In 1945, World War II ended. By 1946, American servicemen began returning home to start up the families they had had to put on hold for 4 years. Thus began the unusually large bubble in the population curve of America known as the Baby Boom, as gazillions of babies were born all of a sudden in the span of five to ten years. Remember that all those babies born in 1946-1947 would be 18 in 1964-1965 (and eventually 22 and out of college, and into the marketplace in the early '70's, to kick off the Me Decade).

What that means is that American society would suddenly find itself catering to a generation of young people in a way that had never occurred before. Sixties rock finds its roots in several places, starting as far back as the big swing bands of the pre-war era that the 60's kids' parents listened to as youngsters: Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, Count Basie, Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, and Duke Ellington's bands are some of the most famous.

Except for Duke Ellington, all those bands were primarily dance bands, with big swinging backbeats. You can still hear some of their greatest hits today in such unusual places as the Chips Ahoy commercial (1,000 chips in every bag). There were also the smaller, “rhythm combo” groups, usually of only four or five players. Their tunes were popular on the jukeboxes of the day, but were not considered artistically important which is why we have mostly forgotten them today. The recent Broadway show “Five Guys Named Moe,” which highlights the career of Louis Jordan, tells about one of the most popular rhythm combos of the day.

Nat King Cole also had a small jazz combo that had popular success, before he became a Sinatra-style pop ballad singer in the '50's. Then there was Country & Western--especially what was called “Texas Swing,” of which Bob Wills & the Texas Playboys was the king. Hank Williams Sr. was another important singer/songwriter of that era and genre. Over in Memphis there was Sam Phillips and his Sun Studios, where rockabilly and Elvis Presley were born.

Besides Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Roy Orbison all began their recording careers at Sun Studios. Two other sources of modern rock'n'roll, absolutely essential to the sound we think of as 60's rock, were, first, the Blues. Blues began as the music of black sharecroppers in the poor cotton-farming region of the Mississippi Delta, and traveled north to Chicago with the sharecroppers as thousands of them moved north in search of a better life. It was in Chicago that the blues went from acoustic solo guitar music to electric guitar-electric bass-drums combos.

Muddy Waters, Little Milton, B.B. King, and Howlin' Wolf were just a few of these important Chicago blues artists. The last source of modern rock'n'roll is actually a single man. Les Paul was a studio whiz and guitar player who designed the Gibson Les Paul electric guitar, and pioneered the technique of overdubbing, allowing one person to play more than one part on a recording. Working with his wife Mary Ford, who sang the vocal parts, Les Paul created a series of two-person recordings that sounded like an entire band was playing--and the music was all guitar-based. Copyright 1998 Jack Madani.



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1940's Hollywood


1940's Hollywood was undergoing a bout with subconscious guilt over the film industries depiction of racial and religious minorities in cinema. Or, was it just another avenue of profit to be explored. This was and is still subject for debate. The motion picture industry was about to enter a period that some would call courageous while others would denounce it. By the late 1940's, Hollywood studios began developing a number of films that proposed to address the problems of racial justice, or injustice. With regard to accurately depicting minorities in pictures, any film studio would face almost insurmountable obstacles when trying to make an honest social statement.

In 1946, Dore Schary purchased the rights to Richard Brooks's wartime novel The Brick Foxhole. The book dealt with the subject of homosexuality, a subject that was generally considered to be taboo and undesirable for filmmaking. Schary changed the theme of the story to the equally undesirable subject of anti-Semitism. The resulting film was the 1947 Film Noir classic "Crossfire" starring the popular trio of Robert Young, Robert Mitchum, and Robert Ryan. The films considerable success helped open the door for social sensitive issues in motion pictures. Stanley Kramer followed by purchasing the rights to the play Home of the Brave, which also dealt with anti-Semitism. However, Kramer replaced the Jewish hero of the story with an African American hero.

The film was cheaply made and earned a lot of money, Stanley Kramer was now a rising force in Hollywood, and the public's paranoid fear of the film inciting race riots never materialized. Both Dore Schary and Stanley Kramer had come to recognize that traditional taboos against racial and religious injustice were weakening, and they had the courage to act on their realization.

However, the profitability of this new type of social film caused bottom-line hungry Hollywood to produce a glut of these films offering varying quality. Many contributed positively, speaking out against unresolved racial and religious dilemma's, while others hedged on their efforts and were purely revenue motivated.

The most notable of these motion pictures were Gentleman's Agreement, Lost Boundaries, Pinky, Intruder in the Dust, and No Way Out. Inevitably, the mass production of this type of film proved to be too much of a good thing. Public interest was quickly exhausted and the productions came to an abrupt end.


Casablanca Film 1940s


It was hard to believe that just after what was thought to be Hollywood's greatest decade there seemed to be such lost promise. With the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, and the resulting outbreak of World War II, the American film industry suffered a slump during the early part of the 1940s. As it did following the Great Depression, Hollywood would have to again find a formula for survival. The world was in turmoil, and oddly enough, it would be this very same War that helped start Hollywood on its comeback. In an effort to support the national war effort, Hollywood studios began producing a large number of movies that became war-time favourites.

One of the classic motion pictures of all-time was also a subtle wartime propaganda film Casablanca, was released in 1942. Many stars of the time enlisted in the Armed Forces, or provided entertainment for the troops, resulting in a large boost in morale for both the military and the general public. These war related efforts showed immediate results, as major movie studio profits began to grow to record levels. As the war drew to an end, so did the number of films produced that were war related.

However, the influence of World War II has a permanent residence in the history of the motion picture industry. Some of the most memorable war-time classics would include Guadalcanal Diary, Bataan, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo, The Story of G.I. Joe, They Were Expendable, A Walk In The Sun, and a great many more. There were also a number of pictures dedicated to portraying life after war for the returning veteran. One of the most well-known of these stories is also one of the best films in motion picture history - The Best Years of Our Lives. This multi-Oscar winning picture (including Best Picture) touched the hearts and lives of all Americans.

The 1940's also brought refinement to the art of film making, with technological improvements in sound recording, lighting, color usage, and special effects. These production advances made film-watching a much more enjoyable activity leading the way to record setting profits from 1943-1946. The light, escapist entertainment offered by Hollywood musicals during the 1940's skyrocketed their appeal, and a new breed of directors and stars rose to prominence.

It seemed that once again Hollywood had withstood a great challenge and survived to flourish. Some however, realized that right before their eyes the greatest threat to Hollywood's dominance of the entertainment industry was busily developing. The popularity of television was growing by leaps and bounds. 


Movie stars 1940s


Having to once again endure war years, Hollywood, and its top film stars of the 1940's, continued to provide quality entertainment to their audience. Although the early part of the decade provided financial challenges to the entire nation, Americas desire for entertainment was still in great demand. In an effort to meet the demand, and continue with its Golden Era, Hollywood was once again successful in providing a number of talented new stars and producing many popular films.

One of the most iconic movie stars of this period, or any peried, was Bette Davis. Davis has been regarded by numerous feminist historians as one of the most influential actresses in leading the way for more important and meaningful women's roles on the silver screen. Her film accomplishments are legendary, having won two Best Actress Awards for her roles in Jezebel (1938) and Dangerous (1940). She would also receive five more Oscar nominations for her performances in Dark Victory (1940), The Letter (1941), The Little Foxes (1942), Now Voyager (1943) and Mr. Skeffington (1944). Her talent has firmly established Bette Davis as one of the most honored and respected actresses in Hollywood history.

