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The fifties also produced the “original teenagers,” a source of rebellion that does not support the idea that the fifties were calm and harmonious on all levels Even though teens had always been around, the fifties defined, analyzed and tried to make sense of this stage between childhood and adulthood.

The time period right before and during the baby boom era reflects a marked rise in birth rate. Therefore, “in density alone, the massive teenage presence was something of a statistical anomaly,” Thomas Doherty states in Teenagers and Teenpics: the Juvenilization of American Movies in the 1950s.

Teenagers became targets for many markets: fashion, music, movies, food and literature to name a few. Juvenile delinquency was born and special laws were created. Psychologists, psychiatrists and counsellors came up with a plethora of studies and advice to explain and cope with adolescents.


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The 50s decade was known for many things: post-war affluence and increased choice of leisure time activities, conformity, the Korean War, middle-class values, the rise of modern jazz, the rise of 'fast food' restaurants and drive-ins (Jack in the Box - founded in 1951; McDonalds - first franchised in 1955 in Des Plaines, IL; and A&W Root Beer Company - formed in 1950, although it had already established over 450 drive-ins throughout the country).

A baby boom, the all-electric home as the ideal, white racist terrorism in the South, the advent of television and TV dinners, abstract art, the first credit card (Diners Club, in 1951), the rise of drive-in theaters to a peak number in the late 50s with over 4,000 outdoor screens (where young teenaged couples could find privacy in their hot-rods), and a youth reaction to middle-aged cinema. Older viewers were prone to stay at home and watch television (about 10.5 million US homes had a TV set in 1950).



Tony Hancock's Half Hour


Hancock's Half Hour was a ground-breaking and influential BBC radio comedy series of the 1950s, starring Tony Hancock, with Sid James, Hattie Jacques, Bill Kerr and Kenneth Williams. From 1956 it also became a television comedy series. The show was written by Ray Galton and Alan Simpson, and produced by Dennis Main Wilson, although, after Main-Wilson departed for his television career, this role was later taken by Tom Ronald. The distinctive tuba-based theme tune was composed by Wally Stott.

Comedian Tony Hancock starred in the show, playing an exaggerated version of his own character, as a down-at-heel comedian living at the dilapidated 23 Railway Cuttings in East Cheam. The comedy actor Sid James played a criminally-inclined confidante of Hancock, who usually succeeded in conning him each week, and Bill Kerr appeared as Hancock's Australian lodger, a character who became noticeably dim-witted in the later shows. A young Kenneth Williams, taking his first job in comedy, provided the funny voices for all the minor characters in the show each week.

Moira Lister appeared in the first series, before being replaced by Andrée Melly for the next two; both women played love interest for Hancock's character, but both were playing essentially straight roles. In the fourth and fifth series a comedienne, Hattie Jacques, provided comedy in the female role as the harridan Grizelda Pugh, who was Hancock's secretary and Sid's occasional girlfriend.


hop pickers


Every September when the hops were ready to be picked, farmers would write to workers – usually women and children who didn't have permanent jobs, in Kent, London, Sussex and East Anglia. They were invited to come down to Horsmonden and Kent, stay in huts on the farm and work in the hop gardens for about 6 weeks. For many Victorian Londoners this was seen as a holiday in the country, away from the dirty and polluted city. The same families would come 'hopping down in Kent' year after year. From the 16th century, Kent was an important centre for hop-growing.

Hops are dried in oast houses before being used to make beer. By 1900 century, an estimated 250,000 men, women and children travelled to Kent each summer for the annual harvest. Hops grow on flexible branches called bines, in fields traditionally called ‘hop gardens’. The bines are grown along strings and wires attached to poles up to 12 feet (3.65 metres) high.

Hops were harvested in late August and September. Picking began at dawn. The picked hops were put into large bins or baskets. First, the bine would be pulled down from the strings. It was then laid on the bin and the hops – which are the flowers of the plant – were stripped (picked) off. Pickers had to be careful not to drop leaves into the bins. Pickers could be paid anything from eight old pence to a shilling per bushel.

The bins were moved down the alleys during the course of the day. After lunch, children were often allowed to play in the fields while their parents continued working. Work usually finished around 4pm. The harvest attracted many seasonal workers from London to Kent for the summer. Most of the workers were women who left their casual jobs in the City to work in the country for a few weeks. They brought their children, who were on school holidays, with them.

Fathers who had work in London would often come to join their families at the weekend. Sometimes whole families moved to Kent for the summer, living in makeshift pickers’ huts. Often these were made of corrugated iron, without electricity or running water. Cooking was over open fires in front of the hut, and water was collected from a pump or well.

Pickers often brought their own bedding and cooking equipment with them. After the Second World War, machines took over much of the work previously done by hand. With many jobs also beginning to offer paid holidays, the popularity of hop-picking holidays declined. By the 1960s, the annual migration from London for the hop-picking was all but over.

The fifties also produced the “original teenagers,” a source of rebellion that does not support the idea that the fifties were calm and harmonious on all levels Even though teens had always been around, the fifties defined, analysed and tried to make sense of this stage between childhood and adulthood.

The time period right before and during the baby boom era reflects a marked rise in birth rate. Therefore, “in density alone, the massive teenage presence was something of a statistical anomaly,” Thomas Doherty states in Teenagers and Teenpics: the Juvenilization of American Movies in the 1950s.

Teenagers became targets for many markets: fashion, music, movies, food and literature to name a few. Juvenile delinquency was born and special laws were created. Psychologists, psychiatrists and counsellors came up with a plethora of studies and advice to explain and cope with adolescents.


Chris Barber's Jazz Band


The trad jazz movement spawned an offshoot when Chris Barber's Jazz Band introduced interval entertainment with their banjo player Lonnie Donegan playing guitar "skiffle". He had an unlikely hit with his version of Leadbelly's "Rock Island Line", recorded in 1955 and becoming a hit in both Britain and the U.S.A. in 1956. Skiffle introduced the idea of music being easy to play and spawned "skiffle groups" across the country, including "The Quarrymen" in Liverpool who would later become the Beatles.

The folk scene also increased the appetite for Blues, bringing across artists like Big Bill Broonzy and Sonny Terry & Brownie McGhee but there was a puritanical insistence on keeping music acoustic. American rock and roll had an impact across the globe in the 1950s, perhaps most intensely in the United Kingdom, where record collecting and trend-watching were in full bloom among the emerging "teenage" culture prior to the rock era, and where colour barriers were barely an issue.

The British were quick to follow the success of Elvis Presley and in 1958 three British teenagers formed a rock and roll group, 'Cliff Richard and the Drifters (later renamed Cliff Richard and the Shadows). The group recorded a hit, "Move It", marking not only what is held to be the very first British full-on rock 'n' roll single, but also the beginnings of a different sound British rock, prophesying "they say it's gonna die, but let's face it; we just don't know what's going to replace it".

In the 60s other British groups would show them. They were not alone in copying the genre, others included Tommy Steele and Adam Faith. Cliff Richard " now Sir" and The Shadows became the most influential band in the UK and set standards for following British (and American) groups. With two guitars, bass guitar and drums, they also changed the way the guitar was featured, introducing the Fender Stratocaster and the concept of a "lead guitar" virtuoso (Hank Marvin) to the rock scene and featuring an electric bass guitar instead of the usual stand up bass.

