Sport has become an integral part of human life.The word 'Sport' had originated between 1910 and 1915. The development of sport in the ancient, middle ages and in the modern days has been phenomenal. In the ancient days, the Greek and Roman had evinced a keen interest in developing sport. It was the Greek who organized the Olympics and interestingly people from all over the world participated and witnessed it.

Thus modern Olympics had originated in Athens city of Greece. The feudal system of the middle ages had hampered the growth of sport that was revived only in the days of renaissance. In the modern days, especially in the 20th century, sport has witnessed an organized growth and development of games.

Baseball in the US, cricket in England, hockey in countries like India and Pakistan are some of the games that developed rapidly in the 20th century.Olympic games, Pan-American games, Commonwealth Games and Afro-Asian Games etc have been organized and held at periodic intervals, making the sport as an international event in the 20th century.


Welcome to Pastreunited, here you will find hundreds of videos, images, and over 80 pages about all aspects of the 20th century. A great deal of the content has been sent in, other content is the work of numerous writers who have a passion for this era, please feel free to send in your memories or that of your family members, photos and videos are all welcome to help expand pastreunited's data base.

You may also add a dedication to a loved one if you wish, we have been on-line for many years and intend to be here for many years to come as new family members will take over the website, all content is regularly backed up to safe guard the content, so what are you waiting for send us an email and we will do the rest.




World cup 1930


The World Cup is the premier international football championship, organized every four years by the International Federation of Association Football, or FIFA. Although FIFA was founded in Paris in 1904, the first World Cup was not held until 1930.

FIFA's first precursor to the event was an international tournament held in 1906, but at that time, FIFA's membership was all European. It would not expand to other continents until after 1909. The First World War proved a major stumbling block to both FIFA and any efforts to organize future international football events, as most of the membership were belligerents. However, FIFA did become involved in organizing Olympic football events during this period, which greatly spurred momentum towards a non-amateur tournament.

The first World Cup was held in Uruguay, as they were the two-time champions of FIFA's most recent efforts at international tournaments. Thirteen countries sent teams, with Uruguay defeating Argentina 4-2 in the final. The early tournaments of the 1930s were plagued by issues stemming from international travel: team from the Western Hemisphere were largely unwilling to travel to Europe for the tournament, and vice versa. Despite these difficulties, the World Cup rapidly came to overshadow Olympic football as the premier football event in international competition.    

The Second World War interrupted World Cup football again, with the tournaments of 1942 and 1946 being cancelled. The 1950 World Cup, held in Brazil, was therefore noteworthy for two reasons: it was the first Cup to be held since 1938, and it featured the return of the teams from the United Kingdom and Uruguay, both of which had been boycotting FIFA events for years. Uruguay beat Brazil in a famed match known as the Maracanazo.   Tournament finals have been held every four years since 1950. The tournament has since expanded from 16 slots to 24, and finally to 32. The growth of the tournament represents both the growth of footballs international popularity, as well as the fame and prestige of the tournament as football's premier event.

Original Article By Stanley Lewis



Pierre Lamoigne couldn't have known that he was making aviation sport history when in the early 1960's he attached a parachute to his moving car and invented para-sailing. Lamoigne was a parachute teacher, and the easiest method then to teach the use of a parachute was to raise the "pilot" into the air to a certain height and then untie the parachute to let the pilot float free. People often confuse this method called para ascending with hang gliding.

But when Lamoigne did not release the parachute and pulled the pilot along in the air behind in a high-speed vehicle, para sailing truly began. Higher standards for para sailing were set in the 1970s when a man named Mark McCulloh made history by using the parachutes at sea.

He started first by raising parachutes from the shore but then went on to design a motorized platform, then a boat to pull the parachute back to the ship. These days there is even a specially designed ship with a built-in platform for take off and landing.

The Pioneer Parachute Company started making parachutes under the protected name of "Parasail" back in the 1960s after Lamoigne's first successes. Parasailing historically has enjoyed most of its popularity as an air and water sport, but there are now land-based parasailing competitions that are especially popular in Northern Europe and Finland.

History was made again with the first international competitions being held in 2004. Parasailing does not have to rely on competitions to be a popular sport. History shows that the thrill and excitement of being airborne has made the sport of parasailing very popular with families.

But caution and good judgment should always be used, especially with the equipment and weather conditions for flying. Everyone should get training from a certified parasailing instructor before attempting a first flight. By Sarah Freeland.


Pierre Lamoigne


In any sport, there are always players that never fail to shine. They have been able to be role models to athletes all over the world, and have achieved great feats in their respective sports. For any aspiring athlete, looking at the careers of these great players truly serve inspirational. They even would help getting kids off the street because of the sheer greatness they exude. Whether they encourage people to engage in sports consciously or unconsciously, Bo Jackson He is arguably the best athlete ever.

One of the greatest things ever achieved in sports was for him to play in two different sports and actually do well in them. He was named an all-star in both the NFL and Major League Baseball. It's hard enough to shine and be an all-star in one sport, what more in two? Dan Marino When mentioning the NFL or American football in general, it is hard not to think about the name Dan Marino.

Although he never won a Super Bowl for the Miami Dolphins, he is regarded to be one of the greatest quarter backs in the history of the NFL. He held numerous records (some of which are already broken) such as most yards passing, most seasons, 40 or more touchdown passes, most seasons leading the league in completions, and the list goes on and on. Muhammad Ali "Floats like a butterfly stings like a bee" is one of the most famous quotes made by an athlete and this athlete is no other than Cassius Clay, more popularly known as Muhammad Ali.

