The Great Depression began in 1929 with the crash of the Wall Street Stock Market. By early 1930 the price of stock had risen slightly and then fell again. Businesses cut their production and jobs. Bank loans were being defaulted on and depositor confidence was eroded for there was no depositor insurance backed by the Federal government. In 1930 bank failures reach a staggering 1,352 and towards the end of that year run on banks were common in the southern states.

1930's, saw a bouncy six beat variant that was named the Jitterbug by the band leader Cab Calloway when he introduced the tune in 1934 entitled "Jitterbug". Also we saw the Lindy Hop and the Jitterbug, people began dancing to the contemporary Jazz and Swing music as it was evolving at the time,  Dancers soon incorporated tap and jazz steps into their dancing.



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In October 1932 there was a large-scale march on London by 2500 workers from all over the country. Trade unionists played a major role in organising the march and in arranging food and shelter for the marchers. They presented a petition to Parliament demanding the abolition of the means test and protesting about the 10 per cent cut in benefits. Probably the most famous march was the Jarrow Crusade of 1936.

In October, 200 men chosen from hundreds of volunteers began a 300-mile march to London to present a petition to the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin. Again, unions helped to organise the march, providing food and shelter. The radical Labour MP, Ellen Wilkinson, led the march and presented the petition to parliament. The government was pressed on why it did not give Jarrow contracts for Royal Navy ships (which would have created much needed work) but no answer was given.

The marchers returned to Jarrow by train, empty handed. To add insult to injury, the Unemployment Assistance Board officials in Jarrow docked the dole of the marchers because they had not been available for work. After the Jarrow March the Cabinet resolved to convince organisers that marches were unhelpful and caused unnecessary hardship to those taking part. Despite their treatment, the Jarrow marchers achieved their aim of raising public awareness and generating sympathy.

The town gained new engineering and ship breaking work later in the decade. In the next few years the government looked hard at the future of its citizens, and laid plans for the next great step in fighting poverty - the Welfare State.


John Dillinger


John Dillinger went from small time crook to America's Most Wanted after an ill-fated bank robbery left a police officer dead. By modern standards, Dillinger's crimes seem relatively tame, but being named Public Enemy No. 1gave him legendary status. Born in Indianapolis on June 22, 1903, John Herbert Dillinger Jr. grew up on Cooper Street near the Massachusetts Avenue railroad tracks on the Northeastside. When he was a teenager, his father, a grocer, moved the family to Mooresville, a small farming community near Indianapolis' Southwestside.

It was there that Dillinger committed his first recorded crime -- a car theft. In 1924, Dillinger and an ex-con pal held up a 65-year-old Mooresville grocer. But the shopkeeper fought back, and Dillinger was caught and convicted, spending the next nine years in prison. In 1933, Dillinger committed a string of bank robberies throughout the Midwest and broke out of jail twice with the help of his gang.

His "gang" was made up of various prison acquaintances and girlfriends. Sometimes as many as six associated with Dillinger. "Baby Face" Nelson was at one time a member of Dillinger's gang. The first escape was in Ohio, and the second time was in Crown Point, Ind., using a carved wooden handgun. They were well equipped with machine guns, bulletproof vests and fast cars.

In January 1934, Dillinger's gang killed East Chicago police officer William O'Malley during a holdup of the First National Bank. Dillinger was placed in the Lake County Jail at Crown Point. He escaped, stole the sheriff's car and drove across the Illinois state line to Chicago. In doing so, he violated federal law and brought himself to the attention of J. Edgar Hoover and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

Dillinger shot his way out of numerous FBI traps from St. Paul, Minn. to St. Louis and escaped the FBI at the Little Bohemia Lodge in Wisconsin. That incident was bungled by the FBI, which mistakenly shot three innocent people, killing one. The entire gang escaped. Dillinger made a mockery of the FBI by eluding capture so many times that director Hoover took it personally. Hoover systematically eliminated Dillinger's gang one by one. Hoover labeled Dillinger "Public Enemy No. 1" and placed a $15,000 price on his head, forcing Dillinger to keep a low profile.

Anna Sage, the infamous "woman in red", with whom Dillinger had been living in a Chicago brothel, betrayed Dillinger. Chicago FBI chief Melvin Purvis was tipped off by Sage that Dillinger would be seeing the movie "Manhatten Melodrama" at the Biograph Theater on Chicago's Northside. Sage wore a red dress to alert the FBI that the man she was with was Dillinger. On July 22, 1934, 15 FBI agents surrounded the theater. Once Purvis identified Dillinger, the agents closed in. Dillinger pulled a gun and the agents opened fire, killing Dillinger. Just three bullets struck Dillinger.

The fatal shot passed through the back of his neck and exited just under his right eye. He was shot twice in the chest; one bullet passed through the tip of his heart. Embalming took place in Chicago at the Cook County morgue before thousands of curious onlookers under the premise that "John Dillinger's fate might be a lesson to the world.

" Dillinger's body was brought back to Mooresville, Ind., where nearly 10,000 people waited to view his body. Funeral services were held at the home of his sister, Audrey Hancock, in Maywood. Dillinger was buried in Crown Hill Cemetery in Indianapolis.

Not surprisingly, there have been theories that it was not John Dillinger who was killed outside the Biograph Theater, but rather a double. A scar on the left side of his face had apparently been removed by plastic surgery and his fingerprints had been removed by acid. FBI chief Melvin Purvis also noted that Dillinger drew his gun from his pocket the evening he was killed--he usually kept it at his waist.


Mickey Mouse


Mickey Mouse, originally a theater animation, appeared on the big screen for the first time on November 18, 1928. You have to picture for yourself, the attraction, not only of a delightful cartoon character, but also the lead player in the first ever sound cartoon, at a time when silent films were still playing in theaters. This was all brand new and innovative, and Steamboat Willie took the public by storm. He was the first animated international personality, who laid the groundwork for the entire Disney empire.

He symbolizes everything that Disney stands for in a positive and upbeat philosophy. When other cartoonists were experimenting with innuendo and sexuality, or stealing ideas from one another, the Walt Disney creations became original, enjoyable, and something for the entire family, regardless of age to enjoy together. The most delightful and the most enduring, and this is indicated by the strong demand for such items as Disney's Tinkerbell colouring pages and personal items like watches and lunch boxes, which display any number of the Disney animated favourites.


The birth of Mickey Mouse occurred on a cross-country train ride (a four day journey) in early 1928. Walt was returning from a business meeting along with his wife. At the age of 26, and with an active cartoon studio in Hollywood, Walt had set out to arrange for a new contract for his creation, Oswald the Rabbit, but the backers turned him down. As they owned the copyright, they took control, leaving Walt with nothing.

To prepare to announce the unpleasant news to workers back home, Walt gave birth to a sympathetic mouse that he first named, "Mortimer". By the end of the ride, which concluded in Los Angeles, Lillian Disney suggested to her husband that the first name was too stuffy. He was renamed, "Mickey." Walt and his head animator, Ub Iwerks, soon completed their first Mickey Mouse cartoon, "Plane Crazy." But no distributor would buy the film. Not one to quit, Walt produced a second silent Mickey Mouse cartoon, called "Gallopin' Gaucho."

