and folk scenes, the first use of the term "psychedelic" in popular music was by the "acid-folk" group The Holy Modal Rounders in 1964, with the song "Hesitation Blues." The first use of the term "psychedelic rock" was on the 13th Floor Elevators' business card , designed by John Cleveland, and circulated in December 1965.

The term was first used in print in the Austin Statesman in an article about the band titled "Unique Elevators shine with Psychedelic Rock" , dated 10th February 1966. In 1962, British rock embarked on a frenetic race of ideas that spread back to the U.S. with the British Invasion.

The folk music scene also experimented with outside influences. In the tradition of Jazz and blues many musicians began to take drugs and included drug references in their songs. Beat Generation writers like William Burroughs, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg and especially the new exponents of consciousness expansion such as Timothy Leary, Alan Watts and Aldous Huxley profoundly influenced the thinking of the new generation.

In late 1965, The Beatles unveiled their brand of psychedelia on the Rubber Soul album, which featured John Lennon's first paean to universal love ("The Word") and a sitar-laden tale of attempted hippy hedonism ("Norwegian Wood", written by John Lennon). Jeff Beck claimed that British rock act The Yardbirds were "the very first psychedelic band really" releasing singles: "Shapes of Things", "Over Under Sideways Down" and "Happenings Ten Years Time Ago" in 1966.

During the sixties, as people were trying to find new ways to explore pleasure and ways of bringing it about, marijuana became an obvious choice. Despite the fact that it was illegal, many people were willing to try this amazing substance.

Marijuana is a weed, hence the nickname "weed", and as such, is currently native to all continents on the planet but Antarctica; and who knows, a researcher down there might be doing a few "hydroponic" experiments. Although marijuana is not a mind altering drug like a psychedelic, it was also eagerly sought out for a good "buzz". marijuana has been very popular in recent history, and every since the 1960s, has been a common part of our society as a whole.

Psychedelic Rock

The 1960s were marked by several notable assassinations, including Kennedy's assassination in 1963, and Malcolm X in 1965, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy in 1968. First Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Patrice Lumumba, is assassinated by Belgian/Congolese firing squad on January 17, 1961 First South Vietnamese president Ngo Dihn Diem (Ngô Ðìhn Dim) is assassinated in coup d'etat on November 2, 1963.

US President John F. Kennedy is assassinated on November 22, 1963 in his car during a parade Malcolm X is assassinated on February 21, 1965 The assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr. on April 4, 1968. The assassination of presidential candidate Senator Robert F. Kennedy on June 6, 1968. Anti-War Movement A mass movement began rising in opposition to the Vietnam War, ending in the massive Moratorium protests in 1969, and also the movement of resistance to conscription (the Draft) for the war.

The antiwar movement was initially based on the older 1950s Peace movement heavily influenced by the American Communist Party, but by the mid-1960s it outgrew this and became a broad-based mass movement centred on the universities and churches: one kind of protest was called a "sit-in."

Other terms included the Draft, draft dodger, conscientious objector, and Vietnam vet. Voter age-limits were challenged by the phrase: "If you're old enough to die for your country, you're old enough to vote."

Martin Luther King

The decade is known for being prominent in historical drama, psychological horror, and comedy, as well as the sub-genres of spy film, sword and sandal, and spaghetti westerns, all peaking during this decade. Historical drama films continued to include epics, in the style of Ben-Hur from 1959, with Cleopatra (1963), but also evolving with 20th-century settings, such as The Guns of Navarone (1961), Lawrence of Arabia (1962) and Doctor Zhivago (1965).

Psychological horror films extended, beyond the stereotypical monster movies of Dracula/Frankenstein or Wolfman, to include more twisted films, such as Psycho (1960) and Roger Corman's Poe adaptations for American International Pictures as well as British companies Hammer Horror and Amicus Productions.

Comedy films became more elaborate, such as the The Pink Panther (1963), The President's Analyst (1967), or A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum (1966). Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961) elevated the concept of a comedy-drama, where the subtle comedy conceals the harsher elements of the drama beneath, and Stanley Kubrick's Dr Strangelove (1962) set a new standard for satire by turning a story about nuclear holocaust into a sophisticated black comedy.

Beyond the trenchcoat and film noir, spy films expanded with worldly settings and hi-tech gadgets, such as the James Bond films Dr. No (1962) or Goldfinger (1964) and Thunderball (1965). Similar to spy films, the heist or caper-films included worldly settings and hi-tech gadgets, as in the original Ocean's Eleven (1960), Topkapi (1964) or The Thomas Crown Affair (1968 film).

The spaghetti westerns (made in Italy or perhaps Spain), were typified by Clint Eastwood movies, such as The Good, the Bad and the Ugly (1966) or Hang 'Em High (1968); however, several dashing Italian actors had their own series of such westerns. Science-fiction or fantasy films employed a wider range of special effects, as in the original of The Time Machine (1960) and Mysterious Island (1961), or with animated aliens or mythical creatures, as in the Harryhausen animation for Jason and the Argonauts (1963).

Some extensive sets were built to simulate alien worlds or zero-gravity chambers, as in space-station and spaceship sets for the epic 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), the psychedelic, space settings for the erotic Barbarella (1968), and with ape-city in the original Planet of the Apes. Late in the evening of September 30, 1919, black share croppers were holding a union meeting in a church in Hoop Spur outside of Elaine, Arkansas. Tensions were high and they had posted guards at the door. When two deputized white men and a black trustee pulled into view, shots rang out. Who fired first is still debated, likely knowledgeable, and perhaps not that important.

What is important is what transpired afterwards. One of the white men was killed, the other wounded. The black trustee raced back to Helena, the county seat of Phillips County, and alerted officials. A posse was dispatched and within a few hours hundreds of white men, many of them the "low down" variety, began to comb the area for blacks they believed were launching an insurrection. In the end, five white men and over a hundred African Americans were killed.

Some estimates of the black death toll range in the hundreds. Allegations surfaced that the white posse and even U.S. soldiers who were brought in to put down the so called "rebellion" had massacred defenceless black men, women and children.

Nearly a hundred blacks were arrested, and in sham trials that lasted no more than a few minutes each, sixty-something black men were sentenced to prison, and twelve were slated for execution. A massive effort on the part of the NAACP and others, including a prominent black attorney in Little Rock, ensued, and by 1925 all the men were free. But planters had established that blacks had best not organize, even within the law.


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