Some people argue that he may have been the greatest athlete to ever walk the earth. While that is debatable, it is no question that he is one of the greatest. His speed combined with power overwhelmed his opponents in boxing, but one of his best weapons was his ability to intimidate. People would usually see him very arrogant before a match, and he would start bashing his opponents with his words. This doesn't mean that he was overconfident, but this was his way of getting into the mind of his opponent.

This is a tactic that is employed by a lot of great athletes, but it is hard to pull of for the ones that cannot back it up. Michael Jordan In basketball, he was given a lot of nicknames such as "his airness", "superman" and the one that probably fits him best, "the greatest". Although he is now regarded to be the greatest player to ever play the game of basketball, it wasn't always the though in the minds of people. He was cut from his high school team, and he was only 3rd overall when he was drafted in the NBA.

He wasn't always the best in basketball, but his competitiveness and his drive to win were the crucial factors that got him to where he is today. Whether there is a player that will be able to surpass the feats and achievement of his airness is yet to be seen, and probably something that won't happen too soon. By Rick Grantham.


Basketball Sports history


It is very hard to imagine a world that does not have any sports in it at all. Sport is a very necessary part of the human existence. It is part of many lives of regular and ordinary people. Sports has changed so dramatically over the course of time. Sports history will show that it began over four thousand years ago. That is some of the earliest recorded instances of sport. It has very primitive roots and has now turned into one of the biggest economic forces and money makers in history for many people all over the world.

Of course, way back when during the time when man first started walking the earth there was no sport to be heard of. And, sport truly began to evolve as a result of hunting and man trying to survive. Over the thousands of years that man has been on the earth he began to change, and, sport has changed right along with him. It has changed from early skills to an entertainment force that is a part of daily society and life. It does have a recorded history. And, that history shows that it is very rich and widespread indeed.

Artefacts and relics from the early Chinese show that this people made sports part of their life. Not just ordinary sport, but sport that was regulated and closely monitored. The Chinese people are credited with early gymnastics. There are remains of structures that still remain that support this history of gymnastics in China. The Chinese are also a people that liked to play a game that is very similar to association football, or soccer. This sport they liked to play was called cuju.

Ancient Egyptians are no strangers to the sporting world. The time of the great Pharaohs was filled with activities and sport they enjoyed. There were contests of competitive fishing. They were monitored and regulated for fairness. Also, the Egyptians were particularly fond of swimming contests. In addition, they were very fond of high jumping, wrestling, and javelin throwing. These are sports that can still be found today in modern times all over the world including the Olympics.

It has been shown in history books all over the world that the Greek people were the founders of such sports including the Olympics. They are and should be credited with the Olympics, but, sports and variations of sports have been recorded from all over the world. It is the early Persian people that should be given the credit for jousting, a sport that has been believed to have its beginnings in England. The Persians were also very involved with polo.

It is here in the Middle Ages where sports really began to change into true competitions among different people. It began as a sport for the local people, but here, villages began to compete against each other. Villages held many competitions against each other that have been shown to become particularly violent. This violent activity has recorded many serious injury from one village trying to dominate another. The nobles of the time were more inclined to participate and watch horse racing.

It is in the time of the 19th and 20th centuries where the country of Great Britain had the most influence on sport all over the world. They are the ones who spread the game of cricket to all parts of the vast British Empire.It is at this time when the United States of America began organized sports like baseball. This sport was mainly played in the cities of the North-eastern part of the country.

It is now where sports has become more of a business than just a game. It is now where there are millions paid to each player, and where owner spend millions of dollars on new stadiums to give the public the best sporting venue that will bring them the most money. It is not just a game any more.

By Pete Malcolm 

Babe Ruth


If you are a sports fan, you have probably heard the names Jim Thorpe and Babe Ruth. Even though both men died about fifty years ago, they are still considered among the greatest athletes of all time. When the sports television network ESPN compiled its list of top athletes of the twentieth century, it listed Ruth at number two and Thorpe at number eight.

What you may not know is that both of these athletic legends played sports in North Carolina when they were quite young. Their experiences in this state were very important. Jim Thorpe was born in Oklahoma in 1888.

He was a Fox and Sac Indian. He attended college at Carlisle Indian School in Pennsylvania. Thorpe was All-America in football in the fall of 1908. He spent the spring and summer of 1909 in North Carolina in a fun summer job—playing minor league baseball for the Rocky Mount Railroaders. The Railroaders belonged to the Eastern Carolina League, which also included teams in Fayetteville, Goldsboro, Raleigh, Wilmington, and Wilson. Thorpe earned twenty-five dollars per week.

Many college athletes played minor league baseball during the summers in the early years of the century. In fact, two of Thorpe’s Carlisle team mates joined him in Rocky Mount. Many college players used phony names when they played minor league ball, but Thorpe did not. The local fans knew all about his college exploits.


Babe Ruth’s visit to North Carolina was very different. George Herman “Babe” Ruth was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1895. He was raised at Saint Mary’s Orphanage because his parents could not control him. In 1914 he signed a professional baseball contract with the Baltimore Orioles, a minor league team in the International League. In March 1914 the Orioles visited Fayetteville for spring training. Ruth stayed in Fayetteville for only about a month, but he always remembered it. It was the first time he had ever been out of Baltimore.

Ruth later wrote about how much fun he had riding the LaFayette Hotel elevators. He was so inexperienced that, according to legend, one of his team mates saw him tagging along behind manager and owner Jack Dunn in Fayetteville and said, “There goes Dunn’s new babe.” That gave Ruth his famous nickname. On March 7 Ruth played in his first intrasquad game—a game between members of the same team. The two sides took the names Buzzards and Sparrows.