During the 1940's, Davis would become one of Hollywood's highest paid actresses, and used her notoriety and wealth to contribute greatly to supporting the World War II effort by assisting the Hollywood Canteen's programs for GI's who passed through the Los Angeles area. Another 1940's film icon, and one of Hollywood's most popular stars, was the great Humphrey Bogart. During this decade, Bogart deservedly earned his reputation in Hollywood as one of their most talented and hardest working stars.

Bogart's impact on the silver screen was huge. Some of his more notable staring roles included High Sierra (1941), The Maltese Falcon (1941), and the classic war time propaganda film Casablanca (1942). His role in Casablanca would earn him an Oscar nomination for Best Actor, launching him into stardom and making him the highest paid actor in Hollywood. Some of Humphrey Bogart's most popular roles were those in which he teamed up with actress Lauren Bacall.

The most notable being To Have and Have Not (1944), The Big Sleep (1946), Dark Passage (1947), and the famous and memorable Key Largo (1948). The success of their screen pairing carried over to their personal lives as the two stars would eventually be married and come to be recognized as the "star power couple" of Hollywood.

Another movie fan favourite to kick off a very successful film career in the 1940's was femme fatale Rita Hayworth. Although she began making films during the 1930's, it was her role in Gilda (1946) that put her on the map as major movie star and sex symbol. With one little strip of a glove, while dancing in Gilda, she managed to cement her image into American film audiences. This audience would continue their love affair with the beautiful actress in the black satin dress with that sultry, wavy auburn hair for many years to come.


ADOLF HITLER


While Hitler’s service in the Bavarian Army during World War I he saw the great power of War Propaganda especially as applied by the allies. He clearly understood the fact that the Central Powers especially Austria and Germany did not manage to use propaganda in a skilled manner and the Allies on the contrary used it excellently. Irrespective of which side of the war used propaganda in the most provident way, the important fact here is that Hitler had find out something that he would later apply to his Third Reich’s benefit. His War propaganda expert in the World War II became Dr.

Joseph Goebbles. Hitler found out that creating what mainly added up to be a lie being changed to sound as if it were the simple truth, and subsequently direct this simple lie to people which were uneducated, or at least to those he supposed had no education or most defenceless, it could let him manipulate the feelings and emotions of people to make them correspond to what he wanted. Under uneducated people Hitler understood those who had no knowledge of the subject matter in which the propaganda is contained. One of the most Iconic years in British History was 1940 when The Battle Of Britain was fought against the Luftwaffe.

The reader must remember our parents and grand parents were involved or lived through the war and during my growing up in the 1960's the war was a very big thing to British families and a lot of my teachers in the 1960's and 1970's were in the Army, Royal Navy or RAF during the Second World War. The Battle of Britain was the first major campaign to be fought entirely by air forces and was also the largest and most sustained aerial bombing campaign to that date.

From July 1940 until October 13th 1940 coastal shipping convoys and shipping centres, such as Portsmouth were the main targets; one month later the Luftwaffe shifted its attacks to RAF airfields and infrastructure. The last true day of The Battle of Britain was on September 15th. 1940. The bombing raids of British cities continued until October 13th 1940. As the battle progressed the Luftwaffe also targeted aircraft factories and ground infrastructure.

Eventually the Luftwaffe resorted to attacking areas of political significance and using terror bombing tactics. The failure of Germany to achieve its objectives of destroying Britain's air defences or forcing Britain to negotiate an armistice or an outright surrender is considered its first major defeat and one of the crucial turning points in the war. While we British were using radar for air defence more effectively than the Germans realised, the Luftwaffe attempted to press its own offensive advantage with advanced radio navigation systems of which we British were initially not aware.

One of these was knickebein ("crooked leg"); this system was used at night and for raids where precision was required. It was rarely used during the Battle of Britain. Towards the end of the Battle of Britain, Britain begun slowly running out of aircraft and pilots. The Germans were targeting airfields and then suddenly changed direction and started to bomb London over a period of days. This gave the RAF time to repair the airfields and replace the damaged aircraft.

If Germany had gained air superiority, Adolf Hitler would have launched operation Sea Lion, which was the amphibious and airborne invasion of Britain. On 15th September two massive waves of German attacks were decisively repulsed by the RAF, with every aircraft of 11 Group being used on that day.

The total casualties on this critical day were 60 German and 26 RAF aircraft shot down. The German defeat caused Hitler to order, two days later, the postponement of preparations for the invasion of Britain. Henceforth, in the face of mounting losses in men, aircraft and the lack of adequate replacements, the Luftwaffe switched from daylight to night-time bombing.

If the Germans had invaded and beaten us Brits then the World would have been completely different and instead of English this article would have been in German and the continent of Europe would have been controlled by Germany ( Not like today then!!! ). On 13th October, Hitler again postponed the invasion "until the spring of 1941"; however, the invasion never happened, and October is regarded as the month regular bombing of Britain ended. It was not until Hitler's Directive 21 was ordered on 18 December 1940, that the threat of invasion finally dissipated.

The Royal Air Force roll of honour for the Battle of Britain recognises 595 non-British pilots (out of 2,936) as flying at least one authorised operational sortie with an eligible unit of the RAF or Fleet Air Arm between 10 July and 31 October 1940. These included 145 Poles, 127 New Zealanders, 112 Canadians, 88 Czechoslovaks, 32 Australians, 28 Belgians, 25 South Africans, 13 French, 10 Irish, 7 Americans and one each from Jamaica, the British Mandate of Palestine and Southern Rhodesia. Winston Churchill summed up the effect of the battle and the contribution of Fighter Command with the words, "Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few".

Pilots who fought in the Battle have been known as The Few ever since. Battle of Britain Day is commemorated in the United Kingdom on 15th September. Within the Commonwealth, Battle of Britain Day is usually observed on the third Sunday in September. In some areas in the British Channel Islands, it is celebrated on the second Thursday in September. Paul Hussey.


WOODEN HORSE escape tunnel


In 1943, authorities at a German POW camp in Poland discovered that three prisoners were missing. A considerable space separated the prisoners’ huts from the perimeter fence, so at first it wasn’t clear how they’d escaped. But the three inmates had something in common — all three had exercised during the day on a vaulting horse in the yard. On investigating, the Germans discovered a 100-foot tunnel leading from that spot to an opening beyond the fence.

The truth became clear. Each day, the prisoners had carried the horse to the same spot with a man hidden inside. While they exercised, the hidden man had used a bowl to lengthen the tunnel, then hid again in the horse as it was carried back inside. The Germans had used siesmographs to detect tunneling, but the prisoners’ vaulting had masked the sounds of their digging. All three escapees — Eric Williams, Michael Codner, and Oliver Philpot — reached neutral Sweden and were reunited with their families. 