Appealing almost exclusively to and hugely popular with youth in Britain (including the nascent Beatles) as well as across Europe, Cliff and the Shadows also influenced many UK teenagers to begin buying records, a trend which would reach a peak with The Beatles a few years later. The group also paved the way for the Beatles in other ways, touring the US (without much fanfare) and whetting US record companies' appetites for a youth-oriented band to market stateside.


doo-wop


An African American vocal style known as doo-wop emerged from the streets of north-eastern cities such as New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. Doo-wop, with its smooth harmonies, was the closest rock style to mainstream pop in the mid-1950s. The Orioles helped develop the doo-wop sound with their hits "It's Too Soon to Know" (1948) and "Crying in the Chapel" (1953). Other important African American doo-wop groups included the Coasters, the Drifters, the Moonglows, the Teenagers and the Platters.

The style spread to singing groups of other ethnicities, such as the Capris, Dion and the Belmonts, the Earls, and the Tokens. The term "doo-wop" was taken from the ad-lib syllables sung in harmony in doo-wop songs. Two songs in particular may lay claim to being the "first" to contain the syllables "doo wop" in the refrain: the 1955 hit, "When You Dance" by The Turbans, in which the chant "doo wop" can be plainly heard; and the 1956 classic "In the Still of the Night" by The Five Satins, with the plaintive "doo wop, doo wah" refrain in the bridge.

It has been erroneously reported that the phrase was coined by radio disc jockey Gus Gossert in the early 1970s. However, Gossert himself said that "doo-wop(p) was already being used [before me] to categorize the music in California." It became the fashion in the 1990s to keep expanding the definition backward to include Rhythm & Blues groups from the mid-1950s and then even further back to include groups from the early 1950s and even the 1940s. There is no consensus as to what constitutes a doo-wop song and many aficionados of R&B music dislike the term intensely, preferring to use the term "group vocal harmony" instead.



The Fifties remain a popular nostalgia decade, and are often seen in the United States in simplified terms by both proponents and detractors. Nicknames for the decade include the "Fabulous Fifties" and the "Nifty Fifties". In the United States, different decades have approached Fifties nostalgia differently. Few people cared for Fifties nostalgia during the 1960s.

The vast societal changes of the Sixties, particularly during the latter half of that decade, made the Fifties look repressive and square by comparison. Underground cartoonist Robert Crumb satirized Fifties middle-class culture, and Frank Zappa's 1968 album Cruising with Ruben & the Jets spoofed 1950s doo-wop.

During the 1970s, some people started viewing the Fifties as a calmer, more innocent time, a time devoid of the scandals, wars, assassinations, riots, and racial strife that had marked American life during the 1960s and early 1970s.

Thus the success of mostly idyllic Fifties-themed entertainment such as the movies American Graffiti and Grease, and the TV series Happy Days and its spinoff Laverne & Shirley. Fifties nostalgia also appeared in popular music. 1970s songs such as Don McLean's "American Pie", Elton John's "Crocodile Rock", and Bob Seger's "Old Time Rock and Roll" reflected the early years of rock and roll and how popular music had changed since then. Patsy Cline (b. Virginia Patterson Hensley September 8, 1932 – March 5, 1963) was an American country music singer who enjoyed pop music crossover success during the era of the Nashville Sound in the early 1960s.

Since her death at age 30 in a 1963 plane crash at the height of her career, she has been considered one of the most influential, successful, revered, and acclaimed female vocalists of the 20th century. The story of her life and career has been the subject of numerous books, movies, documentaries, articles and stage plays.

Cline was best known for her rich tone and emotionally expressive bold contralto voice, which, along with her role as a mover and shaker in the country music industry, has been cited and praised as an inspiration by many vocalists of various music genres.. Posthumously, millions of her albums have been sold over the past 45 years and she has been given numerous awards, which has given her an iconic status similar to that of music legends Johnny Cash and Elvis Presley.

Only ten years after her death, she became the first female solo artist inducted to the Country Music Hall of Fame. In 2002, she was voted by artists and members of the Country Music industry as #1 on CMT's television special of the 40 Greatest Women of Country Music of all time, and in 1999 she was voted #11 on VH1's special The 100 Greatest Women in Rock and Roll of all time by members and artists of the rock industry. According to her 1973 Country Music Hall of Fame plaque, "Her heritage of timeless recordings is testimony to her artistic capacity." Among those hits are "Walkin' After Midnight", "I Fall to Pieces", "She's Got You", "Crazy", and "Sweet Dreams".


workers from jamaica 1950


Had Britain not been able to draw on a pool of labour in the Commonwealth, the British government might even have been forced to repeal the Aliens Act, to entice more workers to come to Britain in order to meet the continuing demand for labour in certain areas of the economy. As it turned out, the former colonial territories, their economies starved of investment and distorted by the previously insatiable demands of the leading Western nations for raw materials, ensured a continuous flow of labour out of the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent and into America and Western Europe even after the long boom had reached its peak.

Despite the thinly disguised message from the Royal Commission of Populations of 1949, which essentially tried to 'warn off' bosses from recruiting 'coloured' labour, prospective employers in the 1950s had little concern for the skin colour or religion of their new employees.

Whatever racist ideas they held were secondary to their need for workers to fill gaps in the labour market by doing the worst jobs. The reason why Britain's employers so enthusiastically recruited workers from the Commonwealth was that they had nowhere else to get them from.

When the 'racialisation' of British politics emerged fully, some years after the arrival of immigrants from the Commonwealth and the Indian sub-continent, it frequently relied upon a deliberate and insidious denial that there was ever an open invitation from Britain's cabinet ministers and employers to come to this country.

To demolish all the racist myths used by politicians then and now, in their attempt to construct the notion that Britain has a 'race/immigration' problem, it is usually necessary to start with this one simple, and undeniable, fact: that British capitalists, and some sections of the British state, initiated and actively encouraged large scale emigration to Britain from the Caribbean and Indian subcontinent during the 1950s and 1960s.


Workers from the Caribbean and the Indian sub-continent came to Britain


Workers from the Caribbean and the Indian sub-continent came to Britain in the 1950s and 1960s for the same reason that has led workers to migrate throughout the history of capitalism: to find work. Moreover, as with all labour migration, levels of immigration from the Caribbean--and later from the Indian sub-continent--at least to begin with, were always strictly related to the level of demand for labour within the British economy.

There was only a slight 'delay' at each end of cycle as levels of immigration adjusted to changed economic circumstances in Britain. In 1959, for instance, levels of immigration into Britain from the Caribbean were too low to meet the boom of that year but, in 1961 when the boom started to peter out, figures for immigration were geared to suit the situation a few months earlier and were therefore slightly too high in relation to actual job opportunities in Britain.

Post-war immigration into Britain from the Caribbean was drawn mainly from the very poorest Caribbean islands, where conditions were harshest of all both for rural and urban populations. Yet workers still continued to make the journey to Britain when the certainty of a job existed.

A keen awareness of the state of the British labour market existed in the Caribbean and one West Indian migrant into Britain later recalled that 'the South London Press could be brought in Hildage's Drugstore, near West Parade, in downtown Kingston, Jamaica...' This knowledge was also built upon by an informal communications network between migrant workers already settled in Britain and friends and acquaintances back home.

Individual employers in Britain were often known to exploit this informal network in their efforts to recruit labour, as well as paying for advertisements in New Commonwealth countries. However informal much of this process was, it still proved to be an extremely accurate mechanism for meeting labour demand in Britain and immigration levels consistently dropped very quickly after any drop in the number of advertised vacancies.