Ruth was a Buzzard. His team won the game 15 to 9. He hit a long home run, described by Fayetteville residents as the longest home run they had ever seen. Ruth recalled that “I hit it as I hit all the others, by taking a good gander at the pitch as it came up to the plate, twisting my body into a backswing, and then hitting it as hard as I could swing.”



Jim Thorpe played pitcher, infielder, and outfielder for Rocky Mount. He was fast and strong. The Rocky Mount fans loved him. One fan, Thomas McMillan, told historian Robert Reising that Thorpe made many friends while warming up before the games.

Thorpe would intentionally hit or throw balls outside the ballpark. That meant that the school kids who chased the balls down could get into the games free by bringing back the balls. It’s no wonder that Thorpe had many young fans.


Jim Corbett


Jim Corbett James John "Gentleman Jim" Corbett (September 1, 1866 – February 18, 1933) was a heavyweight boxing champion, best known as the man who defeated the great John L. Sullivan. He is also considered to be the father of modern boxing because of his scientific approach and innovations in boxing technique. Corbett changed prizefighting from a brawl to an art form of the new school of faster, scientific boxers. James J. Corbett (1866-1933) held the title of heavyweight champion from 1892 to 1897.

Corbett marked the turning point in ring history by being the first to win the title under the Marquis of Queensberry rules. College educated, Corbett was also an actor, writer, and boxing coach. According to records, Corbett started his official boxing carrier on the 3rd of July 1886 under the alias of “Jim Dillon” against Frank Smith in Salt Lake City, Utah, US.

Whom he defeated by disqualification (Smith) in round 4. On May 21, 1891, Corbett fought Peter "Black Prince" Jackson, a much-heralded bout between cross-town rivals, since Corbett and Jackson were boxing instructors at San Francisco's two most prestigious athletic clubs. They fought to a draw after 61 rounds.


The Boston Strong Boy


On September 7, 1892 at the Olympic Club in New Orleans, Louisiana, Corbett took on the great John L. Sullivan and even though he was outweighed by 34 lbs., Corbett knocked out “The Boston Strong Boy” John L. Sullivan with relative ease wearing 5 oz. boxing gloves in 21 rounds (one hour and twenty minutes).

Under the Police Gazette headlines that read, “Science Replaces Force” it was written, “James J. Corbett lifted boxing out of the barroom slough, the evil influences of its habitués, and started it towards its moral revolution.” Police Gazette read, The title passed from America’s most popular gladiator to the lithe, handsome youth, the ‘California Dandy’ whose fistic prowess flowered to full bloom on the sun-kissed slopes of California.

National Police Gazette -- This night, September 7, 1892, is the pinnacle of the New Orleans fight scene, a scene that epitomized the struggles and the extremes of the sport during its four-and-a-half year reign. It is also a historic night, for the champion is dethroned. John L. Sullivan has reigned for ten years, but the younger James Corbett emerges victorious after twenty-one rounds.

When the Boston Strong Boy goes down, referee Duffy is forced to pantomime the count, and the declaration of victory, amid the uproar. Despite the tumult, Duffy is able to quiet the crowd, and according to boxing lore - Sullivan staggers to the ropes and says: “Gentlemen, all I have got to say is this. I stayed once too long. I met a younger man, who proved too good for me.” and I am done.

Since boxing hadn’t become a legal sport at the time of this event, there were bare-knuckle bouts recorded throughout the world during the Queensberry era. However in America and the U.K. “The Queensberry” era had become the way championship fights were fought, wearing gloves. After “The Queensberry” era started at this event, the sport of boxing would never be the same.

In his only successful title defense, January 25, 1894 Corbett knocked out Charley of Great Britain in three rounds. On September 7, 1894 he took part in the production of one of the first recorded boxing events, a fight with Peter Courtney. This was filmed at the Black Maria studio at West Orange, New Jersey, in the USA and was produced by William K.L. Dickson. It was only the second boxing match to be recorded.


Frederick Percival Mills


Freddie mills Frederick Percival Mills was born in Bournemouth, Dorset, on England’s south coast, on 26th June 1919.The family did not live among the hotels, guest houses and the homes of the genteel retired, but in an old terraced house in one of the less salubrious back streets.

His father Tom, who served in the army in the great war, was a “Totter” who drove his horse and cart around the streets buying unwanted junk which he, hopefully, would sell at a profit. His mother Lottie had worked part time in the local hotels to help support the family whole Tom was away in the army.

Freddie’s brother Charlie boxed in unlicensed shows and it was he who showed the youngster the rudiments of self defence. This meant that as a school boy Freddie was brash, confident and able to look after himself. He also got into plenty of trouble and on one occasion stole a pair of roller skates, sold them to another boy in school, and ended up in court where he was fined £1 – half a weeks wages to his parents. He was given his first pair of gloves on his 11th birthday and aged 13 saw his fist professional fight at Bournemouth’s Winter gardens.

He and a friend scaled the side of the building and found a window from where they could see the action. They repeated this on several occasions until one day they were almost caught by the promoter Jack Turner – who would later become Freddie’s promoter.

Freddie left school aged 14 and worked for the milkman Percy Cook. Cook was a boxer as was his brother Gordon ,who had been the lightweight champion of Wales. Freddie took his gloves to work with him and would spar with the other apprentices which was a good learning experience for him, and Cook taught him many tricks of the trade.