It was less than a year since Warner Brothers had introduced the talkies with Al Jolson as the "Jazz Singer" (late 1927). In 1928, Walt Disney began work on his third Mickey Mouse cartoon, this time a talkie, entitled, "Steamboat Willie." To add sound to the film, Walt had to take the animated portion to New York since West Coast studies did not have the equipment. The young man invested everything he had into the film, and when it was completed, Walt screened it for New York exhibitors.


A manager at the Colony Theater liked Walt and thought he would take a chance by showing the innovative talking cartoon. "Steamboat Willie" was a rousing success. Walt immediately added sound to his first two cartoons and offered all of his exhibitors a package of three short talkie cartoons. The creator, himself, supplied the voice for all Mickey Mouse cartoons up through World War Two. In 1946, when Walt became too busy to continue the job, an experienced Disney sound and vocal effects man by the name of Jim McDonald, inherited the task. McDonald was destined to continue his high-pitched duties until he retired in 1974, and the job passed on to Wayne Allwine.


Soon after his introduction to the local market, Mickey Mouse became famous beyond all expectations, to the point where people coming to the theater first asked if they were going to "run a Mickey" before they would consider buying admission. Remember that this was just months before the disastrous 1929 stock market crash, and the ensuing economic decline in America. Mickey's popularity continued strong throughout the Dirty Thirties.

Theater managers got smarter and soon had to headline the charming little mouse with large signs proclaiming, "Mickey Mouse playing today!" Patrons did what many movie goers were able to accomplish, until they started to clear out the theaters at the end of each feature, as they do today, by sitting through multiple showings of the feature just to see Mickey again.

Remember that cartoons were as popular for adults as they were for children, and there was no other way to view them. It was only when television later arrived, that the early cartoons could first be shown to home audiences on the small screen.


Walt Disney produced 87 cartoon shorts during the 1930s in which Mickey Mouse was employed as everything from a giant killer, to a cowboy, to a detective to an inventor. Other cartoons of the time were repetitive, boring musicals with dancing flowers and silly images that lacked a storyline and the individual and identifiable personality of the mouse and his friends.

An entire family of characters was created for the Disney stable including, Minnie Mouse, Goofy, Pluto, Donald Duck, and some of the lesser knowns, Clarabelle Cow and the gruff Peg-Leg Pete. In 1932, barely 4 years after the world was introduced to the delightful rodent, Walt Disney received an Oscar for the creation of Mickey Mouse. 


The Great Depression 1930


Worldwide economic downturn that began in 1929 and lasted until about 1939. It was the longest and most severe depression ever experienced by the industrialized Western world. Although the Depression originated in the United States, it resulted in drastic declines in output, severe unemployment, and acute deflation in almost every country of the globe.

But its social and cultural effects were no less staggering, especially in the United States, where the Great Depression ranks second only to the Civil War as the gravest crisis in American history. The timing and severity of the Great Depression varied substantially across countries.

The Depression was particularly long and severe in the United States and Europe; it was milder in Japan and much of Latin America. Perhaps not surprisingly, the worst depression ever experienced stemmed from a multitude of causes. Declines in consumer demand, financial panics, and misguided government policies caused economic output to fall in the United States.The gold standard, which linked nearly all the countries of the world in a network of fixed currency exchange rates, played a key role in transmitting the American downturn to other countries.

The recovery from the Great Depression was spurred largely by the abandonment of the gold standard and the ensuing monetary expansion. The Great Depression brought about fundamental changes in economic institutions, macroeconomic policy, and economic theory.

The French recovery in 1932 and 1933, however, was short-lived. French industrial production and prices both fell substantially between 1933 and 1936. Germany’s economy slipped into a downturn early in 1928 and then stabilized before turning down again in the third quarter of 1929.

The decline in German industrial production was roughly equal to that in the United States. A number of countries in Latin America slipped into depression in late 1928 and early 1929, slightly before the U.S. decline in output. While some less developed countries experienced severe depressions, others, such as Argentina and Brazil, experienced comparatively mild downturns. The depression in Japan started relatively late (in early 1930) and was, by comparison, mild.


Swing dance 1930


The term "swing dance" is commonly used to refer either to a group of dances developing in response to swing music in the 1920s, 30s and 40s, or to lindy hop, a popular partner dance today. While the majority of swing dances began in African American communities as vernacular African American dances, there were a number of forms which developed within Anglo-American or other ethnic group communities. Balboa is one of the most commonly cited examples.

Though they technically preceded the rise of swing music, and are commonly associated with Dixieland jazz which developed in New Orleans in the south of the United States, dances such as the Black Bottom, charleston and tap dance are still considered members of the swing dance family. These sorts of dances travelled north with jazz to cities like New York, Kansas City, and Chicago in the Great Migration (African American) of the 1920s, where rural blacks travelled north to escape persecution, Jim Crow laws, lynching and unemployment in the South during the Great Depression.



The history of swing dates back to the 1920's, where the black community, while dancing to contemporary Jazz music, discovered the Charleston and the Lindy Hop. On March 26, 1926, the Savoy Ballroom opened its doors in New York. The Savoy was an immediate success with its block-long dance floor and a raised double bandstand.

Nightly dancing attracted most of the best dancers in the New York area. Stimulated by the presence of great dancers and the best black bands, music at the Savoy was largely Swinging Jazz. One evening in 1927, following Lindbergh's flight to Paris, a local dance enthusiast named "Shorty George" Snowden was watching some of the dancing couples.

A newspaper reporter asked him what dance they were doing, and it just so happened that there was a newspaper with an article about Lindbergh's flight sitting on the bench next to them. The title of the article read, "Lindy Hops The Atlantic," and George just sort of read that and said, "Lindy Hop" and the name stuck. In the mid 1930's, a bouncy six beat variant was named the Jitterbug by the band leader Cab Calloway when he introduced a tune in 1934 entitled "Jitterbug".

With the discovery of the Lindy Hop and the Jitterbug, the communities began dancing to the contemporary Jazz and Swing music as it was evolving at the time, with Benny Goodman leading the action.

Dancers soon incorporated tap and jazz steps into their dancing. In the mid 1930's, Herbert White, head bouncer in the New York City Savoy Ballroom, formed a Lindy Hop dance troupe called Whitey's Lindy Hoppers. One of the most important members of Whitey's Lindy Hoppers was Frankie Manning.

The "Hoppers" were showcased in the following films: "A Day at the Races" (1937), "Hellzapoppin" (1941), "Sugar Hill Masquerade" (1942), and "Killer Diller" (1948). In 1938, the Harvest Moon Ball included Lindy Hop and Jitterbug competition for the first time. It was captured on film and presented for everyone to see in the Paramount, Pathe, and Universal movie newsreels between 1938 and 1951.


Silent films Poster


By the middle of the 1920's, with the increasing popularity of early silent films, you could count on every town having at least one movie theater. Going to the movies, at that time, was a lot different then it is these days. Today you see a feature film and possibly a few previews, but overall you will only be spending about two hours on average in the theater. This was not the case in the middle twenties as going out to see a movie was a much larger entertainment event.

You would spend at least four hours watching not only previews, but film-shorts, newsreels, and maybe even a cartoon prior to the feature film. And that's not all, chances are that there would it was a double-feature. That's right, a second full-length film to complete the movie-going package. Going to the movies was a genuinely big event for people, who knew that they were surely getting their moneys worth! And the most interesting thing of all is that these movies had no sound.