It was only the racism of Britain's rulers some years later which destroyed this 'natural' relationship between levels of labour migration and the level of demand for labour. In the early 1960s government ministers, as well as private employers, started to recruit directly in the West Indies. These included Enoch Powell, who actively encouraged the migration of medical staff from India and the West Indies during his time as Minister for Health.

The London Transport executive made an agreement with the Barbadian Immigration Liaison Service. Other employers, such as the British Hotel and Restaurant Association, made similar agreements. In the 1950s most Indian migrant workers to arrive in Britain were Sikhs from the rural areas of the Punjab, where the partition of the Punjab between India and Pakistan had created immense pressure on land resources during the 1950s and 1960s, greatly increasing such emigration from then on.

Whatever the specific situation within the economies of the main Commonwealth countries which led different groups of workers to migrate to Britain during the 1950s and 1960s, the overall explanation for all labour migration from the Indian sub-continent, as well as from the Caribbean, was the same--the poverty and unemployment which were a direct result of economic problems caused by years of British colonial exploitation.


Most of the first newcomers to Britain in the 1950s and 1960s tended to settle in areas of low unemployment. Therefore they inevitably gravitated towards major cities, to London in particular, but also to the Midlands and to areas further north, like Bradford.

Contrary to 'popular' and racist mythology, many of the Caribbean workers who came to Britain in the 1950s and 1960s were highly skilled workers, but once here racism ensured that virtually all were forced into semi-skilled or unskilled work--often in those areas which had been partially deserted by the indigenous workforce in favour of the higher pay and better conditions in industries associated with new technology.

With discrimination widespread, nearly all black workers remained in the manual working class with little hope of promotion or mobility. Moreover, when the economy did begin to slow down in the late 1960s, it was black workers who invariably lost their jobs first.

In a period of only 12 weeks during 1956, for instance, unemployment rose from 23 to 400 in Smethwick, the West Midlands town which would later become famous for the notoriously racist election campaign which the Tory candidate ran there in the early 1960s.34 Of those who remained in work, Commonwealth migrants usually did twice the amount of shift work as other workers and on average earned significantly lower wages.

One clear indication that the overwhelming majority of migrants from the Caribbean and Indian sub-continent intended to stay in Britain for only a short period of time is this readiness on the part of most of them to migrate internally within Britain.

New Commonwealth migrants were predominantly young people in their late teens or early twenties and, in the case of Caribbean migration, almost half of those who came to Britain as wage labourers in their own right were single women. Conversely most migrants from the Indian sub-continent were single or married men.

Nearly all members of both groups nevertheless came to Britain with the intention of staying only temporarily, long enough to earn enough money to improve the situation back home once he or she returned to his or her family. Where fares had not been loaned directly by employers to prospective migrants, workers' fares to Britain were often paid by pooling family resources.


The Dandy comic
The Beano


The comic first appeared on 26 July 1938 and was published weekly. During the Second World War, The Beano and The Dandy were published on alternating weeks due to paper and ink rationing. D.C. Thomson's other publications also suffered with the Oor Wullie and The Broons annuals falling victim to paper and ink shortages. Paper and ink supplies were fully restored shortly after the end of hostilities and weekly publication of The Beano and The Dandy soon followed. As of 2007, over 3000 issues have been published. The Beano is currently edited by Alan Digby, who replaced Euan Kerr in summer 2006. Euan Kerr now edits the BeanoMAX, a version of the Beano for older readers.

Its iconic characters such as Dennis the Menace, Minnie the Minx, and The Bash Street Kids have become known to generations of British children. Earlier generations will remember other notable characters which have been phased out, such as Biffo.

Some old characters have made a return like Lord Snooty. The comics were distributed in some of the British colonies or former colonies as well. Because they were sent by sea mail, they would go on sale some weeks after the date shown on the cover. The comic holds the record for being the world's longest running weekly comic. Dandy.gif When D.C. Thomson's, The Dandy Comic, was released on the 4th December 1937, it broke the mould on the way comics were to appear forever more. Prior to The Dandy Comic, childrens comics were broadsheet in size and not very colourful.

This is to take nothing away from their content, but when compared to The Dandy Comic, and later on, The Beano Comic and The Magic Comic, these broadsheets looked rather staid in comparison. Having said all that, the size wasn't exactly new. The story papers, which had been going for many years, were already tabloid size, it was just new to comics.


Charles Hardin Holley was born in Lubbock, Texas to Lawrence Odell Holley and Ella Pauline Drake on Labor Day, in 1936. The Holleys were a musical family and as a young boy Holley learned to play piano, guitar and violin (his brothers oiled the strings so much that no one could hear him play.) He was always known as Buddy to his family.

In 1949 Buddy made a recording of Hank Snow's 'My Two-Timin' Woman' on a wire recorder "borrowed" by a friend who worked in a music shop (not, as is often reported, a home tape recorder)[citation needed], his first known recording During the fall of that year he met Bob Montgomery in Hutchinson Junior High School.

They shared a common interest in music and soon teamed up as the duo "Buddy and Bob." Initially influenced by bluegrass music, they sang harmony duets at local clubs and high school talent shows. In Lubbock, Holly attended Hutchinson Junior High School, which has a mural honoring him, and Lubbock High School, which has numerous features to honor the late musician. His musical interests grew throughout high school while singing in the Lubbock High School Choir.

Holly turned to rock music after seeing Elvis Presley sing live in Lubbock in early 1955. A few months later, he appeared on the same bill with Presley, also in Lubbock. Holly's transition to rock continued when he opened for Bill Haley & His Comets at a local rock show organized by Eddie Crandall, who was also the manager for Marty Robbins.

As a result of this performance, Holly was offered a contract with Decca Records to work alone, which he accepted. According to the Amburn book, his public name changed from "Holley" to "Holly" on 8 February 1956, when he signed the Decca contract. Among the tracks recorded for Decca was an early version of "That'll Be The Day", which took its title from a phrase that John Wayne's character said repeatedly in the 1956 film, The Searchers.


While “the good old days” could refer to any number of eras, one certainly could make a good case for the 1950s. The 1950s is popularly thought of as a time of uniformity and conformity, also a time when life was good. The war was over; the economy was booming, and wonderful Ozzie and Harriet type families prevailed. But the fifties was much more complex than these observations suggest. Indeed, a lot of the romanticized, nostalgic impressions of that era are rooted in myth.

While it was a time of unusual prosperity and the prevalence of the nuclear family with a stay-at-home mom, the story does not end there. There was also widespread poverty and many women were not happy about being limited to the role of housewife. This decade was also home to McCarthyism, fear of the atomic bomb, and the rise of the civil rights movement.

Many Americans were not happy with traditional roles. Minorities were beginning to collectively and actively protest injustices. The cry for greater attention to human rights at home became louder, and the availability of television provided a new dimension for experiencing what was going on in the country and the world.


phone booth packing


If you don't know what "phone booth packing" means, take a guess. It's what it sounds like : a bunch of people cramming themselves into a phone booth. Sounds pretty silly, huh? Well, to college kids in 1959, it wasn't silly at all. It was the thing to do with all of your friends. It involved getting at lest ten people together and seeing how many you could get to fit into a phone booth. The easy part, though, was that the door could be left open so as long as half of the person was in, it counted.

It began when a South African college said it had been able to fit twenty-five students into a booth made for one, setting a "world record" that has never been defeated. This set the competition off to a start that very same spring. Before coming to the North America, a group of London University students packed into one of the wide-body booths that were made over there.