When he was 16 he entered a novice tournament at Westover Ice Rink, Bournemouth. Despite never having fought as an amateur Freddie knocked out Jimmy Riley – who was far from being a novice – in the first round. Two weeks later George Barfoot went the same way in the semi final.

Two weeks later he met Reg Davis in the final and dispatched him in three rounds. Mills tried to remain in boxing and took out a manager's licence, practising for a couple of years at the Empress HaII, London (which is now demolished), but found his niche as an entertainer. He toured with entertainer Dickie Henderson and was a regular personality' on television.


He and his wife led happy lives, setting up home in Denmark south London, and two daughters arrived in 1951 and 1958. However. Me Freddie Mills Chinese Restaurant, which he had launched with two business partners in 1946, began to fail and the establishment was refurbished and re-opened in 1962 as The Freddie Nitespot, sadly things did not improve much and unknown to Mills the club was being used for prostitution. He was however that the notorious gangsters Ronnie and Reggie Kray were regular customers.


Shergar


Shergar Shergar’s name is etched in racing folklore as much for his headline-grabbing demise as for his exceptional performances on the racecourse, the most scintillating of those being his record-breaking victory in the 1981 Derby. Famously kidnapped by the IRA following his retirement to stud, the Aga Khan’s colt was one of the finest Derby winners of the 20th century and without argument the best racehorse of his generation with a lofty Timeform rating of 140.

Trained by Michael Stoute in Newmarket, Shergar won impressively on his first start as a two-year-old before finishing second to the more experienced Beldale Flutter on his only other outing in what is now the Racing Post Trophy. Having been rated 31st among his peers in the 1980 European Free Handicap, Shergar commenced his Classic season as a 33/1 ante-post chance for the Derby.

Those odds tumbled after a 10-length victory in Sandown’s Classic Trial was followed by a 12-length demolition in the Chester Vase. Shergar lined up at Epsom as the 10/11 favourite for Derby glory. He did not disappoint his supporters as he once again accelerated away from inferior rivals to register a stunning 10-length success - the widest winning margin in the long history of the race.

The immediate reaction of most when the name Shergar is mentioned is one of instant familiarity, possibly the most famous horse ever.

Regardless of whether you are a Racing fan or not, the name Shergar will conjure up many different thoughts to many, for many different reasons. The majority will be most inclined to express pity and acknowledge the tragic demise of the horse after he was kidnapped in Ireland in 1983. It is only afterwards that the reaction changes when the horse's achievements are also acknowledged and appropriate praise bestowed on this most famous of Derby winners.

Shergar won the Epsom Derby in 1981 and followed that up when winning the Irish Derby a few weeks later. His 10 length win at Epsom was the longest winning distance in Derby history and prompted, jockey, Walter Swinburn, to acclaim him as the greatest Derby horse ever. Ironically, Swinburn was to lose the ride to Lester Piggott after Epsom, and it was Piggott who rode him to victory in the Irish Derby at The Curragh.

Shergar started his 3 year old season as a 33/1 shot for the Derby, but after a 10 length win in the Sandown Classic Trial and a 12 length win in the Chester Vase, his odds tumbled, in fact he became the first Odds on favourite to start the Derby since Sir Ivor did so in 1968.

Swinburn's claim may not be strictly accurate, but Shergar's victory that day was one of the most awesome ever seen and he remains the last odds on favourite to have won the race. His Epsom Derby win also earned Shergar a place in The Observer's 100 Most Memorable Sporting Moments of the 20th century.

In eight races, Shergar won six, five of them at Group One level, that included the prestigious, King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes at Ascot in addition to his dual Derby efforts in both the English and Irish renewals of the race. At the time, it was expected that his owner,

The Aga Khan, would run him in either the St Leger or the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, but he astounded racing fans by retiring him to stud in September 1981, thus denying the racing world the chance to immortalise him and realise his true potential and possibly cement his place as the greatest ever race horse with a campaign as a four year old. Sadly his immortality lies with his bungled kidnap and subsequent disappearance and probable death at the hands of incompetent gangsters whose identities will probably never be known.



King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes With the Epsom Classic in the bag, Shergar went to the Curragh and added the Irish Derby by four lengths before routing his elders by the same distance in Britain’s premier all-age middle-distance contest, the King George VI & Queen Elizabeth Stakes at Ascot.

The stage was set for an autumn hurrah in the Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe at Longchamp but in an unexpected twist, connections decided to take in the St Leger at Doncaster. The extended mile and three quarters of the world’s oldest classic race proved beyond Shergar’s stamina reserves and he could fare no better than fourth. That defeat was to be Shergar’s final race.

Valued at £10 million, the colt retired to the Aga Khan’s Ballymany Stud in Ireland but on 8 February, 1983, hooded gunmen seized the stallion. A £2-million ransom was demanded and refused. Shergar’s fate remains a mystery.


Nick Faldo


Nick Faldo Winner of six major championships, Nick Faldo is the best golfer that Britain has ever produced. Although he has not always been a favourite of the press and formerly maintained a chilly demeanor towards fellow professionals, his great victories are fondly remembered by the British golfing public.

Through a programme of publicity events, the launching of the Faldo Series in Asia and the recent publication of his autobiography, Faldo has opened more of himself to the golfing public. We knew he is a ferocious competitor and dedicated technician but, in an interview with James Spence, Faldo confronts many of his mistakes.

Through the cultivation of youth through the Faldo Series, he is transferring the product of 30 years of professional experience to his young charges. He is not certain that all of it is being understood or absorbed but he is pretty sure that the Series provides everything required to turn precocious talents into illustrious careers at the top of the game.