The somewhat fictionalised version of the true story is set in Stalag Luft III — the same POW camp where the real events depicted in the film The Great Escape took place, albeit from a different compound – and involved Williams, Michael Codner and Oliver Philpot, all inmates of the camp. In the book and film, the escapees are renamed "Flight Lieutenant Peter Howard", "Captain John Clinton" and "Philip Rowe". The prisoners are faced with the problem of digging an escape tunnel despite the accommodation huts, within which the tunnel entrance could be concealed, being a considerable distance from the perimeter fence. They came up with an ingenious way of digging the tunnel with its entrance located in the middle of an open area relatively near the perimeter fence and using a vaulting horse (constructed largely from plywood from Canadian Red Cross parcels) to cover the entrance.

Recruiting fellow-prisoners to form a team of vaulters, each day they carry the horse out to the same spot, with a man hidden inside. The prisoners begin a gymnastic exercise using the vaulting horse, while the concealed man digs down below the horse. At the finish of the exercises, the digger places wooden boards, cut to fit the aperture, in the hole, and fills the space with sandbags and dry sand kept for the purpose – wet sand taken from below the surface would be darker and hence give away the activities. Eventually, as the tunnel lengthens, two men are hidden inside the horse while a larger group of men exercised, the two men continuing the tunnel digging. At the end of the day, they again conceal the tunnel entrance and hide inside the horse while it is carried back to their hut. They also devise a method of disposing of the earth coming out of the tunnel.

They recruit a third man, Phil, to assist them, with the promise that he will join the escape. At the final break-out, Howard hides in the tunnel during an Appell (roll call), before three men are carried over in the horse: the third to replace the tunnel trap. Howard and Clinton travel by train to the Baltic port of Lübeck; (in fact, they travelled via Frankfurt to Stettin). Phil elects to travel alone, posing as a Norwegian margarine manufacturer and travelling by train via Danzig (now Gdansk). He was the first to make it to neutral territory.

Howard and Clinton contact French workers and through them meet 'Sigmund', a Danish resistance worker who smuggles them onto a Swedish ship. They have to leave by rowing boat and arrive in Copenhagen, before being shipped to Sweden. There they meet Phil, who arrived earlier. Some details from Williams' book were not used in the film, e.g. the escaped POWs discussing the possibility of visiting potentially neutral "whorehouses" in Germany. The idea was abandoned because of fear that it might be a trap.


Kilroy Was Here


There was one person who led or participated in every combat, training or occupation operation during WWII and the Korean War. This person could always be depended on. GI's began to consider him the "super GI." He was one who always got there first or who was always there when they left. I am, of course, referring to Kilroy Was Here. Somehow, this simple graffiti captured the imagination of GI's everywhere they went. The scribbled cartoon face and words showed up everywhere - worldwide. Stories (some even true) abound. The Oxford English Dictionary says simply that Kilroy was "The name of a mythical person".

One theory identifies James J. Kilroy (1902–1962), an American shipyard inspector, as the man behind the signature. The New York Times indicated J.J. Kilroy as the origin in 1946, based on the results of a contest conducted by the American Transit Association  to establish the origin of the phenomenon.[18] The article noted that Kilroy had marked the ships themselves as they were being built—so, at a later date, the phrase would be found chalked in places that no graffiti-artist could have reached (inside sealed hull spaces, for example), which then fed the mythical significance of the phrase—after all, if Kilroy could leave his mark there, who knew where else he could go?

Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable notes this as a possible origin, but suggests that "the phrase grew by accident." The Lowell Sun reported in November 1945, with the headline "How Kilroy Got There", that a 21-year old soldier from Everett, Sgt. Francis J. Kilroy, Jr., wrote "Kilroy will be here next week" on a barracks bulletin board at a Boca Raton airbase while ill with flu, and the phrase was picked up by other airmen and quickly spread abroad.

The Associated Press similarly reported at the same time that according to Sgt. Kilroy, when he was hospitalized early in World War II a friend of his, Sgt. James Maloney, wrote the phrase on a bulletin board. Maloney continued to write the shortened phrase when he was shipped out a month later, and other airmen soon picked up the phrase. Francis Kilroy himself only wrote the phrase a couple of times.

The vast majority of you World War II vets are very familiar with the phrase "Kilroy Was Here" found written just about everywhere on every piece of equipment from Tokyo to Berlin. Quite a few Korean War vets saw it and even some Vietnam vets went through the "Kilroy Was Here" episode. Did you ever wonder how it all got started?

Kilroy was a 46-year old shipyard worker from Halifax, Massachusetts and, during the war, he worked as a checker at the Fore River Shipyard in nearby Quincy. His job was to go around and check on the number of rivets completed. Riveters were on piece-work and got paid by the rivet. Kilroy would count a block of rivets and put a check mark in chalk, so the rivets wouldn't be counted twice. When he went off duty, the riveters would erase the mark. Later on, an off-shift inspector would come through and count the rivets a second time, resulting in double pay for the riveters.

One day Kilroy's boss called him into his office . The foreman was upset about all the wages being paid to riveters, and asked him to investigate. It was then that he realized what had been going on. The tight spaces he had to crawl in to check the rivets didn't lend themselves to lugging around a paint can and brush, so Kilroy decided to stick with chalk. He continued to put his check mark on each job he inspected, but he added "Kilroy Was Here" in king-size letters next to the check. Once he did that , the riveters stopped wiping away his marks.

Ordinarily the rivets and chalk marks would have been covered up with paint. With war on, however, ships were leaving the Quincy yard so fast that there wasn't time to paint them. As a result, Kilroy's inspection "trademark" was seen by thousands of servicemen who boarded the troopships the yard produced. His message apparently rang a bell with the servicemen, because they picked it up and spread it all over Europe and the South Pacific. Before the war's end, "Kilroy" had been here, there, and everywhere on the long haul to Berlin and Tokyo. Along the way, someone added the sketch of the chap with the long nose peering over the fence, and that became part of the Kilroy message.

To the unfortunate troops outbound in those ships, however, he was a complete mystery — all they knew for sure was that he had "been there first." As a joke, U.S. servicemen began placing the graffiti wherever they landed, claiming it was already there when they arrived.
Kilroy became the U.S. super-GI who had always "already been" wherever GIs went. It became a challenge to place the logo in the most unlikely places imaginable (it is said to be atop Mt. Everest, the Statue of Liberty, the underside of the Arch De Triumphe, and even scrawled in the dust on the moon.)

And as the war went on, the legend grew. Underwater demolition teams routinely sneaked ashore on Japanese-held islands in the Pacific to map the terrain for the coming invasions by U.S. troops (and thus, presumably, were the first GIs there). On one occasion, however, they reported seeing enemy troops painting over the Kilroy logo! In 1945, an outhouse was built for the exclusive use of Roosvelt, Stalin, and Churchill at the Potsdam conference. The first person inside was Stalin, who emerged and asked his aide (in Russian), "Who is Kilroy?."

How did we find out who the real "Kilroy" was? In 1946 the American Transit Association, through its radio program, "Speak to America," sponsored a nationwide contest to find the real Kilroy, offering a prize of a real trolley car to the person who could prove himself to be the genuine article. Almost 40 men stepped forward to make that claim, but James Kilroy brought along officials from the shipyard and some of the riveters to help prove his authenticity, and won the trolley car, which he gave it to his nine children as a Christmas gift and set it up in the Kilroy front yard for a playhouse.