Unlike the inventors of this craze, they were only able to fit ninteen even though their booth was bigger. As of early March, cramming sessions were under way on many U.S. and Canadian campuses. Some tried using extra-large fraternity hall phone booths, and a group of Canadian boys was able to jam forty of themselves into one.

However, this was considered cheating, and from then on, usually only standard American sized booths were used to pack people in. Another rule that was soon made was that the phone booth had to be upright. At a junior college in Modesto, California, a phone booth was donated by a phone company and the students turned it on it's side.

They succeeded in going thirty-four people high, but their record was argued as invalid. Some real fun was had in April when seven young men from Fresno College crammed while underwater in a swimming pool. Not to be outdone, though, were theor co-eds who succeeded in jamming eight in the Fresno Hacienda Motel Pool.

A British rule was that one of the inhabitants had to either place a call or answer a ringing phone. While this was soon the case all over Britan, here in America only a few followed that requirement. But something that slowly changed everywhere was the neccessity for planned-packing.

At the beginning of this fad, people would get in a booth like they were stuffing crumpled paper into a drawer. When they wanted to cram as many as possible in, though, they had to be a little bit more sophisticated about it. One of the first planned styles of cramming was sandwhich-style.

Ryerson Tech students in Toronto made this one up, but it was soon disregarded becuse of all the protruding legs coming from the booth. Students from MIT took a "scientific" approach, and were able to seat nineteen carefully and comfortably in a fraternity phone cubicle that was much larger than the regularly used type of booth. But the most efficient by far was the group at St. Mary's College in Moraga, California.

They were encouraged to "Beat South Africa" and almost did. They were the group that came the closest by fitting twenty-two smallish students into a booth with a carefully planned and well-executed crosshatch stacking technique.

This fad began to expire when cramming of a different kind was introduced. Studying for May and June finals meant that students had to concentrate on other things. So when the stuffing stopped, it marked the end of an era, bringing on new things in the sixties.


Radio Caroline


Radio Caroline is a British radio station founded in 1964 by Ronan O'Rahilly to circumvent the record companies' control of popular music broadcasting in the United Kingdom and the BBC's radio broadcasting monopoly.Unlicensed by any government for most of its early life, it was a pirate radio station which only became formally illegal in 1967.

Radio Caroline began test broadcasts during the evening of 27 March 1964, and commenced regular programming at noon the following day, on 28 March.It broadcast from a former Danish ferry, the Fredericia renamed MV Caroline and anchored three miles (5 km) off the coast of Felixstowe, just outside British territorial waters. In April 1964, Radio Atlanta began broadcasting from the MV Mi Amigo, a former coaster anchored off Harwich. Both stations operated independently for several months but the companies' sales operations were later merged. The Caroline moved to an anchorage off Ramsey, Isle of Man and broadcast as Radio Caroline North while the MV Mi Amigo remained off Essex broadcasting as Radio Caroline South.

The British government and the media considered both operations to be pirate radio stations. Both ships remained independently owned until December 1965, when the owners of Radio Caroline North bought Radio Caroline South.

In 1966 the British Postmaster General Ted Short introduced a Bill to Parliament that outlawed unlicensed offshore broadcasting, which became the Marine Offences Act and was enacted on 15 August 1967. The two Radio Caroline ships continued to broadcast with operations controlled from the Netherlands. In March 1968, both ships were towed to the Netherlands by the Wijsmuller tug company because of unpaid bills. On Saturday 13 June 1970 during the last few days of a British general election campaign, Radio Northsea International (RNI) rebranded itself as Radio Caroline International with O'Rahilly's permission.

Caroline jingles and political messages designed to encourage listeners to vote Conservative were broadcast. Medium wave transmissions of RNI from the Mebo II while off the British coast were jammed by the British government, and the jamming continued while the station operated as Radio Caroline, even after the General Election, which the Conservatives won. The station renamed itself RNI on Saturday 20 June, and returned to an anchorage off Scheveningen, after which the jamming ceased. The Mi Amigo was auctioned in 1972 and sold for 20,000 Dutch Guilders and the Fredericia was scrapped.

Mi Amigo was bought by a pirate radio enthusiast with the intention of turning it into an offshore radio museum, before being reacquired by Radio Caroline and anchored off the Netherlands coast. Radio Caroline began intermittently broadcasting, re-launched in 1973 as Radio Seagull, and resumed full-time broadcasting in February 1974. Dutch legislation, enacted in September 1974, closed most of the pirates and Caroline became an LP-based rock station, moved to the English coast and regained a sizable audience in the UK and Europe. During this period most of the station's advertising revenue came from the sale of airtime to Dutch-language stations which time-shared its airtime.

After several years of neglect and damage from grounding incidents, the Mi Amigo sank during a severe storm in March 1980. In 1981, Radio Caroline acquired and began converting the former Icelandic trawler Ross Revenge into a radio ship, using it for broadcasts from August 1983. Once again, a partnership with a Dutch-language station proved fruitful.

On 19 August 1989, the ship was raided and silenced by British and Netherlands authorities. Broadcasts resumed on 1 October of that year and continued on low/moderate power until fuel for the generator ran out on 6 November 1990.

Although no longer broadcasting, the ship remained at sea with a skeleton crew until it finally ran aground on the Goodwin Sands in storms in November 1991. The ship was salvaged and continues to be used for special broadcasts. Radio Caroline currently broadcasts 24 hours a day via the Eutelsat 28A satellite at 28.5°E, via the Internet and by occasional Restricted Service Licence. Radio Caroline broadcasts music from the 1960s to contemporary, with an emphasis on album-oriented rock (AOR). The company also licenses other stations around the world to use the Radio Caroline name.


Elvis Presley


January 8, 2008 would have been Elvis Presley's 73rd birthday. Yet to fans,Elvis will always be the sleek fellow with the wild hips and the mellow singing voice. Fifties Web pays tribute to Elvis Presley, the true King of Rock and Roll. Elvis Presley is The King of Rock-n-Roll and to this day people still buy his music. Even though he passed away 30 years ago, he continues to be worth several million dollars. Elvis was a legend and no other rock star has ever come close to filling his shoes.

Many people are absolutely obsessed with Elvis, but many of them don't know these little known facts. Little Known Facts about Elvis #1: In Both the Rock-n-Roll Hall of Fame and Country Music Hall of Fame While Elvis was The King of Rock-n-Roll, he also had several country music hits as well. Not only is he in the Rock-n-Roll Hall of Fame and the Country Music Hall of Fame, he's even in the Gospel Music Hall of Fame.

Little Known Facts about Elvis #2: Won Three Grammy Awards, but None of Them Were for Rock Music. This is one of the most shocking facts. Elvis won three Grammy Awards, but all of them were for his gospel music. The fact that The King of Rock-n-Roll never won an Grammy Award for his rock music is unbelievable.

Little Known Facts about Elvis #3: Had Plastic Surgery in the Mid-1970s Another shocker is that Elvis had plastic surgery in the mid-1970s. He had two full face-lifts and rhinoplasty surgery. During this time he would have been around 40 years old. Its hard to believe that he actually needed these surgeries. Little Known Facts about Elvis #4: Was the Biggest Tax Payer in 1973.

There's no denying the fact that Elvis was filthy rich, but many people have no idea that he was the biggest tax payer in 1973. Little Known Facts about Elvis #5: Made the First Ever Music Video "Jailhouse Rock" was the first ever music video. Little Known Facts about Elvis #6: Had $5 Million in His Bank Account When He Died In August 1977, Elvis had $5 million in his bank account.