Films Without Sound Hollywood's earlier silent films left the actors dependent on method acting or pantomime in order to convey their characters feelings to the audience. Occasionally, there were subtitles for their dialog, but they were quite short, insuring the audience would not be distracted by written words.

Instead, more often then not, music played a big role in these otherwise silent films helping to convey the emotion related to a scene. And unlike watching a movie with sound, where one would have to be quiet in order to hear the characters spoken lines, audiences would talk softly further enhancing the social aspect of attending these silent films.

One tragic aspect of the silent film era was the fact that some of the public's most loved stars were unable to make the transition into talking pictures. This was due to the difficulty audiences had adjusting to the actors real voices after having seen them in so many silent films often imaging how they would sound. Stars that were larger then life on the silent screen, such as Clara Bow and Rudolph Valentino, faded away with the introduction of sound. And as a result, a great deal of acting talent disappeared. However, stars like Charlie Chaplin and Lionel Barrymore were able to make a successful transition to films with sound and continued their very successful acting careers.

Ticket Sales According to the statistical results for the industry at the time, everyone was going to the movies and, by the late 1920's, there were over twenty-five thousand theaters across the US with tickets priced at ten to fifty-cents each. In fact, it was estimated that one hundred million tickets were sold weekly, and this was within a population of about 130 million people.

Today, there are over 300 million people in the United States with average ticket sales of only about 27 million a week. So, don't be overly impressed with the claims of larger gross ticket sales that are based purely on higher ticket prices and not the number of tickets sold. The fact is that there are less then half the number of tickets sold today then in the twenties.

The difference extends beyond ticket sales and into film production as well. By the late 1920's, Hollywood was releasing a thousand movies a year; in 2006, the average was down to 600. Amazingly enough, the public's interest in silent films is making a comeback. Many of these older films have been digitally remastered for re-release and according to sales statistics, the companies marketing them are doing so quite profitably. This renewed interest has given new life to this historical art form providing an opportunity for all to share in the glory of early silent films.


Clara Bow


Originating as a turn-of-the-century novelty, the motion picture business soon became a multi-million dollar industry. In fact, by the early 1920's, the business of making movies had already become America's fifth largest industry and would go on to become one of the most significant and influential communication and entertainment tools of the 20th century.

The large majority of motion pictures produced during the 1920's were silent films. As the industry grew, and movie making became more costly, the various aspects of film production were divided into individual components such as; writing, directing, costumes, etc., and became almost assembly-line in their creation.

During the time that the First World War was taking place, the "studio system" evolved in Hollywood and would dominate the movie industry for a period of close to 25 years. Generally credited with the creation of this system were Adolph Zukor, William Fox, and Carl Laemmle. Essentially, the system provided a movie studio's production chief with virtually total control over a films director and its stars.

With nearly 90 percent of America's motion pictures being produced and distributed by five major studios, these studios were able to monopolize Hollywood for the next 50 years. These five studios were: Warner Brothers Pictures, Famous Players-Lasky Corporation (renamed Paramount Pictures in 1935), RKO Pictures, Loew's Inc. (later to become Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer), and Fox Film Corporation/Foundation (later becoming 20th-Century Fox). Movie technology continued to advance during this decade, and with the development of the microphone the film industry was about to undergo dramatic change.

However, this advancement was not entirely welcomed by all. Many of the silent era's greatest stars would be unable to make the transition from the silent film to the "talkie". Silent movie fans had in their minds their own idea regarding the 'spoken sound' of the actors and actresses they loved and found it difficult to accept the real sound of many of their voices.

Some of the greatest stars of silent films unable to survive this new partnership between movie sight and sound were, Clara Bow Douglas Fairbanks, Clara Bow, John Gilbert, and Mary Pickford. Fortunately, many other stars who were loved by the public did successfully survive. They included John Barrymore, Mary Astor, William Powell, Ronald Colman, Gary Cooper, Laurel and Hardy, Greta Garbo, and some time later, even Charlie Chaplin who strongly disliked the addition of sound to movies.


Bete Davis 1930s


Often referred to as "The First Lady of the American Screen," Bette Davis created a new kind of screen heroine. She was a liberated woman in an industry dominated by men. She was known as an actress that could play a variety of difficult and powerful roles, and because of this she set a new standard for women on the big screen. Independent off-screen as well, her battles with studio bigwigs were legendary. With a career spanning six decades, few in the history of film rival her longevity and appeal. Bette Davis was born Ruth Davis on April 5, 1908 in Lowell, Massachusetts.

Just before her tenth birthday, Bette's father, Harlow, left the family. Although she had little money, her mother, Ruthie, sent Bette and her sister to boarding school. Upon graduating Cushing Academy, Bette enrolled in John Murray Anderson's Dramatic School. In 1929, she made her Broadway debut in "Broken Dishes." She also landed a role in "Solid South." In 1930, she moved to Hollywood to screen test for Universal. Six small films later, Bette's contract with Universal was not renewed.

She wanted to go back to Broadway, but a phone call from Warner Brothers quickly changed her mind. In 1932, she signed a seven-year contract with Warner Brothers. The film "The Man Who Played God" (1932) landed Bette on the path to stardom. She was a smash when she was lent out to RKO for the role of Mildred in "Of Human Bondage" (1934), her first critically acclaimed hit.

Her role in "Dangerous" (1935) led to her nomination for a Best Actress Oscar. She became the first Warner Brothers actress to win the coveted award. Despite her success, Warner Brothers continued to offer Bette unsatisfactory roles. In 1936, she challenged the studio by going to England to make pictures. Jack Warner sued her, and she was forced to honor her contract.

Upon her return, however, Bette was offered a new contract and better roles. In 1939, Bette won her second Oscar for "Jezebel" (1938). She also received Oscar nominations the next five years in a row. Although she earned a reputation for being difficult to work with, Bette set a new precedent for women. By 1942, she was the highest paid woman in America. Bette contributed to the war effort by helping to organize the Hollywood Canteen during World War II for soldiers passing through Los Angeles. Inspired by New York's Stage Door Canteen, Bette transformed a once-abandoned nightclub into an inspiring entertainment facility.

"There are few accomplishments in my life that I am sincerely proud of. The Hollywood Canteen is one of them," Bette later commented. In 1980, she was awarded the Distinguished Civilian Service Medal, the Defense Department's highest civilian award, for running the Hollywood Canteen. Bette made a roaring comeback with her role as Margo Channing in "All About Eve" (1950), and she received her eighth Academy Award nomination. Her career was resuscitated again in 1962 with "Whatever Happened to Baby Jane?" Soon after, Bette began her second career as a horror maven and continued to welcome new opportunities with television appearances.

In 1987, Bette played a blind woman in "The Whales of August," co-starring Lillian Gish. Davis's personal life was as dramatic as her acting. She was married four times. She had a daughter, B.D., with her third husband, William Grant Sherry. She adopted two children, Margot and Michael, while married to her fourth husband, Gary Merrill. With a career total of more than 100 films, Bette changed the way Hollywood looked at actresses. In 1977, she was the first woman to be honoured with the American Film Institute's Lifetime Achievement Award.