The Skylighters were the 800-odd men of the four batteries of the 225th AAA Searchlight Battalion. After training at Camp Davis, North Carolina, the 225th arrived in England just before New Year's Day 1944, and became part of the anti-aircraft defence of England. In mid-June, the Skylighters landed on Omaha Beach and formed part of the defense of Normandy. Thereafter, for most of their dash across France and the Low Countries, the 225th were attached to the 9th Air Force's 422nd and 425th Night Fighter Squadrons, who flew the deadly P-61 Black Widow interceptor against the Luftwaffe.

In their role with the night fighters, the 225th received partial credits on the downing of 36 enemy planes and V-1 buzz bombs. In addition, the battalion's 36 General Electric searchlights were used to put up over 4,000 light canopies that saved countless planes as well as pilots and aircrews that were lost or disabled in night combat in the ETO. Skylighters radar sets were used to vector the Black Widows to their targets time and time again. At war's end, the 225th began training for deployment to the Pacific, and served for a while as part of the Army of Occupation. Following the surrender of Japan, Skylighters began rotating back home, and by December 1945 the unit was disbanded.



It was hard to believe that just after what was thought to be Hollywood's greatest decade there seemed to be such lost promise. With the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor, and the resulting outbreak of World War II, the American film industry suffered a slump during the early part of the 1940s.

As it did following the Great Depression, Hollywood would have to again find a formula for survival. The world was in turmoil, and oddly enough, it would be this very same War that helped start Hollywood on its comeback. In an effort to support the national war effort, Hollywood studios began producing a large number of movies that became war-time favorites.

One of the classic motion pictures of all-time was also a subtle wartime propaganda film Casablanca, was released in 1942. Many stars of the time enlisted in the Armed Forces, or provided entertainment for the troops, resulting in a large boost in morale for both the military and the general public. These war related efforts showed immediate results, as major movie studio profits began to grow to record levels.

As the war drew to an end, so did the number of films produced that were war related. However, the influence of World War II has a permanent residence in the history of the motion picture industry. Some of the most memorable war-time classics would include Guadalcanal Diary, Bataan, Thirty Seconds Over Tokyo,

The Story of G.I. Joe, They Were Expendable, A Walk In The Sun, and a great many more. There were also a number of pictures dedicated to portraying life after war for the returning veteran. One of the most well-known of these stories is also one of the best films in motion picture history - The Best Years of Our Lives. This multi-Oscar winning picture (including Best Picture) touched the hearts and lives of all Americans. The 1940's also brought refinement to the art of film making, with technological improvements in sound recording, lighting, color usage, and special effects.

These production advances made film-watching a much more enjoyable activity leading the way to record setting profits from 1943-1946. The light, escapist entertainment offered by Hollywood musicals during the 1940's skyrocketed their appeal, and a new breed of directors and stars rose to prominence. It seemed that once again Hollywood had withstood a great challenge and survived to flourish. Some however, realized that right before their eyes the greatest threat to Hollywood's dominance of the entertainment industry was busily developing. The popularity of television was growing by leaps and bounds.


Winston Churchill


It is May 10th 1940 and Churchill is Prime Minister of Britain. The BBC, Guardian and other left liberal news outlets publish polls stating that 60 % of Britons believe that the war against fascist Germany cannot be won and that the French are an unworthy ally. The questions used in the poll were inadequate containing ambiguous phraseology but the news outlets don’t report this – just the summary results. Instead the media focuses on the hardships, the trauma and destruction of war and record pessimist Britain’s dismay in defeating the Wehrmacht and supporting the fast collapsing French army. Most of the media is hostile to Churchill, and tired of his bombast.

One of their favorites - Lord Halifax prevented from being Prime Minister because he sits in the Lords and not the Commons - convenes many press conferences informing Britons that appeasement with Hitler is the safest guarantor of the British empire. The media endlessly recycles Halifax’s editorials in which he states that fighting Germany contravenes international and British law, since the Jews and Poles provoked the current conflict. He maintains that the British empire has no reason to interfere in the internal politics of Europe and that the two empires can peacefully coexist.

Such ideas resonate within the media and their polling affiliates. At the end of May 72 % of Britons feel that Halifax’s demand that peace be sought with Germany would be ‘appropriate’. To support the anti-war group the BBC broadcasts the already long list of dead military, the perils of fighting Germany alone, portrays the Americans as avaricious Jewish dominated parasites unwilling to formally aid Britain, and proposes that Europe united under one state and one leader is a historical destiny, quelling troublesome feuds once and for all.

On British state owned TV well known British music stars and actresses are seen meeting with Hitler in attempts to broker a peace settlement, some more of the more raffish lot are photographed sitting atop Panzer tanks and parading in Gestapo uniforms. Many try to convince the British public that continuing the war with Germany would be unconscionable and will kill millions of innocent children and that the British public must stop their domestic military-industrial complex. A top pop song elaborates that ‘Germans love their children too’. Polls in England state that Churchill has only 22 % general support and almost none amongst women, ethnic, environmental groups and gay rights organizations.

Sympathetic documentaries and films are hurriedly shown in England during May and June 1940, in theatres and on state owned TV, pointing out that Hitlerism and Nazism is nothing more than the realization of Germanic ambition and historical destiny. They focus on German discipline, literary and musical achievements and the valid German need for more land. Indeed Hitler is portrayed in such episodes as a great and noble leader, resurrecting a decrepit and shattered Germany. Nazism is depicted in editorials and on campuses as a uber-philosophy and historical life-force, based on great accomplishments, community-love, and national pride – it is the new world order.

The destruction of freedom, life and liberal values are never touched upon. Hitlerism and fascism excites the media and academic elite which publish around the clock, sycophantic essays on the dialectical inevitability of fascist power. While Hitler’s service in the Bavarian Army during World War I he saw the great power of War Propaganda especially as applied by the allies. He clearly understood the fact that the Central Powers especially Austria and Germany did not manage to use propaganda in a skilled manner and the Allies on the contrary used it excellently.

Irrespective of which side of the war used propaganda in the most provident way, the important fact here is that Hitler had find out something that he would later apply to his Third Reich’s benefit. His War propaganda expert in the World War II became Dr. Joseph Goebbles.

Hitler found out that creating what mainly added up to be a lie being changed to sound as if it were the simple truth, and subsequently direct this simple lie to people which were uneducated, or at least to those he supposed had no education or most defenseless, it could let him manipulate the feelings and emotions of people to make them correspond to what he wanted. Under uneducated people Hitler understood those who had no knowledge of the subject matter in which the propaganda is contained.

This was a very effectual technique specifically during the war, because if someone could persuade the enemy that they were in fact losing the war and it does not matter if they were or not in reality, the will of those people would weaken.

During the war propaganda was the idea that truly attracted Hitler’s attention, propaganda was also applied by Hitler in other fields such as persuading the Jews who were on the run in Germany in the time of holocaust to come out and surrender. The lie that Hitler used in this case is that he would merely exile them out of Germany and that the concentration camps were meant only for those of them who committed crimes against the Reich.