That is quite impressive, but it's nothing compared to what he is currently worth. Little Known Facts about Elvis #7: Was Worth $45 Million in 2004 It may seem like a strange fact, but Elvis was worth more after his death than he was during his lifetime. In 2004, Forbes listed him as the #1 richest deceased person, with a worth of $45 million. Little Known Facts about Elvis #8: Only Performed Two Concerts Outside of the US.


Jukebox 1950


Coin-operated music boxes and player pianos carved out a place for automatic pay-per-tune music in fairgrounds, amusement parks and other public places (such as train stations in Switzerland) a few decades before the introduction of reliable coin-operated phonographs. The first jukebox was an automatic phonograph produced in 1927 by Rowe International, then known as AMI.

Some of these automatic musical instruments were extremely well built and have survived to this day in the hands of collectors and museums. But commercially they could not compete with the jukebox in the long run since they were limited to the instrument (or instruments) used in their construction, and could not reproduce the human voice.

The immediate ancestor of the jukebox, called the "Coin-slot phonograph", was the first medium of sound recording encountered by the general public, before mass produced home audio equipment became common. Such machines began to be mass produced in 1889, using phonograph cylinders for records. The earliest machines played but a single record (of about 2 minutes of music or entertainment), but soon devices were developed that allowed customers to choose between multiple records.

In the 1910s the cylinder gradually was superseded by the gramophone record. The term "juke box" came into use in the United States in the 1930s, derived either from African-American slang "jook" meaning "dance" or from a name given to it by critics who said it would encourage criminal behavior, this came from the fake family name Juke. The shellac 78 rpm record dominated jukeboxes until the Seeburg Corporation introduced an all 45 rpm vinyl record jukebox in 1950.

The hula hoop is a toy hoop, usually made of plastic, that is twirled around the waist, limbs, or neck. Although the exact origins of hula hoops are unknown, children around the world have played with hoops, twirling, rolling and throwing them throughout history. Traditional materials for hoops include grapevines and stiff grasses. Today, they are often made of plastic. In Egypt around 3,000 years ago, hoops made out of grape vines were propelled around the ground with sticks.

The word "hula" was added in the early 18th century as sailors who visited Hawaii noticed the similarity between hula dancing and tripping hoops. From 1954, for generations of children, Saturday morning was one of the great highlights of the week. Although the weekday "Children's Hour" provided rich entertainment for those between the ages of potty and puberty , Uncle Mac's selection of record requests was something very special: you might even hear your name being read out! Sheer bliss!!!

His opening words "Hello Children Everywhere!" and the string orchestra signature tune of 'Puffing Billy', became symbols of the Fifties every bit as evocative as Dan Dare, Meccano and grey flannel shorts. Children's Hour—at first: "The Children's Hour", from a verse by Longfellow—was the name of the BBC's principal recreational service for children (as distinct from "Broadcasts to Schools") during the period when radio dominated broadcasting.

Children's Hour was broadcast from 1922 to 1964, originally from the BBC's Birmingham station 5IT, soon joined by other regional stations, then in the BBC Regional Programme, before transferring to its final home, the new BBC Home Service, at the outbreak of World War II. Parts of the programme were also rebroadcast by the BBC World Service.

For the last three years of its life (until 27 March 1964), the title Children's Hour was no longer used, the programmes in its "time slot" going out under the umbrella heading of For the Young. In the United Kingdom, Children's Hour was broadcast from 5pm to 6pm on weekdays, this being a time when children could be expected to be home from school, and was aimed at an audience aged about 5 to 15 years: in its earliest years, at least, the concept of the "teenager" had scarcely been invented.

Programming was imbued with Reithian virtues, and Children's Hour was often criticised, like "Auntie" BBC itself, for paternalism and middle-class values. It was nonetheless hugely popular, and its presenters were national figures, their voices instantly recognisable. Derek McCulloch was closely involved with the programme from 1926, and ran the department from 1933 until 1950 when he had to resign for health reasons.


Dan Dare is a classic British science fiction comic


Dan Dare is a classic British science fiction comic hero. The comic hero was first created by Frank Hampson in his "Dan Dare - Pilot Of The Future" science-fiction strip-cartoon series in 1950. The series was distinguished by its snappy dialogues, meticulously illustrated artwork and complex story lines.

The popularity and quality of the comic series remained high throughout the 1950s. Initially, Dan Dare was surrounded by a varying cast of characters that included Digby, Professor Peabody, Hank Hogan, Sondra and Sir Hubert Guest. The series was also aired five times a week on Radio Luxembourg during 1950s. Dan Dare appeared in the first issue of "2000 AD" magazine in 1977.

The strip got a major changeover in 1987 and became more like a space opera. Dan sported a "tough guy" look and led a team of space commandos. Dan Dare starred in a series of three computer games during the 1980s. The series featured spacecrafts of various designs as products of the inhabitants of other planets. Later an experimental time-traveling ship "Tempus Frangit" was also introduced into the series.


It is amazing to consider that from 1940 to 1962 France was almost continually at war. With the exception of the brief interlude of 1945 to 1947 - hardly itself a period of social stability within France - World War and wars of colonial control merged into one another. On one level, this is hardly surprising. After all, the Second World War was, as the three-way carve-up at the end of it showed, as much about control of colonies and resources for the World's major powers, as it was about stopping Fascism. Indeed, a majority of battles involving European armies took place in areas outside of mainland Western Europe (North Africa, South Eastern Europe, the Far East, etc.).

This is not to belittle the suffering imposed upon French and other European peoples by the War, only to make a link between this experience and the events which followed Liberation and rebuilding. For there can be no greater irony in French contemporary history than that of the move from being an oppressed nation to quickly becoming an oppressor.

This was to be the background to the modernisation and rebuilding of France which took place across the 1950s. On the day the Second World War officially ended (8 May 1945), French troops stationed in Sétif, in North-Eastern Algeria, fired on demonstrators killing somewhere between fifteen and fifty thousand unarmed protestors.

A similar repression took place in Madagascar two years later. Indeed, there were more Algerians killed by French colonial control between 1945 and 1955, than French people killed by the Nazi Occupation. Many of those involved in gallantly fighting Fascism and for France's Liberation (in the FTP, and other organisations) were quick to recognise this irony, as they were drafted in 1947 to French Indochina (now Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam) to quell the local insurgents.

Though rarely referred to, this bitter war of decolonisation has had numerous repercussions in history since. First and foremost, France's failure to deal with the Communist-backed movement led to the United States becoming involved in the 1960s, leading to the Vietnam War and the tumultuous events of the 1960s.

More importantly for France, its inability to suppress Indochina's desire for self-determination (symbolised most directly by the humiliating 1954 defeat at Dien Bien Phu, at the hands of far superior Viet-Cong forces) was to ignite the colonial situation around the World. Within months of Dien Bien Phu, a war of independence, set to become the most bloody in colonial history, was declared in the Aurès mountains in Southern Algeria.

It was a war which, like the 'guerre franco-française' during the Occupation in which French fought French, was to split France in two. It also set the tone for the way in which those of North-African origin are treated in France today.P M Chlids.


The blues 1950


There is precious little evidence that the commercially inspired fusion of black and white music that lay at the heart of rock and roll has made a significant contribution to inter-racial understanding or that the new generation of white blues fans has much appreciation of the context of human suffering from which this suddenly trendy music evolved.

Still as they see the promise of socio-economic advancement that was once assumed to be nothing less than their national birthright give way to diminished hopes and frustrated expectations, a number of Americans of every race in every region may one day come to appreciate the difference between hearing the blues and feeling them.