She was also the first woman to be president of the Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences. At the age of 75, Bette had a mastectomy due to breast cancer. Nine days later, she suffered a stroke. Despite her failing health, she continued to act until her death. Bette passed away October 6, 1989 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France. Michael Merrill, Bette's son, and Kathryn Sermak, Bette's personal assistant and friend, are now the executors of her estate. In her memory, they have created The Bette Davis Foundation, which provides financial assistance to promising young actors and actresses. Meryl Streep received the first Bette Davis Lifetime Achievement Award at Boston University in 1998.


bertrand russell


Bertrand Russell was born at the height of Britain's economic and political ascendancy. When he died almost a century later, the British Empire had all but vanished, its power had been dissipated by two world wars and its imperial system had been brought to an end. Among his post Second World War political activities, Russell was a vigorous proponent of nuclear disarmament, antagonist to communist totalitarianism and an outspoken critic of the Vietnam War.

Previously he had been imprisoned and deprived of his Fellowship of Trinity College as a vigorous peace campaigner and opponent of conscription during the First World War, visited the emerging Soviet Union which subsequently met with his disapproval and campaigned vigorously against Adolf Hitler in the 1930s as well as being an accomplished mathematician.

Bertrand Arthur William Russell (b.1872 – d.1970) was a British philosopher, logician, essayist and social critic best known for his work in mathematical logic and analytic philosophy. His most influential contributions include his defense of logicism (the view that mathematics is in some important sense reducible to logic), his refining of the predicate calculus introduced by Gottlob Frege (which still forms the basis of most contemporary logic), his defense of neutral monism (the view that the world consists of just one type of substance that is neither exclusively mental nor exclusively physical), and his theories of definite descriptions and logical atomism.

Along withG.E. Moore, Russell is generally recognized as one of the founders of modern analytic philosophy. Along with Kurt Gödel, he is regularly credited with being one of the most important logicians of the twentieth century. Over the course of his long career, Russell made significant contributions, not just to logic and philosophy, but to a broad range of subjects including education, history, political theory and religious studies. In addition, many of his writings on a variety of topics in both the sciences and the humanities have influenced generations of general readers.

Describing philosophy, Russell wrote: "Uncertainty, in the presence of vivid hopes and fears, is painful, but must be endured if we wish to live without the support of comforting fairy tales. It is not good either to forget the questions that philosophy asks, or to persuade ourselves that we have found indubitable answers to them. To teach men how to live without certainty, and yet without being paralyzed by hesitation, is perhaps the chief thing that philosophy, in our age, can still do for those who study it.


Betty Boop 1930


Betty Boop is an animated cartoon character appearing in the Talkartoon and Betty Boop series of films produced by Max Fleischer and released by Paramount Pictures. With her overt sexual appeal, Betty was a hit with theater-goers, and despite having been toned down in the mid-1930s, she remains popular today.Betty Boop made her first appearance on August 9, 1930 in the cartoon Dizzy Dishes, the sixth installment in Fleischer's Talkartoon series.

She was originally designed by Grim Natwick, a veteran animator of the silent era who would become lead director and animator for the Ub Iwerks and Walt Disney studios. The character was modeled after Helen Kane, the famous popular singer of the 1920s and contract player at Paramount Pictures, the studio that distributed Fleischer's cartoons. By direction of Dave Fleischer, Natwick designed the original character in the mode of an anthropomorphic French poodle.

The character's voice was first performed by Margie Hines, and was later provided by several different voice actresses including Kate Wright, Ann Rothschild (a.k.a. Little Ann Little), Bonnie Poe, and most notably, Mae Questel who began in 1931 and continued with the role until 1938. During her prime, it was not uncommon to see big name musical guests making appearances in her cartoons. Some of these were: "I'll be glad when you're Dead, You Rascal You" (1932), featuring Louis Armstrong, "Minnie the Moocher" (1932), featuring Cab Calloway, and one of my favorites "Snow White" (1933) featuring Cab Calloway doing the song "Saint James Infirmary Blues".

In the 1930's, Betty Boop was made into dolls, toys, and other collectibles. Her popularity declined for several decades, but then, in the 1980's she began to become popular again. Now, as she becomes more popular, there are many products and collectables available. Some of the items I have are dolls, ceramics, T-shirts, posters, watches,and more. Almost anything you can think of, is now available.

I think that Betty is as popular now, as she has ever been. Betty Boop was the first female flapper cartoon ever. Betty Boop made her first appearance on August 9, 1930 in the cartoon Dizzy Dishes, the sixth installment in Fleischer's Talkartoon series. She was little like her soon-to-be-famous self, however. Grim Natwick, a veteran animator of both Walt Disney's and Ub Iwerks' studios, was largely responsible for creating the character, which he modeled on Helen Kane, a singer and contract player at Paramount Pictures, the studio that distributed Fleischer's cartoons.

In keeping with common practice, Natwick made his new character an animal, in this case, a French poodle. Beginning with this cartoon, the character's voice was performed by several different voice actresses until Mae Questel got the role, in 1931, and kept it for the rest of the series. Natwick himself later conceded that Betty's original look was quite ugly.

The animator redesigned her in 1932 to be recognizably human in the cartoon Any Rags. Her floppy poodle ears became hoop earrings, and her poodle fur became a bob haircut. She appeared in ten cartoons as a supporting character, a flapper girl with more heart than brains. In individual cartoons she was called "Nancy Lee" and "Nan McGrew". She usually served as studio star Bimbo's girlfriend. She was not officially christened "Betty Boop" until the 1932 short Stopping the Show that same year. This was also the first cartoon to be officially part of the Betty Boop series and not a Talkartoon.


Oswald Mosleys black shirts


In 1935 Britain was just coming out of a severe depression. There had been a dramatic decline in the traditional industries of coalmining, shipbuilding, steel and textiles, and in the industries supplying them, such as Cradley Heath’s chain-making industry, which supplied the navy and commercial shipping with heavy chain. Many new industries were set in the Midlands.

One example is the Revo Electric Company in Tipton. The new industries offered well-paid work for many, but levels of unemployment were still high. In 1931 unemployment in Dudley peaked at 38.8%. Cradley Heath was badly hit, at 36.3%. Other Black County towns suffered unemployment rates of over 30%. By 1934 levels had fallen.

In Dudley, for example, it was 20.8%, but large numbers were still suffering the humiliation of means-tested benefits. The Means Test was still operating in 1935. Unemployed workers, who had exhausted their 26 weeks of benefit, had to answer searching and personal questions in an attempt to qualify for assistance. Inspectors regularly visited the homes of claimants to check whether they had any other form of income, or any goods that might be sold. The National Government, a coalition of various parties, was in power in 1935. Stanley Baldwin became Prime Minister in June 1935, taking over from Ramsay MacDonald. Some people in Britain reacted to the Depression by supporting extremist groups.

On the extreme left wing was the Communist Party of Great Britain (C.PG.B.), and on the far right, Oswald Mosley’s British Union of Fascists (B.U.F.). Moseley saw himself as a second Mussolini, and by early 1934 had recruited 50,000 members to his newly named British Union of Fascists (B.U.F.), but it did not pose a serious challenge to the government. By 1935, support for the BU.F. was declining and there was widespread anti-fascist feeling throughout the country.

Communism appealed to many working-class men and middle-class intellectuals, although it had limited success in the country as a whole. Nevertheless, the Communists were at the forefront of campaigns in support of the unemployed and against the Means Test.

The communist-inspired National Unemployed Workers’ Movement sought to raise the profile of the unemployment issue through hunger marches, factory raids to protest against overtime working and mass demonstrations aimed in particular at Poor Law Guardians. Despite the activities of extremist political groups, the National Government continued to enjoy the support of the majority of the British public throughout the 1930s.