What is slang? Slang is awesome and slang is ridiculous. Slang is the bee’s knees, the cat’s pajamas, and the cat’s meow. Slang is far out, groovy, and even dynamite. Slang is bad and sweet, hot and cool, and hip and crazy. Slang is also fresh, fly, and phat. Those are seventeen different slang ways of saying that slang is good, but what is slang? According to the dictionary, slang is an informal vocabulary whose meanings may quickly change.

A slang expression may suddenly become widely accepted and just as quickly outdated. In the 1920s, for example, twenty-three skidoo was a trendy way of saying “to leave quickly.” Today the phrase is rarely used and even more rarely understood. Sometimes slang provides a name for a newly developed object. For example, walkie- talkie is the popular name for the small two-way radios that members of the American military used during World War II.

It is much simpler to call the gadget a walkie-talkie than a “portable, two-way communication device.”Slang is often created as an in-group language. It separates the group from outsiders and creates a sense of community. Teenagers have developed their own slang for decades. Young people use these words and phrases as a way to set themselves apart from older generations, who are considered old-fashioned and out of style.

People draw most slang terms from popular culture, such as music, books, and film. Slang from the 1940s is no exception. At the beginning of the decade, many popular slang terms came from the jazz and swing music community. The language that the musicians used, and the lyrics of their music, influenced the way teenagers spoke.

This is similar to the way that rap music can reflect the youth culture of today. Words like cool, groovy, and hep can be traced back to musicians of the 1940s. When America entered World War II in 1941, military expressions began to creep into everyday vocabulary. Servicemen and -women created slang expressions, such as a full bird to represent a full colonel, or military acronyms such as WAC or WAVE. These terms appeared in letters home or in newspaper articles and radio reports about the war. Civilians quickly came to recognize and use military slang in daily speech. Today, slang can be heard almost everywhere. Some slang is unique to the area which it is being used.

Whether it's a conversation between friends at a New York City coffee shop or neighbors living in apartments in Houston talking in the halls, slang is likely to find it's way into the discussion. Below are a few slang expressions from the 1940s, drawn from popular music and a 1943 army slang dictionary. See how many you can recognize. Are any of these terms still used today? Have their meanings stayed the same, or have they changed? If you want to be a hep cat or kitten, the next time you flap your lips, use some of these slang terms, and you will be cooking with gas.

Above my pay grade—Don’t ask me Armored heifer—canned milk Bandit—enemy fighter Bathtub—motorcycle sidecar Cook with gas—to do something right Dead hoofer—poor dancer Flap your lips—talk Flip your wig—to lose control of yourself Gammin’—showing off GI—Government Issue, an American service member Gone—knowledgeable Hairy—old, outdated Hen fruit—eggs Hep cat/kitten or cool cat/kitten—hip person Hi sugar, are you rationed?—Are you going steady? Hi-de-ho—hello Hit the silk—to bail out, use a parachute I’m going fishin’—I’m looking for a date Killer-diller—good stuff Licorice stick—clarinet Motorized freckles—insects Mud—coffee.


Bud Flanagan


Bud Flanagan. His parents, Wolf and Yetta (Kitty) Weintrop were Polish Jews who fled to London in the mid 1870s as a result of Eastern European pogroms. They had ten children all born in London. In 1881 they lived in Brick Lane and by 1891 had moved on to 12 Hanbury Street, Spitalfields. At the time of the 1901 census the family were still at Hanbury Street, with Reuben aged 4 living with six of his siblings and his parents over a Fried Fish shop. They later owned a barber shop and tobacconist in Whitechapel.

Flanagan attended school in Petticoat Lane, and by the age of 10 was working as call-boy at the Cambridge Music Hall. In 1908, he made his début in a talent contest at the London Music Hall in Shoreditch, performing conjuring tricks as Fargo, The Boy Wizard. In 1910, he sailed with the SS Majestic to New York, where he had a variety of jobs before returning to England in 1915 and joining the Royal Field Artillery, in France.

Here he met the unpopular Sergeant Major from whom he later adopted his stage name. In 1919 he formed a comedy double act, Flanagan and Roy. he met his wife Anne, daughter of Irish comedian Johnny Quinn, (The Singing Clown), and in 1926 their son Buddy was born.

He is best known as part of a double act with Chesney Allen, Flanagan and Allen. They had first met on active service in Flanders, but did not work together until 1926, touring with a Florrie Forde show. They established a reputation and were booked by Val Parnell at the Holborn Empire. As music hall comedians, they would often feature a mixture of comedy and music in their act and this led to a successful recording career as a duo and roles in film and television.

Flanagan and Allen were both also members of The Crazy Gang, appearing in the first show at the London Palladium in 1931, and continued to work with the group, concurrently with their double-act career. Flanagan and Allen's songs featured the same, usually gentle humour for which the duo were known in their live performances, and during the Second World War reflected the experiences of ordinary people during wartime.

Songs like We're Going To Hang Out The Washing On The Siegfried Line mocked the German defences (Siegfried Line), while others like Miss You sang of missing one's sweetheart during enforced absences. Other songs such as their most famous Underneath the Arches (which Flanagan co-wrote with Reg Connelly) had universal themes such as friendship, which again, helped people relate to the subject matter. The music was usually melodic, following a binary verse, verse chorus structure, with a small dance band or orchestra providing the backing.

The vocals were distinctive because while Flanagan was at least a competent singer and sang the melody lines, Allen used an almost spoken delivery to provide the harmonies. Flanagan and Allen stopped working together with Chesney Allen's retirement in 1945, when he gave up performing to become a theatrical agent; but Flanagan continued working until his death.

His last recording was Jimmy Perry and Derek Taverner's Who Do You Think You Are Kidding, Mr Hitler?, recorded shortly before his death in 1968, which was the theme to the British sitcom series Dad's Army. The song was a deliberate pastiche of the sort of songs Flanagan had sung during the war and, being so nostalgic, was very popular with the public.


Pearl Harbour 1940s


On December 7, 1941, the Japanese launched an assault on Pearl Harbor. To most Hawaiians, December 7, 1941 was a peaceful Sunday. At 8:00 A.M., People were awake, laid back and were enjoying their day on the island. Unbeknown to many Hawaiians, when they heard guns going off and huge explosions were sounding from Pearl Harbor that they were under attack. A man named Ronald Oba was a writer at Times Magazine and wrote an article about his experiences that fateful day. He said that he was enjoying the sunny morning and as the eldest son of his family of Japanese immigrant, he was awarded pancakes.

He thought that when he heard gun noises and shells going off, he thought that it was just the standard military exercise that day. He saw the Battleship Arizona, Battleship West Virginia and Battleship California go up in flames. As a Zero hugged the ground flying pass him, he saw the pilot looking down at him and saw the Japanese “Rising Sun” logo.

Many people on Hawaii no longer trusted the Japanese-Americans on the island. The village elders decided to burn anything that linked back with their ancestral homeland. These included swords, photos of the Emperor, flags, and even shortwave radios (which could've been turned into transmitters). However, the FBI still went into the Japanese-American homes and rounded up all the language teachers, martial arts instructors and other businessmen to concentration camps. Sometimes, they were held at gunpoint while rounding them up.

Even Japanese- American soldiers serving in the US military were force to leave service and their rifles taken away from them. The attack on Pearl Harbor was intended to neutralize the U.S. Pacific Fleet, and hence protect Japan's advance into Malaya and the Dutch East Indies, where it sought access to natural resources such as oil and rubber. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility of which each nation had been aware (and developed contingency plans for) since the 1920s, though tensions did not begin to grow seriously until Japan's 1931 invasion of Manchuria.