If so, just as the blues once so clearly chronicled the failure of Delta society to live up to its ideals (or to celebrate ideals, consistent with the life experiences of the majority of its members), their remarkable musical legacy may eventually transcend geographic boundaries and racial barriers to focus critical popular attention on the discrepancies between the real and ideal in not only regional but national life as well.”


Vintage television set 1950


As a 23-year-old German university student, Nipkow proposed and patented the first electromechanical television system in 1884. Although he never built a working model of the system, variations of Nipkow's spinning-disk "image rasterizer" for television became exceedingly common, and remained in use until 1939. Constantin Perskyi had coined the word television in a paper read to the International Electricity Congress at the International World Fair in Paris on August 25, 1900. Perskyi's paper reviewed the existing electromechanical technologies, mentioning the work of Nipkow and others.

However, it was not until 1907 that developments in amplification tube technology, by Lee de Forest and Arthur Korn among others, made the design practical. The first demonstration of the instantaneous transmission of images was by Georges Rignoux and A.

Fournier in Paris in 1909. A matrix of 64 selenium cells, individually wired to a mechanical commutator, served as an electronic retina. In the receiver, a type of Kerr cell modulated the light and a series of variously angled mirrors attached to the edge of a rotating disc scanned the modulated beam onto the display screen. A separate circuit regulated synchronization.

The 8x8 pixel resolution in this proof-of-concept demonstration was just sufficient to clearly transmit individual letters of the alphabet. An updated image was transmitted "several times" each second. In 1911, Boris Rosing and his student Vladimir Zworykin created a television system that used a mechanical mirror-drum scanner to transmit, in Zworykin's words, "very crude images" over wires to the "Braun tube" (cathode ray tube or "CRT") in the receiver.

Moving images were not possible because, in the scanner, "the sensitivity was not enough and the selenium cell was very laggy". On March 25, 1925, Scottish inventor John Logie Baird gave the first public demonstration of televised silhouette images in motion, at Selfridge's Department Store in London. AT&T's Bell Telephone Laboratories transmitted halftone still images of transparencies in May 1925.

On June 13 of that year, Charles Francis Jenkins transmitted the silhouette image of a toy windmill in motion, over a distance of five miles from a naval radio station in Maryland to his laboratory in Washington, D.C., using a lensed disk scanner with a 48-line resolution.

However, if television is defined as the live transmission of moving images with continuous tonal variation, Baird first achieved this privately on October 2, 1925. But strictly speaking, Baird had not yet achieved moving images for his scanner worked at only five images per second, below the threshold required to give the illusion of motion, usually defined as at least 12 images per second. By January, he had improved the scan rate to 12.5 images per second.

Then on January 26, 1926 Baird gave what is widely recognized as being the world's first demonstration of a working television system, to members of the Royal Institution and a newspaper reporter from The Times, at his laboratory in 22 Frith Street, Soho, London. Unlike later electronic systems with several hundred lines of resolution, Baird's vertically scanned image, using a scanning disk embedded with a double spiral of lenses, had only 30 lines, just enough to reproduce a recognizable human face.


Baird first radio


In 1927, Baird transmitted a signal over 438 miles (705 km) of telephone line between London and Glasgow. In 1928, Baird's company (Baird Television Development Company/Cinema Television) broadcast the first transatlantic television signal, between London and New York, and the first shore-to-ship transmission. He also demonstrated an electromechanical color, infrared (dubbed "Noctovision"), and stereoscopic television, using additional lenses, disks and filters. In parallel, Baird developed a video disk recording system dubbed "Phonovision"; a number of the Phonovision recordings, dating back to 1927, still exist.

In 1929, he became involved in the first experimental electromechanical television service in Germany. In November of the same year, Baird and Bernard Natan of Pathé established France's first television company, Télévision-Baird-Natan. In 1931, he made the first outdoor remote broadcast, of the Epsom Derby. In 1932, he demonstrated ultra-short wave television.

Baird's electromechanical system reached a peak of 240-lines of resolution on BBC television broadcasts in 1936 though the mechanical system did not scan the televised scene directly. Instead a 17.5mm film was shot, rapidly developed and then scanned while the film was still wet. On November 2, 1936 the BBC began transmitting the world's first public television service from the Victorian Alexandra Palace in north London following alternate daily test broadcasts of the Baird and Marconi systems to the Radio Show at Olympia at the end of August.

It therefore claims to be the birthplace of television broadcasting as we know it today. The intermediate film system was discontinued within three months in favour of a 405-line all-electronic system developed by Marconi-EMI. Herbert E. Ives and Frank Gray of Bell Telephone Laboratories gave a dramatic demonstration of mechanical television on April 7, 1927.

The reflected-light television system included both small and large viewing screens. The small receiver had a two-inch-wide by 2.5-inch-high screen. The large receiver had a screen 24 inches wide by 30 inches high. Both sets were capable of reproducing reasonably accurate, monochromatic moving images. Along with the pictures, the sets also received synchronized sound.

The system transmitted images over two paths: first, a copper wire link from Washington to New York City, then a radio link from Whippany, New Jersey. Comparing the two transmission methods, viewers noted no difference in quality. Subjects of the telecast included Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover.

A flying-spot scanner beam illuminated these subjects. The scanner that produced the beam had a 50-aperture disk. The disc revolved at a rate of 18 frames per second, capturing one frame about every 56 milliseconds. (Today's systems typically transmit 30 or 60 frames per second, or one frame every 33.3 or 16.7 milliseconds respectively.) Television historian Albert Abramson underscored the significance of the Bell Labs demonstration:

"It was in fact the best demonstration of a mechanical television system ever made to this time. It would be several years before any other system could even begin to compare with it in picture quality." Meanwhile in the Soviet Union, Léon Theremin had been developing a mirror drum-based television, starting with 16 lines resolution in 1925, then 32 lines and eventually 64 using interlacing in 1926, and as part of his thesis on May 7, 1926 he electrically transmitted and then projected near-simultaneous moving images on a five foot square screen. By 1927 he achieved an image of 100 lines, a resolution that was not surpassed until 1931 by RCA, with 120 lines.


Bill Barilko


In 1950-51, The National Hockey League saw the last of Bill Barilko but the hockey gods kept everything in check by ushering in three future Hockey Hall of Fame players. Barilko tragically left the game in the prime of his career and as a champion. The three future stars entering the league were eased in by their respective clubs. Bill Barilko played in 58 games on the point for the Toronto Maple Leafs during the 1950-51 regular season.

It was his fifth season in the NHL, all with Toronto. The year ended with Barilko scoring the overtime goal against the Montreal Canadiens that won the Stanley Cup for the Maple Leafs. It was Bill's fourth Stanley Cup in his five years. He played a total of 252 regular season NHL games over his career with an additional 47 playoff matches. Barilko was killed in the summer of 1951 in a small plane crash in Northern Ontario. Alex Delvecchio played just one game with the Detroit Red Wings in 1950-51.

He went on to play 1550 regular season games with the team over his career that lasted until the end of the 1973-74 season. The ‘gentleman' won the Lady Byng Trophy on three occasions. He was part of three Stanley Cup winning teams in Detroit. Delvecchio was inducted into the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1977 and his number 10 was retired by the Red Wings in 1991. Jean Beliveau out-played Delvecchio by one game in 1950-51 as a member of the Montreal Canadiens. He would play 1124 more in a Canadiens jersey over a career that lasted until the end of the 1970-71 season.