Experience extends well beyond that offered by other noted sifus. He has walked famous fairways on Sunday afternoons and raised the cups that lay beyond the 18th of them. The most memorable of these two walks took place in two places that could not be more different: the Lothians and Georgia.


Greg Norman Faldo was a successful golfer before the trough that accompanied his famous swing rebuild and the three lean years that followed lasting until 1986. The doyen of golf writers, Peter Dobereiner, described the demon of ambition that was gripping Faldo thus: "In 1983 he won five tournaments and was ranked European No.1, progress that most players would have regarded as highly satisfactory. Not Faldo. In several Open championships he played himself into contention but his game did not stand up to the crunch of the last nine holes.

He determined that he must achieve consistency, no matter what it might take. It took two years out of his golfing life with nary a sniff of victory. It took a massive drop in his income. It took an agony of frustration, grinding hard work, and the pain of Leadbetter's incisors clamped to his nose.

It took the embarrassment of the bewildered criticism of his golfing colleagues and many others who understood even less about demonology." It is no exaggeration to say that any dedicated British golfer over the age of 30 will remember where they were during his breakthrough major win in the '87 Open at Muirfield and also during his overcoming of a hapless Greg Norman during the '96 Masters.


The Olympic Velodrome


Olympic Velodrome The Olympic Velodrome is the only world class cycling track in western United States and the only one in the world on a university campus. Velodrome specification include: length, 333.33 meters (1,093 ft.); width, 7 meters (23 feet); bank turns, 33 degrees; attainable speeds up to 72 kilometers (47 miles) per hour; permanent seating, 2,000; Olympic seating capacity, 8,000 and velodrome surface of poured concrete track on concrete fill.

The cost of the velodrome was $3 million, and the contractor: Stolte, Inc. Groundbreaking ceremonies took place on July 9, 1981 at the construction site. The ceremonies were kicked off at 10:15am with a race between Eric Heiden and challengers from the media, followed by a 10-lap club race by The South, Bay Wheelmen. Visitors from the Southland Corporation, Stolte Corporation officials and representatives from LAOOC were present. On May 10, 1982, the International Cycling Federation Certification (FIAC) was received.

The first trial high speed run performed by Jack Simes, 3-time U.S. Olympic Cycling team member and 2-time team coach, occurred on January 21, 1982. The grand opening occurred July 8, 1982 with Eric Heiden (1980 Lake Placid 5 Gold Medal winner for speedskating) and Sheila Ochowicz (1976 Winter Games-Innsbruck, Gold Medal winner of 500 meter speedskating), cycling the first official lap. The grand opening ceremonywas a three day event with July 9 and 10 devoted to the Grand Prix Finals. 3,000 people attended, including Sam, the Eagle the official XXIII Olympiad mascot.

The Grand Prix Finals were a series of bicycle track events to improve American cyclists at the international level. Emphasis was placed on Olympic track events, match sprints, individual pursuit, the kilometer and the points race. September 17 and 18, 1982 the SCCF 20th Annual Far West Championships were held at the completed velodrome, and October 3, 1982 the 8th International Human Powered Speed Championships were held. This event was held specifically for the unique pedal-powered vehicles.


Alain Prost


Alain Prost Alain Marie Pascal Prost, OBE, Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur (born 24 February 1955 in Lorette, Loire) is a French racing driver. A four-time Formula One Drivers' Champion, Prost has won more titles than any driver except for Juan Manuel Fangio (5 championships) and Michael Schumacher (7 championships). From 1987 until 2001 Prost held the record for most Grand Prix victories. Schumacher surpassed Prost's total of 51 victories at the 2001 Belgian Grand Prix.

In 1999, Prost received the World Sports Awards of the Century in the motor sport category alongside all-time greats like Pelé, Muhammed Ali, Carl Lewis and Steffi Graf. Prost discovered karting at the age of 14 during a family holiday.

He progressed through motor sport's junior ranks, winning the French and European Formula Three championships, before joining the McLaren Formula One team in 1980 at the age of 25. He finished in the points on his Formula One debut and took his first race victory at his home Grand Prix in France a year later, while he was driving for Renault's factory team.


matt busby


"Matt" Busby Sir Alexander Matthew "Matt" Busby, CBE, KCSG (26 May 1909 – 20 January 1994) was a Scottish football player and manager, most noted for managing Manchester United between 1945 and 1969 and again for the second half of the 1970–1971 season. He is the longest serving manager in the history of Manchester United. Before going into management, Busby was a player for two of Manchester United's greatest rivals, Manchester City and Liverpool.

During his time at City, Busby played in three FA Cup Finals, winning one of them. After his playing career was interrupted by the Second World War, Busby was offered the job of assistant coach at Liverpool, but they were unwilling to give him the control over the team that he wanted and he took the vacant manager's job at Manchester United instead.

Aged 17, Busby signed for Manchester City on a one-year contract worth £5 per week on 11 February 1928, with the provision for him to leave at the end of the deal if he still wished to emigrate to the United States with his mother. He decided to stay and made his debut for City on 2 November 1929, more than 18 months after first signing for the Blues, when he played at inside left in a 3–1 win at home to Middlesbrough in the First Division.

He made 11 more appearances for City that season, all at inside forward, scoring five goals in the process. During the 1930–31 season, City manager Peter Hodge decided that Busby's talents could be better exploited from the half-back line, with Busby playing the right-half role. In his new position, Busby built up a reputation as an intelligent player and a finer passer of the ball.