For many people in Britain the 1930s was a period of great hardship. The Wall Street Crash in 1929 started a worldwide economic depression that lasted for much of the decade. Old industries such as steel, ship-building and coal mining suffered the most. For the people of Britain the spectre of unemployment was always present. The general election of 1929 saw the Labour Party become, for the first time in their history, the largest party in Parliament.

They then formed the government under Ramsey MacDonald. On 23rd August 1931 the Cabinet voted to cut unemployment benefit by 10%. Several ministers resigned. MacDonald then formed a new ‘National’ government with many Labour MPs, Conservative MPs and some Liberal MPs. MacDonald was expelled from the Labour Party but the Labour Party did not recover its strength until 1945.

The 1930s also saw the rise of minor parties that offered radical solutions to Britain’s economic problems. Both the British Union of Fascists (BUF) and the British Communist Party gained in popularity. The BUF looked to Nazi Germany and fascist Italy for inspiration whilst the Communists were inspired by Soviet Union under Josef Stalin. The BUF never gained any seats in Parliament while the Communists managed to win just one seat in 1935.



The Thirties began quietly with an international treaty extending previous agreements to reduce naval armament, but as the years passed they quietly dissipated as the nations of the world moved inexorably toward war. In the United States, the period began with disturbing indications of a dark economic depression that soon became harsh reality.

Forced by this circumstance to effect rigid economies, the expansion of Naval Aviation was slowed, the aircraft inventory was barely sufficient to equip operating units, research and development programs suffered, and operations were curtailed drastically. But as the nation began its program to recover prosperity through the initiation of public works, money was made available for more naval aircraft, for new ships and for modernizing naval air stations.

The upward swing began. In spite of the hardships, there were surprising gains in aviation technology. Engineers and aircraft manufacturers produced more dependable products, aircraft equipment and components were refined and improved, and aircraft performance rose sharply. Better radios of reduced size, more accurate bomb sights, supercharged power plants, controllable-pitch propellers, efficient retractable landing gear and folding wings; all contributed to the improvement of aircraft performance and made air planes better instruments of war.

In February 1938, Abbott and Costello joined the cast of the The Kate Smith Hour radio program, and the sketch was first performed for a national radio audience that March. The routine may have been further polished before this broadcast by burlesque producer John Grant, who became the team's writer, and Will Glickman, a staff writer on the radio show.

Glickman may have added the nicknames of then-contemporary baseball players like Dizzy and Daffy Dean to set up the routine's premise. This version, with extensive wordplay based on the fact that most of a fictional baseball team's players had "strange nicknames" that seemed to be questions, became known as "Who's on First?" By 1944, Abbott and Costello had the routine copyrighted.

Abbott and Costello performed "Who's on First?" numerous times in their careers, rarely performing it the same way twice. Once, they did the routine at President Roosevelt's request. The routine was featured in the team's 1940 film debut, One Night in the Tropics. The duo reprised the bit in their 1945 film The Naughty Nineties, and it is that version which is considered their finest recorded rendition.

They also performed the routine numerous times on radio and television (notably in The Abbott and Costello Show episode "The Actor's Home"). Superman is one of our culture's most enduring and recognizable cultural icons, the inspiration for countless imitators, and a perennial American role model. Superman embodies all our hopes and dreams, and our deepest fears. He is a man who is blessed with extraordinary superpowers many wish they could have.

But this seemingly invincible superman can be felled when exposed to a tiny, green rock Kryptonite. This tragic flaw only scratches the surface of Superman's many paradoxes and dualities. His journey from the printed page onto the silver screen has made it extremely hard to pin down the man behind the "S". Swing, like several other styles of 20th Century popular music, has its origins in African rhythms.

Traditional West African music brought to the United States and elsewhere by enslaved Africans hybridized with western music to eventually create a distinct style. The first recordings labeled swing style date from the 1920s, and come from both the United States and the United Kingdom.

They are characterized by the swing rhythm already at that time common in jazz music, and a distinctive lively style which is harder to define. Although swing evolved out of the lively jazz experimentation that began in New Orleans and that developed further (and in varying forms) in Kansas City and New York City, what is now called swing diverged from other jazz music in ways that distinguished it as a form in its own right.

The men were demanding that a steel works be built to bring back jobs to their town, as Palmer's shipyard in Jarrow had been closed down in the previous year. The yard had been Jarrow's major source of employment, and the closure compounded the problems of poverty, overcrowding, poor housing and high mortality rates that already beset the town.

In October 1936, a group 200 men from the north-eastern town of Jarrow marched 300 miles to London. They wanted Parliament, and the people in the south, to understand that they were orderly, responsible citizens, but were living in a region where there were many difficulties, and where there was 70 per cent unemployment - leading one of the marchers to describe his home town in those days as '...a filthy, dirty, falling down, consumptive area.


Transcript COPY. HOME OFFICE 6 OCT 1936 RECEIVED MINISTRY OF LABOUR

Jarrow & Hebburn E.E. Hebburn March of unemployed from Jarrow to London. Commencing Monday 5.10.36 A March has been organised for the purpose of drawing the attention of the Government to the Unemployment position in the town, and in the hope that by this means the position of Jarrow will obtain wide publicity and sympathy of the general public resulting in the establishment of industry to provide work for unemployed men.

Most of these men were formerly employed in Palmer’s Shipyard, which closed down in1931. The Steelworks which at one time employed approximately 2,500, closed down in 1921, but the blast furnaces, which employed 1,500 up to 1921, re-started in November, 1926 until October, 1928. They afterwards re-opened in 1929, and finally closed down in May, 1930.

During the latter two periods approximately 400 men were employed. The March has been organised by the Mayor and Council of Jarrow, and the principal person responsible for the organisation, etc. is Councillor D. F. Riley, member of the Jarrow Borough Council.

A separate office in the Town Hall has been opened to deal with the project. Thousands of letters appealing for financial support have been sent to various parts of the country and to most of the Local Authorities. The Mayors and Chairmen of Councils of various towns on Tyneside have attended several meetings convened by the Lord Mayor of Newcastle to consider what steps should be taken to support Jarrow’s appeal. In addition, a petition has been signed by residents in Jarrow and adjacent towns. This petition to be placed before the House of Commons draws attention to the serious unemployment situation existing in Jarrow.

A notice is displayed in the Town Hall requesting men who are willing to join in the March to register their names. I am given to understand that the number of Marchers will be determined by the amount of financial assistance received. It is attended that he men should be well-cared for and that sufficient money should be in hand to enable them to return to Jarrow by rail.

At present, it is estimated that approximately 200 men will participate in the March.It is extremely difficult to obtain reliable information, but the following has been obtained, partly from reports appearing in the local press and from conversations I have had from time to time with people who are taking an active interest in the organisation of the March.

The Local Medical Officer of Health has agreed to examine each man in order to ensure that he is physically fit to take part in the March. It is hoped to be able to provide a pair of boots with special inner soles, and iodine socks, for each man.  In Some towns en route arrangements have been made with the Local Authorities for sleeping accommodation, and in some cases the provision of a meal, but in others it appears that the men will have to depend upon ‘casual wards’ for sleeping accommodation. 