Over his 18 full seasons in the NHL, Beliveau was part of ten Stanley Cup winning teams. He won the Art Ross Trophy and Conn Smythe Trophy once each while winning the Hart Memorial Trophy as the NHL's MVP twice. Jean entered the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1972 and his number 4 was retired immediately after his career ended in 1971. Bernie Geoffrion played just 18 games for the Montreal Canadiens in 1950-51 but played all eleven for the team in the Stanley Cup playoffs that season. He competed in the finals against Bill Barilko that season in a losing effort. The following season, Geoffrion was named the Calder Trophy winner as the NHL's top rookie.

He played with the Canadiens until the end of the 1963-64 season the returned to the NHL for two more seasons in 1966 with the New York Rangers. Bernie won two Art Ross Trophies, one Hart Trophy and was part of six Stanley Cup winning teams. He was the second player to score 50 goals in a season with 50 in 1960-61. Geoffrion entered the Hockey Hall of Fame in 1972 and had his number 5 retired by the Canadiens in 1972.


Father knows best


If you remember the sitcoms of the 1950’s, you might think that the scenes portrayed were fiction. Those of us who lived our childhoods then know better. Father Knows Best, Leave it to Beaver and The Ozzie and Harriet shows were real examples of that time. The family was the center of daily life, children played outside and people frequently left their cars unlocked and their front doors open. It was a safe and carefree time. I consider myself lucky to have these childhood memories.

Dinner was our family’s social time when we gathered to share food and conversation. My father arrived home from work at the same time every day at 5:30 pm. Exactly at 6:00 pm we all sat down at the table for our meal. Conversations included school activities, household chores and upcoming weekend planning. We had no television and, if the radio was playing, it was musical background for our meal.

No one was in a hurry and everyone helped with the clean up. After washing or drying the dishes, I sat down at the kitchen table and worked on homework until it was time for bed. Every week day was like the one before. Every day was wonderfully predictable. My home was a safe haven for the whole family. With my mother in her housedress and apron and my father at the head of the table, my home was as idyllic as the Anderson’s, Cleaver’s or Nelson’s homes.


The idea of television was just budding technology. We would not be able to stop it, but we hadn’t invited it into my home as yet. My after school hours before supper and my weekends and summers were spent outside. I proudly wore my shiny roller skate key on a string around my neck. My skates were not shoe-type roller skates. They were metal with a strap. The key was used to tighten the skates’ grip on the toes of my shoes. After hours of skating up and down the sidewalk, the grip loosened. Therefore, I had to reuse THE KEY to retighten my skates.

My skate key was more of a trophy than a tool to me. Besides skating, there was also sidewalk games to play. I was quite a pro at playing hopscotch which involved drawing a chalk diagram on the sidewalk that included numbers from 0 to 10.

The object was to throw a small stone into each numbered box in succession and then to hop into all the other boxes except the one marked with the stone. I needed balance as on the way back to START, I’d have to bend over the stone on one leg, pick it up and return to the number 1 box without stepping on any lines. I played the game for hours either alone or with neighborhood friends.

These outdoor games kept me moving all the time. They also made me adept at skating, hopping and balancing. This was physical fitness was all about in the 1950’s! During summer vacation, I had months to have fun. In the 1950’s people did not worry about children being gone for hours without cell phones to keep in touch. When the community swimming pool opened for lessons at 7:30am, I’d be there learning strokes and dives shivering in the non-heated pool .

Frequently I stayed at the pool for lunch, grabbing a quick hot dog or bringing a peanut butter and jelly sandwich , so that I would not miss a minute of free swim in the afternoons. I walked or rode my bike, two miles to and from the pool across busy streets and a variety of neighbourhoods.

I was in contact with numerous people, some friends some strangers, yet no one cautioned me about “danger stranger “ or abduction and murder. Swimming to the songs of the 50’s, I enjoyed those afternoons. I knew nothing about sun damage or skin cancer and was proud of my tan. Synchronized swimming to Sha Boom, Sha Boom for hours filled my summer days.

The 1950’s were called the post-war years. The soldiers returned and life resumed. The family bonds were strengthen, families grew. Fathers and mothers had roles in making home-life secure. Pre-television fostered a time for children to use their imaginations, to create activities, to use their bodies. Is good that I can recapture that era in my memories.


fashion 1950’s FLAIRED SKIRT


Ladies particularly substantially altered the way they dressed and introduced on their own in the course of the evolution of an progressively liberated society, females began to favor informal, relaxed garments around traditional dress guidelines and associated formality of preceding decades.

Some of the most admired new trends for ladies in the 1950's incorporated button-up sweaters with uncomplicated necklines, fitted blouses, and total knee-duration skirts. On the other hand, the most prevalent fashion for ladies during this time was dresses. Most dresses had been worn casually, and have been accentuated with circle skirts, halter straps, or modest collars.

Night use dresses seemed soft however daring, coming in numerous pastel hues and accompanied with bold ruffles, tulle trim, and dazzling velvet bows. The fitted evening put on of this time period, which was normally sleeveless or strapless, was also emphasized with sheer silk. Rising increasingly common, the complete skirts of the 1950's needed some type of assistance in order to maximize their seem.

To tackle this problem, Nylon petticoats have been produced solely to be worn in conjunction with complete skirts to produce fullness. Nylon was a favourable content because of its higher good quality and simple care wash. This fullness it designed transformed the skirt who gave absolutely nothing far more than a gentle swish, into a glamorous royal-like flutter.

One more important trend of this period is the swing coat, produced in the final 1940's by Jacques Fath. The silhouette of the swing coat was "made perfectly to cover full skirts, and also perfect for the post war large pregnancy rate".

A different trend in the 1950's was the "trapeze dress: a swinging dress virtually triangular in form and created to be worn with reduced footwear and bouffant hairstyles." The trapeze dress was later modified into a shorter child doll tent fashion gown, which was well-known in the upcoming decade. Possibly one particular of the most traditional trend garments from the 1950's was Christian Dior's H-line of 1954, which consisted of a slender tunic-design suit with a slim skirt.

His other well-liked fashions for the duration of this time period were his A and Y lines. Dior has prolonged been a dominant force in the vogue entire world, particularly in the 1950's. His innovative and typically voluminous garments gave ladies a additional feminine touch. One more designer, Hubert Givenchy developed a Parisian design gown in 1957 which he called the Sack. The Sack started the pattern of straighter-waist dresses. In the beginning, it produced into the "fitted darted sheath gown and later into the loose straight brief shift gown." Coco Chanel was an additional key fashion designer in the 1950's.

In contrast to common total and flouncy skirts, Chanel began developing the boxy, now traditional Chanel suit jackets and skirts in trimmed and textured tweed. The components Chanel chose were often richly textured, which contributed to the finished product's substantial rates. Chanel's silhouette of her suits was fully straight, divinely lined with silk.

Her glimpse was classic, refined, and adorned with particulars. Chanel also accessorized several of her styles with strings of pearls and collarless jackets, both of which had been regarded as trendy in the 1950's. 1 of the most classic developments from the 1950's is the empire line, which was launched in the late 1950's.

This model was applied to dresses and shirts mainly, and was adored by teenagers who looked innocently childlike, hence the coined phrase "baby doll style". Throughout the 1950's, all teenagers have been anticipated to gown like their elders. The empire line was also a striking contrast from what most moms wore at the time, which contributed to its high approval between teenagers in America.