In 1930, Manchester United made an enquiry about signing Busby from their cross-town rivals, but they were unable to afford the £150 fee that City demanded. By the 1931–32 season, Busby was firmly established in the first team, missing just one match that season. Indeed, Busby and Jackie Bray became such fixtures at wing-half that club captain Jimmy McMullan had to move to forward to keep his place in the team. In the 1930s Manchester City performed strongly in the FA Cup.

They reached the semi-finals in 1932, and the final in 1933 before finally winning the tournament in 1934. However, from the second half of the 1934–35 season, Busby's number 4 jersey was worn by Jack Percival with increasing regularity, and Busby was sold to Liverpool for £8,000 on 12 March 1936, having made more than 200 appearances for Manchester City.


At Manchester City football club He made his debut for the Reds just two days later, on 14 March, away to Huddersfield Town; the match ended in a 1-0 Liverpool defeat. Busby opened his goalscoring account a month later – his 47th minute strike helped his team to a 2–2 draw with Blackburn Rovers at Ewood Park. Busby soon made the number 4 shirt his own, ousting Ted Savage in the process. He rarely missed a game over the following three seasons.

This consistency earned Busby the Liverpool captaincy and he led the club with great distinction. Along with Jimmy McDougall and Tom Bradshaw, Busby made up what is considered by many to be the best half-back line Liverpool had ever had. Bob Paisley joined Liverpool from Bishop Auckland in 1939, and it was Busby who took him under his wing and showed him the ropes at Anfield. This led to a lifelong friendship between two of the most successful managers in English football history.

The Second World War arrived soon after, and with it came an end to Busby's playing days. Like many of the Liverpool playing staff, he signed on for national service in the King's Liverpool Regiment. Busby carried on playing football during the war, making three appearances for Chelsea.

He also turned out for Middlesbrough, Reading, Brentford, Bournemouth & Boscombe Athletic and Hibernian. Busby made only one "official" international appearance for Scotland; he played in a 3-2 British Home Championship defeat to Wales at Ninian Park, Cardiff, on 4 October 1933. He also made seven appearances for Scotland against England during the Second World War, winning just one of them, but these are considered unofficial.


1944 olympic games


After a break of 12 years, the Olympic Summer Games were to be staged once again. For the second time since 1908, the IOC selected London - earmarked for the 1944 Games - as a venue. London was a likely option for the first post-war Summer Olympics because its existing facilities had remained largely intact through the war. In front of King George VI, the Swedish IOC President, Sigfrid Edstrom, and more than 80,000 spectators, the XIV Olympic Summer Games were opened at the Empire Stadium, Wembley.

Despite some concerns, the IOC continued the tradition of relaying the Olympic torch from Athens, but decided to re-route the runners. On their way from Olympia to London, the torch bearers were diverted via Pierre de Coubertin’s tomb in Lausanne and thereby avoided having to run through Germany. Not surprisingly the Games took place without teams from Germany and Japan.

Both countries were considered the aggressors of World War II and as a result were excluded from participating. Athletes from the Soviet Union did not take part either, the USSR not being affiliated to the IOC. Before the Games, the organisers dropped the idea of building an Olympic village because of anticipated high costs; Britain was, after all almost bankrupt in the years following World War II.

Instead, the athletes stayed in military barracks and colleges around the capital; rationing meant that many teams had to bring their own food with them. In the competitions, polo and outdoor handball were no longer included, while the Olympic arts competitions were held for the last time, thus ending Pierre de Coubertin’s original idea of combining art with sport.

The woman’s competitions were expanded by the addition of the 200 metres, long jump and shot events. Fanny Blankers-Koen of the Netherlands became the star of the Games making history as the “flying housewife”. A mother of two children she won gold medals over 100 metres, 200 metres, in the 400 metres relay, and in the 80 metres hurdles, where a photo-finish confirmed her win over Britain’s Maureen Gardner.

Even though the 30 year old Blankers-Koen was already past her sporting best, a more favourable timetable might have seen her take further medals. With three gold medals (combined, team and pommel-horse) one silver (parallel bars), and a bronze (horizontal bar), the Finnish gymnast Veikko Huhtanen managed to surpass the Dutch athletes medal tally.

The Hungarian athlete Aladar Gerevich won two golds in London. He competed in Olympic Games from 1932 right up until 1960, winning seven golds, one silver and two bronze medals in various fencing events. In winning 38 events the USA became the most successful team of the Games, ahead of Sweden with 16 golds and France with ten Olympic titles.


Raymond  Illingworth


Raymond ("Ray") Illingworth Raymond ("Ray") Illingworth, CBE (born 8 June 1932 in Pudsey, Yorkshire) is a former English cricketer, cricket commentator and cricket administrator. He was one of only nine players to have taken 2,000 wickets and made 20,000 runs in First class cricket, and the last one to do so[1]. He played for Yorkshire (1951–68 and 1982–83), Leicestershire (1969–78) and England (1958–73) and was a Wisden Cricketer of the Year in 1960. He made his first-class debut at 19, was capped in 1955 and became a stalwart of the Yorkshire team in the sixties.

He made his Test début as early as 1958 but struggled on his first tour, in the West Indies in 1959-60, taking just five wickets in five Test matches. After failing to make an impact in four Tests against South Africa he found himself struggling for a place.

A good series against India in 1967 established him in the team. He joined Leicestershire in 1968 after a contract dispute with Yorkshire, Illingworth played 787 first-class matches over nearly 33 years and was a prolific wicket-taker in county cricket, taking 2072 scalps, he sent down 408 balls without reward in the three Tests against New Zealand in 1973 but conceded only 1.91 runs an over in his Test career.