To stress the non-political nature of the March, two agents representing the Labour and Conservative interests will travel three days in advance of the Marchers to confirm the arrangements that have been provisionally made, and also to arrange for public meetings to solicit support. e)

It is understood that assistance of medical students for the purpose of first aid has been promised in certain towns. ) A motor ambulance will accompany the Marchers. g) A field kitchen has been provided and a lorry will convey all the necessary sleeping equipment, which will enable the men to march without being called upon to carry packs.

The lorry and field kitchen will proceed in advance of the Marchers in order that meals will be ready for the Marchers on their arrival at the schedule stopping places.Special Meetings are being held, at which it is expected that all those participating in the march will attend in order that the rules which have been agreed on by the Committee can be explained to the men.


It is understood that the committee will take steps to ensure that the rules are strictly complied with and that all the men guilty of misdemeanour's will be sent home. Every effort is being taken to ensure that the men conduct themselves in an orderly manner and thus contribute to the success of the March.

Miss Ellen Wilkinson, M.P. for Jarrow, and several members of the Council, intend to accompany the men on their March. According to the press, a special fund is being created by the Organising Officials of the Jarrow more work march to London to provide for the wives and children of members of the Jarrow Council during the march.

This action is being taken to prevent the councillors and aldermen taking part in the march from having to accept Public Assistance Benefit as any public representative who accepts relief automatically loses his office.

For this reason also, while the ordinary members in the march will be accommodated in the casual wards of the towns through which they pass on their route to London, the members of the council will be placed in separate lodgings. Recently, the North-East Public Assistance Committee recommended to the Durham County Public Assistance Committee that allowances should be paid to the dependants of men participating in the March.

According to a report published in the “North Mail” on 25th September, 1936, it would appear that the committee decided that in the case of the Jarrow Marchers relief should be paid to their dependants. On arrival in London arrangements have been made to hold a special meeting at the Farringdon Memorial Hall, London. The following persons have been invited to address the meeting-: Bishop of Jarrow Sir John Jarvis Bt., M.P. The Lord Mayor of London Lord Snell, Chairman of London County Council Miss Ellen Wilkinson, M.P. Councillor R. I.Dodds, Ex-Mayor of Jarrow.


Duke Ellington


During the 1920s and early 1930s, the dance form of jazz was popular. This style used sweet and romantic melody accompanied by lush, romantic string orchestra arrangements. Orchestras tended to stick to the melody as it was written ,and vocals would be sung sweetly (often in a tenor voice). Swing music abandoned the string orchestra and used simpler, "edgier" arrangements that emphasized horns and wind instruments and improvised melodies. Swing, like several other styles of 20th-century popular music, has its origins in African rhythms. Traditional West African music brought to the US and elsewhere by enslaved Africans hybridized with western music to eventually create a distinct style.

The first recordings labelled race records date from the 1920s, and come from both the United States and the United Kingdom. They are characterized by an improvised style, a smaller number of musicians, a lack of strings and a distinctive lively style which is harder to define, now known as swing rhythm. Since these recordings were mainly produced by minorities with limited resources, the recordings were often made with sub-standard equipment such as the acoustic recording method.

Many of these records are extremely rare, as they did not sell well with mainstream audiences. Although swing evolved out of the lively jazz experimentation that began in New Orleans and that developed further (and in varying forms) in Kansas City and New York City, what is now called swing diverged from other jazz music in ways that distinguished it as a form in its own right.

The styles of jazz that were popular from the late teens through the late 1920s were usually played with rhythms with a two beat feel, and often attempted to reproduce the style of contrapuntal improvisation developed by the first generation of jazz musicians in New Orleans. In the late 1920s, however, larger ensembles using written arrangements became the norm, and a subtle stylistic shift took place in the rhythm, which developed a four beat feel with a smoothly syncopated style of playing the melody, while the rhythm section supported it with a steady four to the bar.


Emily Wilding Davison killed


Emily Wilding Davison (1872 June 8, 1913) was an activist for women's suffrage in the United Kingdom. She died when she was struck by King George V's horse at the Epsom Derby. Davison was born in Blackheath, London, and had a university education, having studied first at Royal Holloway College in London. She later studied English Language and Literature at St Hugh's College, Oxford, and obtained first-class honours in her final exams, though women were not at that time admitted to degrees at Oxford. She joined the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1906, and immediately involved herself in their more militant activities. She was arrested and imprisoned for various offences, including a violent attack on a man she mistook for the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George.

She went on hunger strike and was force-fed in Holloway prison, where she threw herself down an iron staircase as a protest. She landed on wire netting 30 feet below, which saved her, however she suffered some severe spinal damage. Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 22 November 1963) was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family.

He spent the latter part of his life in the United States, living in Los Angeles from 1937 until his death in 1963. Best known for his novels and wide-ranging output of essays, he also published short stories, poetry, travel writing, and film stories and scripts. Huxley was a humanist but was also interested towards the end of his life in spiritual subjects such as parapsychology and philosophical mysticism.

By the end of his life Huxley was considered, in some academic circles, a leader of modern thought and an intellectual of the highest rank. He was also well known for advocating and taking LSD, including on his death bed. The Dust Bowl was a series of dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands from 1930 to 1936 (in some areas until 1940), caused by severe drought coupled with decades of extensive farming without crop rotation or other techniques that prevented erosion.

The fertile soil of the Great Plains was exposed through removal of grass during plowing. During the drought, soil dried, became dust, and blew away eastwards and southwards, mostly in large black clouds. At times, the clouds blackened the sky all the way to California, and much of the soil was deposited in the Atlantic Ocean. During the 1930s, large dust storms ravaged the Great Plains. This area was labeled the Dust Bowl" and the period was called the "dirty thirties".



The Dust Bowl consisted of 100 million acres in the panhandles of Texas , Oklahoma, New Mexico, Colorado, and Kansas. Tarzan has been called one of the best-known literary characters in the world. In addition to more than two dozen books by Burroughs and a handful more by authors with the blessing of Burroughs' estate, the character has appeared in films, radio, television, comic strips, and comic books. Numerous parodies and pirated works have also appeared. Science fiction author Philip José Farmer wrote Tarzan Alive!, a biography of Tarzan utilizing the frame device that he was a real person. In Farmer's fictional universe, Tarzan, along with Doc Savage and Sherlock Holmes, are the cornerstones of the Wold Newton family.

Even though the copyright on Tarzan of the Apes has expired in the United States of America, the name Tarzan is still protected as a trademark of Edgar Rice Burroughs, Inc. Also, the work remains under copyright in some other countries where copyright terms are longer. Joan Crawford (born Lucille Fay LeSueur; (March 23, 1905 May 10, 1977) was an Academy Award-winning American actress.

The American Film Institute named Crawford among the Greatest Female Stars of All Time, ranking her at number 10. Starting as a dancer on Broadway, Crawford was signed to a motion picture contract by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios in 1925 and played in small parts. By the end of the '20s, as her popularity grew, she became famous as a youthful flapper. At the beginning of the 1930s, Crawford's fame rivaled that of fellow MGM colleagues Norma Shearer and Greta Garbo.

She was often cast in movies in which she played hard working young women who eventually found romance and financial success. These "rags to riches" stories were well-received by Depression-era audiences. Women, particularly, seemed to identify with her characters' struggles. By the end of the decade, Crawford remained one of Hollywood's most prominent movie stars, and one of the highest paid women in the U.S. During the so-called Golden Age of Hollywood, which lasted from the end of the silent era in American cinema in the late 1920s to the late 1950s, thousands of movies were issued from the Hollywood studios.