Rock and Rroll dancers 1950’s


Until the 1950's, the term "teenagers" was not generally used, and undoubtedly not a targeted market group. But with a new variety of influences, which includes film, television, rock music, and magazines, teenagers started to be respected and acknowledged in the community. Usually nicknamed the "Room Age", the 1950's was an essential time in history for science and development as effectively. So numerous features of lifestyle altered for the duration of this period, possibly partially attributed to the latest finish of Planet War II.

America had emerged from war with prosperity and a new identity. A new consumer-primarily based society was "forging ahead, assisted by this kind of new developments as the credit score card system" (Baker, six). These progressive ailments however created a equivalent impact on the vogue business: while so several factors in the lives of Americans had been transforming, they stayed clear from the radical, intensive fashions even though preferring the normalcy of regular developments.

For when, becoming typical felt great. An additional large modify in the 1950's was the increased ownership of television sets. Common television packages this kind of as I Enjoy Lucy connected Americans on both sides of the Atlantic, bringing a sense of unity in the nation.

Segregation was ended in 1954, which brought collectively black and white pupils for the initial time although racial tensions had been even now higher, and also birthed the existence of civil rights leaders these kinds of as Martin Luther King Jr. Continuous fears of communism reaching the states held many Americans tight with worry.

More improvements introduced forth in the 1950's consist of the discovery of DNA, the launching of the 1st space satellite, an improve of females in the function subject, and of course, rock and roll. All of these financial, social, and political alterations in the planet impacted the American citizens, and therefore the vogue marketplace.

Regardless of the world's issues, the leading fashions that drove the marketplace were far more influenced by those who had been idolized by the customers: celebrities. Some of the most preferred celebrities in the 1950's involve Marilyn Monroe, James Dean, Ricky Nelson, and of program, Elvis Presley. Marilyn Monroe's alluring yet easy style was a broadly imitated across America, by females of all shapes and sizes. Elvis Presley was one more enormous impact in the 1950's not only was he adored by millions of women, but he was also an inspiration for males. In a time in which men only wore standard attire, Elvis tore down all barriers which confined males to navy fits and ties.

Elvis generally wore outfits that had been much more common amongst the African American population. His wild pegged pants and zoot suits anxious the conservative local community of America, who hardly approved of these kinds of a "gender bending, race-integrating star" (Resource). Elvis' bright and baggy apparel, make-up, and so termed obscene dancing all acted as evidence of his single handed destruction of the morals of America's youth. Not all males adopted the examples Elvis set however. In reality, far more men in this time time period dressed conventionally than not.

Glamour 1950 style


Most males in the 1950's maintained outfits with casual and modest shades, like darkish blue, dark brown, and charcoal. The occasional daring youthful man would use pastel pink to stand out a trend that was just gaining momentum in the 1950's. Cardigan sweaters were well-liked amongst athletes, and older males. On top of that popular were fitted vests, plaid flannels, and collared jackets. There was flexibility in men's informal put on, and was a typical sight to see shirt tails sticking out. Fundamental fedora-design hats were also a staple item in the 1950's for males.

Hats had been also trendy accessory for girls in the 1950's, for the motive that they have been considered to add a last touch of glamour to any woman's outfit. The pillbox hat, very first launched by Balenciaga and later modeled by Jackie Kennedy, grew to become a single of the trendiest accessories of the decade. Many glorious hat models existed in the 1950's. Some hats have been covered in flower petals, although other folks had been adorned with swirls of georgette.

Gloves had been also worn generally by females, particularly people of elite social position. Some were produced of cotton, which was very much additional reasonably priced than leather or nylon. Although gloves came in several shades and types, clear gloves whose color was white or cream had been the most favored. Fur trimmings and adorned collars have been also very trendy. Brooches also, have been regarded as a glamorous accessory.

The 1950's was a decade in which fashion transformed significantly from earlier generations. Numerous influences from political debates, to economic troubles, to new age celebrities and mass media all influenced the unique styles and trends which determine the 1950's. Recovering from the casualties of Entire world War II brought a lasting modify to America, which was reflected in the fashions of this decade.

The American ladies craved glamorous simplicity in their new lives, and as a new and liberated society advanced, the ladies of America started to liberate on their own by deciding on which fashions they felt depicted them finest. Not only had been the 1950's essential in history, but they also significantly transformed the encounter of vogue in America.


'Golden Age' of motor racing 1950s


The 1950's is widely regarded as the 'Golden Age' of motor racing. Lots of teams and drivers to participate in turns in the arena of race in this era. Gilera team, Norton, MV Agusta in turn take the riders to be world champion. End of the 1950s was also marked by the first entry of Japanese manufacturers, Honda. Honda started their partnership with Castrol oil producer in 1958 and realized in 1959 in their debut in the 125cc race at the Isle of Man.

1957 marked the end of the Golden Era in Grand Prix motorcycle racing. There has been an impressive range of engines for competition in 1950, including team performance from AJS, Norton, Gilera, MV Agusta, Moto Guzzi, and BMW. That was six manufacturers who took part with a single engine, twin and four cylinder. Also included Nortons and Matchless that make the competition in full color.

Then the Italian company "dropped bombs" by announcing that they would withdraw from the race in late summer 1957, associated with increased costs and reduced sales quote motorcycle. MV Agusta initially threatened to go before it to reconsider. The company will go to claim the crown 17 consecutive 500cc class. 1957 also marks a new era in other things such as banning the disposal fairings because of the danger of instability in the face of the wind from the side.

Other changes are the introduction of two-step machine in the competition. An East German company, named MZ, placed in a race at the Nurburgring though some view, the two-step machine as a threat to the might of a four-step process. Scoring system in 1949 season is 10 points for first place, 8 for second place, 7 for third place, 6 for fourth place, and 5 for fifth place, plus 1 point for fastest lap. In 1950 scoring system for fastest lap abolished and given to sixth place racer. The first place racer given 8 points. Second place racer given 6 points. Third place racer given 4 points. Fourth and fifth place racer given 3 and 2 points.



The name jukebox is said to be derived from African languages. Some think that Juke comes from the African word jooy which means wicked. Others say that it comes from the word joog which means dance. Without live acts jukeboxes became one of the best things to get people up dancing for nearly a century now.

People loved the music to be found on them and anybody who wants to pay for the privilidge is in control of what everybody in the room is listening to. The invention brought them closer to their favorite artists. The ones they like to know their songs by heart. Jukebox manufacturers were well aware that folk will always love to have the most well known and successful music on jukeboxes.

The more successful the artist and his track are the more likely it is for them to be on the playlist and be selected over and over again. Making a jukebox with popular selections more profitable for the bar or cafe owners and for the rental agencies. Many songs have been played on them over the years, and still lingered in the memories with the help of jukeboxes. Sadly it's said that their golden era is now over.

Yet many public places still have them and you can play the most popular music on them and even sometimes find old favourites like Bohemian Rhapsody or Living On A Prayer. To pick all time favorites that have been played as jukebox hits is a very difficult task as many songs are in the memories of a lot of people out there.

Everybody would have their own personal list and often very different from anybody elses. As full size bold and colourful jukeboxes are the most evocative of the 1950s the following is a list of some of the all time favourites that would have been selected danced, sung to and enjoyed in bars, diners and cafes all over the world during the 1950s.

Picture the guys dressed in jeans and white t shirts with their hair styled with plenty of grease to make a DA or Duck's Butt and the pony tailed girls wearing bobby sox and poodle skirts. We've got the 50s feel so let's select the tracks that would have been popular on the 50s rock and roll jukebox.


1950s America

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