He was not a sharp spinner of the ball, relying on accuracy and subtle variations of flight, but his arm ball was particularly effective with many of his victims being caught at slip, playing for spin that was not there. His middle-order batting was based around stern defence; a fifth of his innings, mostly from number 6 or 7 in the order, finished not out.

He scored 24,134 first-class runs in all, with a best of 162, at an average of 28.06. Against the Rest of the World in 1970 Illingworth topped the England averages with 476 runs (52.89) and six half-centuries, a testament to his grit and determination against the best in the world.


Muhammad Ali


Muhammad Ali For almost thirty years, Muhammad Ali has held the Guinness World Record as the most written- about person in history. Although John Lennon once claimed that the Beatles had become bigger than Jesus, Ali is the one who really deserves such distinction, at least in a literary sense.

Why, then, would anybody have the temerity to think that he could add something to this already overflowing mix? What makes this book worth reading? Though library shelves may buckle under the weight of the Muhammad Ali literature, there is surprisingly little written about key aspects of his life, such as his pre- championship boxing matches, the management of his career, and his current legacy. I concentrate on these three important themes.

Understanding Ali’s transformation from a controversial to a revered fi gure takes knowledge of his entire life in the public spotlight. To comprehend this phenomenon, one must look at Ali’s career holistically, from his appearance as an Olympic champion in 1960 to his present incarnation as an iconic international hero. On November 22, 1965, Ali fought Floyd Patterson in his second title defense. lost by technical knockout at the end of the 12th round.

As would later occur with Ernie Terrell, many sports writers accused Ali of "carrying" Patterson so that he could physically punish him without knocking him out. Ali countered that Patterson, who said his punching prowess was limited when he strained his sacroiliac, was not as easy to down as may have appeared.


Ali was scheduled to fight WBA champion Ernie Terrell (the WBA stripped Ali of his title after his agreement to fight a rematch with Liston) on March 29, 1966, but Terrell backed out. Ali won a 15-round decision against substitute opponent George Chuvalo.

He then went to England and defeated Henry Cooper by stoppage on cuts May 21, and knocked out Brian London in the third round in August. Ali's next defense was against German southpaw Karl Mildenberger, the first German to fight for the title since Max Schmeling. In one of the tougher fights of his life, Ali stopped his opponent in round 12.

Ali returned to the United States in November 1966 to fight Cleveland "Big Cat" Williams in the Houston Astrodome. According to the Sports Illustrated account, the bout drew an indoor world record 35,460 fight fans. A year and a half before the fight, Williams had been shot in the stomach at point-blank range by a Texas policeman. As a result, Williams went into the fight missing one kidney and 10 feet of his small intestine, and with a shriveled left leg from nerve damage from the bullet. Ali beat Williams in three rounds.


Muhammad ali boxer


On February 6, 1967, Ali returned to a Houston boxing ring to fight Terrell in what became one of the uglier fights in boxing. Terrell had angered Ali by calling him Clay, and the champion vowed to punish him for this insult. During the fight, Ali kept shouting at his opponent, "What's my name, Uncle Tom ... What's my name?" Terrell suffered 15 rounds of brutal punishment, losing 13 rounds on two judges' scorecards, but Ali did not knock him out.

Analysts, including several who spoke to ESPN on the sports channel's "Ali Rap" special, speculated that the fight continued only because Ali wanted to thoroughly punish and humiliate Terrell. After the fight, Tex Maule wrote, "It was a wonderful demonstration of boxing skill and a barbarous display of cruelty." When asked about this during a replay of the fight on ABC's popular "Wide World of Sports" by host Howard Cosell, Ali said he was not unduly cruel to Terrell- that boxers are paid to punch all their opponents into submission or defeat.

He pointed out that if he had not hit and hurt Terrell, Terrell would have hit and hurt him, which is standard practice. Cosell's repeated reference to the topic surprised Ali. Following his final defense against Zora Folley in March 1967 Ali would be stripped of his title the following month for refusing to be drafted into the Army[6] and had his professional boxing license suspended.

Ali was scheduled to fight WBA champion Ernie Terrell (the WBA stripped Ali of his title after his agreement to fight a rematch with Liston) on March 29, 1966, but Terrell backed out. Ali won a 15-round decision against substitute opponent George Chuvalo.

He then went to England and defeated Henry Cooper by stoppage on cuts May 21, and knocked out Brian London in the third round in August. Ali's next defense was against German southpaw Karl Mildenberger, the first German to fight for the title since Max Schmeling. In one of the tougher fights of his life, Ali stopped his opponent in round 12. Ali returned to the United States in November 1966 to fight Cleveland "Big Cat" Williams in the Houston Astrodome.

According to the Sports Illustrated account, the bout drew an indoor world record 35,460 fight fans. A year and a half before the fight, Williams had been shot in the stomach at point-blank range by a Texas policeman. As a result, Williams went into the fight missing one kidney and 10 feet of his small intestine, and with a shriveled left leg from nerve damage from the bullet. Ali beat Williams in three rounds.



On February 6, 1967, Ali returned to a Houston boxing ring to fight Terrell in what became one of the uglier fights in boxing. Terrell had angered Ali by calling him Clay, and the champion vowed to punish him for this insult.

During the fight, Ali kept shouting at his opponent, "What's my name, Uncle Tom ... What's my name?" Terrell suffered 15 rounds of brutal punishment, losing 13 rounds on two judges' scorecards, but Ali did not knock him out. Analysts, including several who spoke to ESPN on the sports channel's "Ali Rap" special, speculated that the fight continued only because Ali wanted to thoroughly punish and humiliate Terrell.