The start of the Golden Age was arguably when The Jazz Singer was released in 1927, ending the silent era and increasing box-office profits for films as sound was introduced to feature films. Most Hollywood pictures adhered closely to a formula - Western, slapstick comedy, musical, animated cartoon, biopic (biographical picture) - and the same creative teams often worked on films made by the same studio. For example, Cedric Gibbons and Herbert Stothart always worked on MGM films, Alfred Newman worked at 20th Century Fox for twenty years, Cecil B. De Mille's films were almost all made at Paramount, and director Henry King's films were mostly made for 20th Century Fox.

At the same time, one could usually guess which studio made which film, largely because of the actors who appeared in it; MGM, for example, claimed it had contracted "more stars than there are in heaven." Each studio had its own style and characteristic touches which made it possible to know this — a trait that does not exist today.

Yet each movie was a little different, and, unlike the craftsmen who made cars, many of the people who made movies were artists. For example, To Have and Have Not (1944) is famous not only for the first pairing of actors Humphrey Bogart (1899–1957) and Lauren Bacall (1924–) but also for being written by two future winners of the Nobel Prize in Literature: Ernest Hemingway (1899–1961), the author of the novel on which the script was nominally based, and William Faulkner (1897–1962), who worked on the screen adaptation.

After The Jazz Singer was released in 1927, Warner Bros. gained huge success and was able to acquire their own string of movie theaters, after purchasing Stanley Theaters and First National Productions in 1928. MGM had also owned the Loews string of theaters since forming in 1924, and the Fox Film Corporation owned the Fox Theatre strings as well. Also, RKO (a 1928 merger between Keith-Orpheum Theaters and the Radio Corporation of America) responded to the Western Electric/ERPI monopoly over sound in films , and developed their own method, known as Photophone, to put sound in films.

Paramount, who already acquired Balaban and Katz in 1926, would answer to the success of Warner Bros. and RKO, and buy a number of theaters in the late 1920s as well, and would hold a monopoly on theaters in Detroit, Michigan. By the 1930s, all of America's theaters were owned by the Big Five studios - MGM, Paramount Pictures, RKO, Warner Bros., and 20th Century Fox.


Humpfry Bogart


Bogarde served in the Second World War, being commissioned into the Queen's Royal Regiment in 1943. He reached the rank of captain and served in both the European and Pacific theatres, principally as an intelligence officer. Taylor Downing's book "Spies in the Sky" tells of his work with a specialist unit interpreting aerial photo-reconnaissance information, before moving to Normandy with Canadian forces. Bogarde claimed to have been one of the first Allied officers in April 1945 to reach the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp in Germany, an experience that had the most profound effect on him and about which he found it difficult to speak for many years afterward.

As John Carey has summed up with regard to John Coldstream's authorised biography however, "it is virtually impossible that he (Bogarde) saw Belsen or any other camp. Things he overheard or read seem to have entered his imagination and been mistaken for lived experience. Coldstream's analysis seems to conclude that this was indeed the case. Nonetheless, the horror and revulsion at the cruelty and inhumanity that he claimed to have witnessed still left him with a deep-seated hostility towards Germany; in the late-1980s he wrote that he would disembark from a lift rather than ride with a German of his generation. Nevertheless, three of his more memorable film roles were as Germans, one of them as a former SS officer in

The Night Porter (1974). Bogarde was most vocal, towards the end of his life, on the issue of voluntary euthanasia, of which he became a staunch proponent after witnessing the protracted death of his lifelong partner and manager Anthony Forwood (the former husband of actress Glynis Johns) in 1988. He gave an interview to John Hofsess, London executive director of the Voluntary Euthanasia Society: My views were formulated as a 24-year-old officer in Normandy ... On one occasion the jeep ahead hit a mine ... Next thing I knew, there was this chap in the long grass beside me.

A bloody bundle, shrapnel-ripped, legless, one arm only. The one arm reached out to me, white eyeballs wide, unseeing, in the bloody mask that had been a face. A gurgling voice said, "Help. Kill me." With shaking hands I reached for my small pouch to load my revolver ... I had to look for my bullets—by which time somebody else had already taken care of him. I heard the shot. I still remember that gurgling sound. A voice pleading for death .... During the war I saw more wounded men being "taken care of" than I saw being rescued.

Because sometimes you were too far from a dressing station, sometimes you couldn't get them out. And they were pumping blood or whatever; they were in such a wreck, the only thing to do was to shoot them. And they were, so don't think they weren't. That hardens you: You get used to the fact that it can happen. And that it is the only sensible thing to do. His London West End theatre-acting debut was in 1939, with the stage name 'Derek Bogaerde', in J. B. Priestley's play Cornelius.

After the war, Bogarde's agent renamed him "Dirk Bogarde" and his good looks helped him begin a career as a film actor. He was contracted to The Rank Organisation under the wing of the prolific independent film producer Betty Box, who produced most of his early films and was instrumental in creating his matinée idol image.

Stardom During the 1950s, Bogarde came to prominence playing a hoodlum who shoots and kills a police constable inThe Blue Lamp (1950) co-starring Jack Warner and Bernard Lee; a handsome artist who comes to rescue of Jean Simmons during the World's Fair in Paris in So Long at the Fair, a film noir thriller; an accidental murderer who befriends a young boy played by Jon Whiteley in Hunted (aka The Stranger in Between) (1952); in Appointment in London (1953) as a young wing commander in Bomber Command who, against orders, opts to fly his 90th mission with his men in a major air offensive against the Germans; an unjustly imprisoned man who regains hope in clearing his name when he learns his sweetheart, Mai Zetterling, is still alive in Desperate Moment (1953); Doctor in the House (1954), as a medical student, in a film that made Bogarde one of the most popular British stars of the 1950s, and co-starring Kenneth More,

Donald Sinden and James Robertson Justice as their crabby mentor. In The Sleeping Tiger (1954), Bogarde played a neurotic criminal with co-star Alexis Smith, and Bogarde's first film for American expatriate director Joseph Losey; Doctor at Sea (1955), co-starring Brigitte Bardot in one of her first film roles; as a returning colonial who fights the Mau-Mau with Virginia McKenna and Donald Sinden in Simba (1955);Cast a Dark Shadow (1955), as a man who marries women for money and then murders them; The Spanish Gardener (1956), co-starring Michael Hordern, Jon Whiteley, and Cyril Cusack;

Doctor at Large (1957), again with Donald Sinden, another entry in the Doctor film series, co-starring later Bond-girl Shirley Eaton; the Powell and Pressburger production Ill Met by Moonlight (1957) co-starring Marius Goring as the German General Kreipe, kidnapped on Crete by Patrick "Paddy" Leigh Fermor (Bogarde) and a fellow band of adventurers based on W. Stanley Moss' real-life account of the WW2 caper; A Tale of Two Cities (1958), a faithful retelling of Charles Dickens' classic; as a flight lieutenant in the Far East who falls in love with a beautiful Japanese teacher Yoko Tani in The Wind Cannot Read (1958);The Doctor's Dilemma (1959), based on a play by George Bernard Shaw and co-starring Leslie Caron and Robert Morley;

and Libel (1959), playing three separate roles and co-starring Olivia de Havilland. Later roles After leaving the Rank Organisation in the early 1960s, Bogarde abandoned his heartthrob image for more challenging parts. He starred in the film Victim (1961), playing a London barrister who fights the blackmailers of a young man with whom he has had a deeply emotional and loving relationship.