Over the next decade, Japan continued to expand into China, leading to all-out war between those countries in 1937. Japan spent considerable effort trying to isolate China and achieve sufficient resource independence to attain victory on the mainland; the "Southern Operation" was designed to assist these efforts.


Nanking massacre


From December 1937, events such as the Japanese attack on the USS Panay and the Nanking Massacre (more than 200,000 killed in indiscriminate massacres) swung public opinion in the West sharply against Japan. Fearing Japanese expansion the United States, the United Kingdom, and France provided loan assistance for war supply contracts to the Republic of China. In 1940, Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to control supplies reaching China.

The United States halted shipments of airplanes, parts, machine tools, and aviation gasoline to Japan, which was perceived by Japan as an unfriendly act.[nb 6] The U.S. did not stop oil exports to Japan at that time in part because prevailing sentiment in Washington was that such an action would be an extreme step, given Japanese dependence on U.S. oil, and likely to be considered a provocation by Japan. Early in 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt moved the Pacific Fleet to Hawaii from its previous base in San Diego and ordered a military buildup in the Philippines in the hope of discouraging Japanese aggression in the Far East.

Because the Japanese high command was (mistakenly) certain any attack on Britain's Southeast Asian colonies would bring the U.S. into the war, a devastating preventive strike appeared to be the only way to avoid U.S. naval interference. An invasion of the Philippines was also considered necessary by Japanese war planners. The U.S. War Plan Orange had envisioned defending the Philippines with a 40,000-man elite force. This was opposed by Douglas MacArthur, who felt that he would need a force ten times that size, and was never implemented.

By 1941, U.S. planners anticipated abandonment of the Philippines at the outbreak of war and orders to that effect were given in late 1941 to Admiral Thomas Hart, commander of the Asiatic Fleet. The U.S. ceased oil exports to Japan in July 1941, following Japanese expansion into French Indochina after the fall of France, in part because of new American restrictions on domestic oil consumption.

This in turn caused the Japanese to proceed with plans to take the Dutch East Indies, an oil-rich territory. On 17 August, Roosevelt warned Japan that the U.S. was prepared to take steps against Japan if it attacked "neighboring countries". The Japanese were faced with the option of either withdrawing from China and losing face or seizing and securing new sources of raw materials in the resource-rich, European-controlled colonies of Southeast Asia. Japan and the U.S. engaged in negotiations during the course of 1941 in an effort to improve relations.

During these negotiations, Japan offered to withdraw from most of China and Indochina when peace was made with the Nationalist government, adopt an independent interpretation of the Tripartite Pact, and to not discriminate in trade provided all other countries reciprocated. Washington rejected these proposals. Japan's final proposal, on 20 November, offered to withdraw their forces from southern Indochina and not to launch any attacks in Southeast Asia provided that the U.S., Britain, and the Netherlands ceased aiding China and lifted their sanctions against Japan. The American counter-proposal of 26 November (the Hull note) required Japan to evacuate all of China without conditions and conclude non-aggression pacts with Pacific powers.

Preliminary planning for an attack on Pearl Harbor to protect the move into the "Southern Resource Area" (the Japanese term for the Dutch East Indies and Southeast Asia generally) had begun very early in 1941 under the auspices of Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, then commanding Japan's Combined Fleet.[32] He won assent to formal planning and training for an attack from the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff only after much contention with Naval Headquarters, including a threat to resign his command. Full-scale planning was underway by early spring 1941, primarily by Rear Admiral Ryunosuke Kusaka, with assistance from Captain Minoru Genda and Yamamoto's Deputy Chief of Staff, Captain Kameto Kuroshima. The planners studied the 1940 British air attack on the Italian fleet at Taranto intensively.


Emperor Hirohito


Over the next several months, pilots trained, equipment was adapted, and intelligence collected. Despite these preparations, Emperor Hirohito did not approve the attack plan until November 5, after the third of four Imperial Conferences called to consider the matter. Final authorization was not given by the emperor until December 1, after a majority of Japanese leaders advised him the "Hull Note" would "destroy the fruits of the China incident, endanger Manchukuo and undermine Japanese control of Korea." By late 1941, many observers believed that hostilities between the U.S. and Japan were imminent. A Gallup poll just before the attack on Pearl Harbor found that 52% of Americans expected war with Japan, 27% did not, and 21% had no opinion. While U.S. Pacific bases and facilities had been placed on alert on many occasions,

U.S. officials doubted Pearl Harbor would be the first target; instead, they expected the Philippines would be attacked first. This presumption was due to the threat that the air bases throughout the country and the naval base at Manila posed to sea lanes, as well as to the shipment of supplies to Japan from territory to the south. They also incorrectly believed that Japan was not capable of mounting more than one major naval operation at a time.

Ever since the Japanese attack there has been debate as to how and why the United States had been caught unaware, and how much and when American officials knew of Japanese plans and related topics. Several writers, including journalist Robert Stinnett and former United States rear admiral Robert Alfred Theobald, have argued that various parties high in the US and British governments knew of the attack in advance and may even have let it happen or encouraged it in order to force America into war via the so-called "back door." However, this Pearl Harbor advance-knowledge conspiracy theory is rejected by most mainstream historians.

The attack on Pearl Harbour was a surprise attack against the United States' naval base at Pearl Harbour, Hawaii by the Japanese navy, on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, resulting in the United States becoming involved in World War II. It was intended as a preventive action to remove the US Pacific Fleet as a factor in the war Japan was about to wage against Britain, the Netherlands, and the United States. Two aerial attack waves, totalling 353 aircraft, launched from six Japanese aircraft carriers, intending to reduce or eliminate United States' military power in the Pacific.

The attack wrecked two U.S. Navy battleships, one mine layer, and two destroyers beyond repair, and destroyed 188 aircraft; personnel losses were 2,388 killed and 1,178 wounded. In spite of the latest intelligence reports about the missing aircraft carriers (his most important targets), Admiral Nagumo decided to continue the attack with his force of six carriers and 423 aircraft. At a range of 230 miles north of Oahu , he launched the first wave of a two-wave attack. Beginning at 0600 hours his first wave consisted of 183 fighters and torpedo bombers which struck at the fleet in Pearl Harbor and the airfields in hickam, Kaneohe and Ewa.

The second strike, launched at 0715 hours, consisted of 167 aircraft, which again struck at the same targets. At 0753 hours the first wave consisting of 40 Nakajima B5N2 'Kate' torpedo bombers, 51 Aichi D3A1 'Val' dive bombers, 50 high altitude bombers and 43 Zeros struck airfields and Pearl Harbor Within the next hour, the second wave arrived and continued the attack.


Enigma machine 1940


Morse code was used extensively by both sides during the War in Europe from 1938-1945. Transmitters were relatively small and easily carried by a wireless operator, avoiding the long wired telephone connections of World War I. Communication was the key to deployment and logistics and played a major role in the eventual victory on the battlefield. Prior to WWII, Germans improved upon a machine that became known as "Enigma," built in the 1920's enabling a message to be encrypted before it was sent and then the process reversed to decipher it upon receipt.