The young man commits suicide after being arrested for embezzlement, rather than ruin his beloved's career. In exposing the ring of extortionists, Bogarde's character risks his reputation and marriage in order to see that justice is done. Victim was the first mainstream British film to portray the humiliation gay people were exposed to via discriminatory law, and as a victimized minority; consequently it had some effect upon a contemporary Sexual Offences Act 1967 change in English punitive prosecution of consensual same-sex affectional expression. Other later roles included decadent valet Hugo Barrett in The Servant (1963), which garnered him a BAFTA Award, directed by Joseph Losey and written by Harold Pinter;

The Mind Benders (1963), a film ahead of its times in which Bogarde plays an Oxford professor conducting sensory deprivation experiments at Oxford University(precursor to Altered States (1980)); the anti-war film King & Country (1964), playing an army lawyer reluctantly defending deserter Tom Courtenay, directed by Joseph Losey; a television broadcaster-writer Robert Gold in Darling (1965), for which Bogarde won a second BAFTA Award, directed by John Schlesinger; Stephen, a bored Oxford University professor, in Losey's Accident, (1967) also written by Pinter; Our Mother's House (1967), an off-beat film-noir directed by Jack Clayton in which Bogarde plays an n'er do well father who descends upon "his" seven children on the death of their mother,

British entry at the Venice Film Festival; German industrialist Frederick Bruckmann in Luchino Visconti's La Caduta degli dei, The Damned (1969) co-starring Ingrid Thulin; as ex-Nazi, Max Aldorfer, in the chilling and controversial Il Portiere di notte (aka The Night Porter) (1974), co-starring Charlotte Rampling, directed by Liliana Cavani; and most notably, as Gustav von Aschenbach in Morte a Venezia, Death in Venice (1971), also directed by Visconti; as Claude, the lawyer son of a dying, drunken writer (John Gielgud) in the well-received, multi-dimensional French film Providence (1977), directed by Alain Resnais; as industrialist Hermann Hermann who descends into madness in Despair (1978) directed by Rainer Werner Fassbinder; and as Daddy in Bertrand Tavernier's Daddy Nostalgie, (akaThese Foolish Things) (1991), co-starring Jane Birkin as his daughter, Bogarde's final film role.

In some of his other roles during the 1960s and 1970s, Bogarde played opposite renowned stars, yet several of the films were of uneven quality, down to demands or limitations set by the studio or their scripts: The Angel Wore Red (1960), playing an unfrocked priest who falls in love with cabaret entertainer Ava Gardner during the Spanish Civil War; Song Without End (1960), as Hungarian composer and virtuoso pianist Franz Liszt, a flawed film made under the initial direction of Charles Vidor (who died during shooting), and completed by Bogarde's friend George Cukor, the actor's only disappointing foray into Hollywood; the campy

The Singer Not the Song (1961), as a Mexican bandit co-starring John Mills as a priest; H.M.S. Defiant (aka Damn the Defiant!) (1962), playing sadistic Lieutenant Scott-Padget, co-starring Sir Alec Guinness; I Could Go On Singing (1963), co-starring Judy Garlandin her final screen role; Hot Enough for June, (aka "Agent 8¾") (1964), a James Bond-type spy spoof co-starring Robert Morley; Modesty Blaise (1966), a campy spy send-up playing archvillain Gabriel opposite Monica Vitti and Terence Stamp and directed by Joseph Losey;

The Fixer (1968), based on Bernard Malamud's novel, co-starring Alan Bates;Sebastian (1968), as Sebastian, a mathematician working on code decryption, who falls in love with Susannah York, a decrypter in the all-female decoding office he heads for British Intelligence, also co-starring Sir John Gielgud, and Lilli Palmer, co-produced by Michael Powell; Oh! What a Lovely War (1969), co-starring Sir John Gielgud and Sir Laurence Olivier and directed by Richard Attenborough; Justine (1969), directed by George Cukor;Le Serpent (1973), co-starring Henry Fonda and Yul Brynner;

A Bridge Too Far (1977), in a controversial performance as Lieutenant General Frederick "Boy" Browning, also starring Sean Connery and an all-star cast and again directed by Richard Attenborough. Bogarde claimed he had known General Browning from his time on Field Marshal Montgomery's staff during the war and took issue with the largely negative portrayal of the General that he played in the 1977 film A Bridge Too Far. General "Boy" Browning's widow, the author Daphne du Maurier, ferociously attacked his characterization and "the resultant establishment fallout, much of ithomophobic, wrongly convinced [Bogarde] that the newly ennobled Sir Richard [Attenborough] had deliberately contrived to scupper his own chance of a knighthood."

In 1977, Bogarde embarked on his second career as an author. Starting with a first volume A Postillion Struck by Lightning (an allusion to the phrase My postillion has been struck by lightning), he wrote a series of 15 best-selling memoirs, novels, essays, reviews, poetry, and collected journalism. As a writer Bogarde displayed a witty, elegant, highly literate and thoughtful style.


Amy Johnson pilot


In May 1930 Amy Jonhson flew solo to Australia in a Gipsy Moth plane nicknamed ‘Jason’ after her father’s business. Although she did not break the record she did attract considerable media attention and was awarded the CBE in the King’s birthday honours list. On 29th July 1932, Amy married fellow aviator Jim Mollison after a whirlwind romance. Neither marriage or her celebrity status could stop her flying and she broke her husband’s record of flying between the UK and Cape Town.

The following year the couple flew together from the UK to the USA in a plane named Seafearer which Jim had adapted by installing huge fuel tanks to complete the journey without stopping. The trip nearly ended in disaster when just 55 miles short of their destination they ran out of fuel and crash landed.

The couple were injured but they had achieved their goal and were rewarded with a ticker tape parade along Broadway in New York. Hull Amy never forgot her home town and in 1932 “The Amy Johnson Cup for Courage” was presented to the City of Hull.

The cup was paid for with a purse of sovereigns Amy received from school children in Sydney and was to be awarded each year to a Hull child (under the age of 17) for a deed of courage. Despite of the celebrity and record breaking achievements, Amy found it difficult to earn a living as a commercial pilot. Only two jobs had materialised in the 1930s, one for a few weeks in 1934, as a pilot for the daily London to Paris trips of Hillman Airways, the other for nine months in 1939 on the Solent air ferry service.

The outbreak of war gave Amy meant she could became a pilot in the women's section of the Air Transport Auxiliary, flying machines and men to wherever they were needed. Tragic accident On 5th January 1941, she drowned when the plane she was flying crashed into the Thames Estuary during rough weather.

A rescue boat did reach Amy, but it is believed the current from its propeller sucked her under water and she drowned. Johnson set out from Croydon Aerodrome on May 5 1930, less than a year after receiving her pilot’s license, and arrived in Darwin on May 24, 11,000 miles and 19 days later.

So though she gained the fame she desired, she did not take the record she had set her sights on. Amy Johnson’s subsequent career did, however, see her breaking records, alone and with her husband Jim Mollison. She died during WWII when she went off course during a flight for the Air Transport Auxiliary, drowning after ditching in the Thames Estuary.


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