These machines could easily be carried in ships, submarines, airplanes and to army field headquarters operations. The machine utilized a series of rotating four inch wheels that scrambled plain textual messages into unreadable gibberish. Since the wheels could be set into billions of positions, an unlimited number of combinations provided the German high command the ability to transmit and receive Morse code messages without concern that the Allies would intercept and know the operational plans.

During the early years of the War, Hitler's armies enjoyed a tremendous advantage through utilization of this method. However, British and Polish mathematicians, who had acquired a machine prior to the War and stationed at Bletchley Park, England were able to eventually break the code. Two Englishmen, Alan Turing, (after whose name the coveted prize for artificial intelligence is named) and Gordon Welchman developed another machine called "The Bombe" using the fact that common words and phrases, such as names and weather were coded into most messages.

The Bomb was able to single out these parts of communications and that gave leverage in figuring out the remainder of the message. After the War ended, a great shield of secrecy kept information about the Allied deciphering efforts from the public eye for more than fifty years. In 2009 Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the UK broke the silence to honour one of the last surviving code-breaking operatives, Margaret Fick. She had been sent to the Isle of Man, while just 17, to learn Morse code and join the secret German Intercept Service.

From the listening station near Harrogate, she along with other listeners, copied thousands of coded messages and passed them along to the Bletchey Park group for deciphering. This whole operation was guarded and the Nazi high command never realized that the Allies knew their secret plans within hours. This fact allowed the Allies to test their plans for the D-Day invasion of France by sending out false messages and seeing the reaction from the German generals. This deception allowed the Allies to invade while the bulk of the German resistance was centered far away.

Hardly recognized as War heroines, these Morse code listeners played a tremendous role in shortening the war and bringing peace to Europe. Their contribution should be remembered and honored.


Stalag prisoners 1940s


British, French, Belgian and Dutch soldiers taken prisoner during the Battle of France started arriving in May 1940. Many were transferred on to other camps, but close to 40,000 French remained at Stalag VII-A throughout the war. British, Greek and Yugoslavia prisoners arrived from the Balkans Campaign in May and June 1941.

A few months later Soviet prisoners started arriving, mostly officers. At the end of the war there were still 27 Soviet generals in Moosburg who had survived the mistreatment that they, like all Soviet prisoners, had been subjected to. More British Commonwealth and Polish prisoners came from the North African campaign and the offensive against the Italian held islands in the Mediterranean. They were brought here from Italian PoW camps after the Armistice with Italy in September 1943. Italian soldiers were also imprisoned.

The first American arrivals came after the Tunisia Campaign in December 1942, and the Italian Campaign in 1943. Large numbers of Americans were captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. Among the last arrivals were officers from Stalag Luft III who had been force marched from Sagan in Silesia (now Zagan), Poland). They arrived 2 February 1945.

They were followed by more prisoners marched from other camps threatened by the advancing Soviets, including part of the American officers that had been marched from Oflag 64 in Szubin, via Oflag XIII-B, under their senior officer Lt.Col. Paul Goode. During the 5½ years about 1000 prisoners died at the camp, over 800 of them Soviets.

They were buried in a cemetery in Oberreit, south of Moosburg. Most died from illness, some from injuries during work. It has been said that there were some casualties from Allied bombs at work. The camp was started in September 1939 to house Polish prisoners from the German September 1939 offensive. They arrived while the wooden barracks were under construction and for several weeks lived in tents. British, French, Belgian and Dutch soldiers taken prisoner during the Battle of France started arriving in May 1940.

Many were transferred on to other camps, but close to 40,000 French remained at Stalag VII-A throughout the war. British, Greek and Yugoslavia prisoners arrived from the Balkans Campaign in May and June 1941. A few months later Soviet prisoners started arriving, mostly officers.

At the end of the war there were still 27 Soviet generals in Moosburg who had survived the mistreatment that they, like all Soviet prisoners, had been subjected to. More British Commonwealth and Polish prisoners came from the North African campaign and the offensive against the Italian held islands in the Mediterranean. They were brought here from Italian PoW camps after the Armistice with Italy in September 1943. Italian soldiers were also imprisoned. The first American arrivals came after the Tunisia Campaign in December 1942, and the Italian Campaign in 1943.

Large numbers of Americans were captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. Among the last arrivals were officers from Stalag Luft III who had been force marched from Sagan in Silesia (now Zagan), Poland). They arrived 2 February 1945.

They were followed by more prisoners marched from other camps threatened by the advancing Soviets, including part of the American officers that had been marched from Oflag 64 in Szubin, via Oflag XIII-B, under their senior officer Lt.Col. Paul Goode. During the 5½ years about 1000 prisoners died at the camp, over 800 of them Soviets. They were buried in a cemetery in Oberreit, south of Moosburg. Most died from illness, some from injuries during work. It has been said that there were some casualties from Allied bombs at work sites.


German u boats 1940s


In 1939, Nazi U-boats were wreaking havoc on military and merchant ships. The submarines appeared from nowhere, torpedoing entire fleets before disappearing beneath the waves. Allied commanders knew that if they could break the Enigma code, they could listen in on the U-boats’ orders and discover where they were. There was only one problem; the odds against breaking the Enigma code were 150 000 000 000 000 000 000 to 1.

The Allies recruited some of the country’s brightest mathematicians and sent them to Bletchley Park, a mansion in Buckinghamshire that had been commandeered by the military. Their mission was simple; to crack the Enigma code. Cracking the Enigma code was no simple matter. Enigma’s complexity was bewildering and the codes changed daily.

The Bombe was the work of mathematician Alan Turing, the father of modern computing. Based on the pioneering work of Polish code breakers, the Bombe was an early form of computer that could crunch numbers at a dizzying speed. In 1940 the Enigma code was defeated. Not only had Turing invented the forerunner of today’s PC, he also proved that no matter how clever the code, any Private Key Cryptography can be broken if you chuck enough processing power at it.



Political and media analysts carp about Churchill’s own past including his poor academic record, his dubious military escapades, and his criminal guilt in the battle of Omdurman in 1898 in the Sudan when black native fighters were destroyed by modern military technology. They also point out Churchill’s personal combat against the Boers, the Indians and Afghans, stating that bigotry and racial hatred are at the core of Churchill’s character. Talk shows abound with analysts and those who ‘know’ Churchill stating that Churchill’s past is inglorious and at odds with current post World War One modernity of enlightened thoughtful liberalism.

Even his vain, womanising syphilitic father, a political star that crashed through arrogance and illness is dragged from the history books to prove that genetically Churchill is an unstable character and the son of drunken political bore. Churchill’s past and own drinking excesses are front page stories, with news analysts and experts linking Churchill’s terrible character with the losing war effort.

Many call for not only Churchill’s resignation but his impeachment for not doing enough to prevent the fall of the British expeditionary army and the humiliation of Dunkirk. The BBC reports that Churchill and his Ministers are not only losing the war, but also profiting from war contracts through firms closely allied with the Conservative political effort and that Churchill has sent his own small fortune out of the country to Canada. No evidence is given on these allegations but no proof is asked for.

New public polling puts Churchill with a 13 % approval rating and calls for his resignation echo more loudly each day. The anti-Conservative and anti-Churchill media also stoke antipathy to Churchill’s new coalition government by focusing on the incapability of British forces to fight. While willful, manly Germany prepares for the invasion of the British Isles, the media is adamant that the government is doing nothing.

The British Labor party, sensing Churchill’s political weakness, reveal documents which support the position that the government is disorganized and drifting with no rational plan to wage war. A recently demoted Cabinet member releases photos of a drunk Churchill slurring his words at a private dinner function while discussing war strategy, and publishes letters from Churchill to his War Cabinet which apparently prove that Churchill has no real plan of national defense.

Clement Attlee leader of the Labor Party, along with Lord Halifax, holds a press interview on an important TV talk show criticizing Churchill for the Norway fiasco along with inadequate funding of the armed forces and a lack of strategic focus. Atlee contends that appeasing Germany for two to three years, would enable Britain to retool and rearm, and cites the Soviet-Nazi pact of 1939 as an example of judicious statesmanship.

Indeed Atlee calls for a British-like ‘Stalin’ to take over the government and re-energize its martial spirit. The media gives Attlee’s criticisms wide coverage and some propose that an Attlee government would have a more nuanced and realistic appraisal of confronting Germany, and would be smart enough to elicit support from ‘allies’ and the international community.

Media analysis and polls are produced showing Atlee as Briton’s top choice for Prime Minister. shortly after becoming Prime Minister in May 1940, Winston Churchill visited the Cabinet War Rooms to see for himself what preparations had been made to allow him and his War Cabinet to continue working throughout the expected air raids on London.

It was there, in the underground Cabinet Room, he announced 'This is the room from which I will direct the war'. The future prime minister decided to finish his career in the military and go into politics. For the living he wanted to write articles for different newspapers and magazines. The tradition to lose for the first time did not fail for Churchill when he tried to be elected as a Conservative at Oldham.

Instead of a Conservative at Oldham Winston found himself in South Africa reporting on the South African War for British newspaper The Morning Post. Not being lucky was sort of a story of Churchill’s life, this time he was captured by Boers as a prisoner in military prison in South Africa. However, he managed to escape from the prison which later made him nearly a hero when he went back home.


YOUNG WINSTON CHURCHILL


After coming back from Africa he decided to run for the Parliament again in 1900. This time he achieved his goal. Being a member of the Parliament Churchill experienced difficulties with public speaking as he had a speech defect (that he actually never lost). It was a big challenge for him but it did not break him up and he never left oratory art. In 1904 due to some disagreements with his party members over trade tariffs Churchill had to join the Liberals.

In the new spot he quickly gained popularity for his brave debates with those who argued with him. In 1908 Churchill became the president of the Board of Trade. That same year Winston Churchill married (the first and the last time) Clementine Hozier. Sir Winston was one of the most prominent politicians of the 20th century in the United Kingdom.

He was surely the most famous Prime Minister of the 20th century. His personality compounded talented author, outstanding speaker, artist, and a great leader that managed to escape Britain’s defeat and even be among the winning nations at the end of World War Two. Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill was born on the 30th of November, 1874 in Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire in the family of Lord Randolph Churchill and Jennie Jerome. Winston’s father was a famous Tory politician, descendent of John Churchill (1st duke of Marlborough, the hero of the wars against French Louis XIV).

Winston’s mother was the daughter of a prominent American financier Leonard W. Jerome. Churchill was a very poor student at school that later resulted his father to make young Winston to join the military. Here again he did not show great results and passed the entrance examination to the Royal Military College only from the third try. However, he took studying at college seriously and graduated 20th in class out of 130. After graduating from college Winston Churchill joined the 4th Hussars and ended up in Cuba reporting on Cuban independence war from Spain.

A couple of months later Churchill returned back home from Cuba and left for India along with his division. In India he for the first time he experienced being a soldier and a journalist at the same time.


Stalag Luft III 1940


Shortly after the beginning of World War II in September 1939, a POW camp called Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager (Stalag) VII A was established north of Moosburg. Originally it was planned for 10,000 prisoners, but at the end of the war some 80,000 Allied soldiers - mostly French and Soviet citizens - had to live in it. British, French, Belgian and Dutch soldiers taken prisoner during the Battle of France started arriving in May 1940. Many were transferred on to other camps, but close to 40,000 French remained at Stalag VII-A throughout the war.

British, Greek and Yugoslavia prisoners arrived from the Balkans Campaign in May and June 1941. A few months later Soviet prisoners started arriving, mostly officers. At the end of the war there were still 27 Soviet generals in Moosburg who had survived the mistreatment that they, like all Soviet prisoners, had been subjected to. More British Commonwealth and Polish prisoners came from the North African campaign and the offensive against the Italian held islands in the Mediterranean.

They were brought here from Italian PoW camps after the Armistice with Italy in September 1943. Italian soldiers were also imprisoned. The first American arrivals came after the Tunisia Campaign in December 1942, and the Italian Campaign in 1943.

Large numbers of Americans were captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. Among the last arrivals were officers from Stalag Luft III who had been force marched from Sagan in Silesia (now Zagan), Poland). They arrived 2 February 1945. They were followed by more prisoners marched from other camps threatened by the advancing Soviets, including part of the American officers that had been marched from Oflag 64 in Szubin, via Oflag XIII-B, under their senior officer Lt.Col. Paul Goode.

During the 5½ years about 1000 prisoners died at the camp, over 800 of them Soviets. They were buried in a cemetery in Oberreit, south of Moosburg. Most died from illness, some from injuries during work. It has been said that there were some casualties from Allied bombs at work. The camp was started in September 1939 to house Polish prisoners from the German September 1939 offensive.

They arrived while the wooden barracks were under construction and for several weeks lived in tents. British, French, Belgian and Dutch soldiers taken prisoner during the Battle of France started arriving in May 1940. Many were transferred on to other camps, but close to 40,000 French remained at Stalag VII-A throughout the war. British, Greek and Yugoslavia prisoners arrived from the Balkans Campaign in May and June 1941. A few months later Soviet prisoners started arriving, mostly officers.

At the end of the war there were still 27 Soviet generals in Moosburg who had survived the mistreatment that they, like all Soviet prisoners, had been subjected to. More British Commonwealth and Polish prisoners came from the North African campaign and the offensive against the Italian held islands in the Mediterranean. They were brought here from Italian PoW camps after the Armistice with Italy in September 1943. Italian soldiers were also imprisoned.

The first American arrivals came after the Tunisia Campaign in December 1942, and the Italian Campaign in 1943. Large numbers of Americans were captured in the Battle of the Bulge in December 1944. Among the last arrivals were officers from Stalag Luft III who had been force marched from Sagan in Silesia (now Zagan), Poland).

They arrived 2 February 1945. They were followed by more prisoners marched from other camps threatened by the advancing Soviets, including part of the American officers that had been marched from Oflag 64 in Szubin, via Oflag XIII-B, under their senior officer Lt.Col. Paul Goode. During the 5½ years about 1000 prisoners died at the camp, over 800 of them Soviets. They were buried in a cemetery in Oberreit, south of Moosburg. Most died from illness, some from injuries during work. It has been said that there were some casualties from Allied bombs at work sites.


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