After the fight, Tex Maule wrote, "It was a wonderful demonstration of boxing skill and a barbarous display of cruelty." When asked about this during a replay of the fight on ABC's popular "Wide World of Sports" by host Howard Cosell, Ali said he was not unduly cruel to Terrell- that boxers are paid to punch all their opponents into submission or defeat.

He pointed out that if he had not hit and hurt Terrell, Terrell would have hit and hurt him, which is standard practice. Cosell's repeated reference to the topic surprised Ali. Following his final defense against Zora Folley in March 1967 Ali would be stripped of his title the following month for refusing to be drafted into the Army and had his professional boxing license suspended.


Cantona


Eric Daniel Pierre Cantona Eric Daniel Pierre Cantona (born 24 May 1966 in Paris raised in Marseille) is a French former footballer of the late 1980s and 1990s. He ended his professional footballing career at Manchester United where he won four Premiership titles in five years, including two League and FA Cup "doubles". Cantona is often regarded as having played a major talismanic role in the revival of Manchester United as a footballing powerhouse and he enjoys iconic status at the club. In 2001 he was voted their player of the century, and to this day United fans refer to him as "Eric the King". United's season had been disappointing up to Cantona's signing.

They had had problems scoring goals: Brian McClair was off form, and summer signing Dion Dublin had broken his leg early in the season. However, Cantona quickly settled into the team, not only scoring many goals but also creating chances for the other players. For the next two years, United went on an amazing run, winning the inaugural Premiership in 1993.

They retained the Premiership and with Cantona's two penalties helping them to a 4-0 win over Chelsea in the FA Cup Final. Cantona was voted PFA Player Of The Year in 1994. Cantona then became infamous for an incident that occurred on 25 January 1995.

In an away match against Crystal Palace, after being sent off by the referee for a vengeful kick on Palace defender Richard Shaw (after Shaw had pulled his shirt without punishment), he launched a 'kung-fu' style kick against a Crystal Palace fan, Matthew Simmons. At Simmons' subsequent trial for threatening language and behaviour, he attacked the prosecution counsel after being found guilty, leaping over a bench and executing a flying kick of his own.

He was sentenced to seven days in jail, but only served 24 hours of his sentence. At a press conference called later, Cantona gave what is perhaps his most famous quotation. As the journalists gathered to hear him speak, Cantona entered the room, sat down and said, in a slow and deliberate manner: "When the seagulls follow the trawler, it's because they think sardines will be thrown in to the sea" He then got up from his seat and left, leaving many of the assembled crowd bemused.

He was sentenced to 120 hours of community service after an appeal court overturned a 2 week prison sentence for assault. He was also suspended by The Football Association until the following October. Manchester United eventually lost the Premiership title to Blackburn.


Sue Barker


Sue Barker lived in a small town with her coach, Arthur Roberts, never set goals like winning Wimbledon. Nevertheless Sue Barker would rise to be World number three tennis player. Sue Barker's favourite memory as a player was when as a teenager, on centre court for the first time, she played Maria Bueno. Sue Barker's tennis playing highlights include winning the French Open and making it to the Wimbledon semi-finals.

Sue Barker quit tennis at the age of 28 because she had bad Achilles tendons and shin splints. She went into sports broadcasting, initially with Australia's Channel 7 in 1985, but after stints at BSB and Sky Sports, she joined the BBC in 1993 and has been a regular presenter there since. Sue Barker presents BBC1's popular show A Question of Sport. In 1978, Barker broke off an engagement with tennis player Syd Ball.

After her engagement was broken off, she had a brief romance with Australian golfer Greg Norman. In the early 1980s, Barker's brief relationship with singer Cliff Richard made headlines.[12] Richard said in 2008 that he had come close to asking her to marry him.

He said: "I seriously contemplated asking her to marry me, but in the end I realised that I didn't love her quite enough to commit the rest of my life to her." In 1986, after Barker's romance with Richard had ended and she began a brief relationship with tennis player Stephen Shaw, Richard said he was still a friend of Barker. He said: "We have a mutual respect for each other and that means a lot to me." In 1988, Richard said of his former romance with Barker: "We were closer than just friends.

She's the only person with whom I've had that sort of relationship." He said that one of the things which made up his mind not to marry her was when she got upset because he hadn't told her who he was seeing that day. Richard said: "I suddenly realised that in a marriage you don't live for yourself." In 1988, Barker married former policeman Lance Tankard.

They live in a mansion in Surrey, which is set in 32 acres of woodland. The couple own several rottweilers. In 1980, Barker was temporarily blinded in her right eye after a large dog in Spain jumped up and bit her. She lost the sight in her eye for five hours and feared that the dog attack would force her to stop playing tennis, which she said "broke her heart".

In an interview in 1999, Barker said that during her tennis career she was approached by a lesbian tennis player in the locker room and touched "in a way that didn't feel right". Barker refused to name the female tennis player involved.


Graham Hill


My dad is a sports fan and during my early life i also became a keen sports fan. As a sports fan I thought I would list my favourite English sporting icons that I have followed during my lifetime from the 1960's to the present day. My first sporting hero was Graham Hill the 2 times World Formula one Champion in 1962 and 1968.

I am also a fan of other great drivers including: Barry Sheen MotorCyclist World Champion and Formula One Champions James hunt, Nigel mansell, Jensen Button and Lewis hamilton. Many a time in the 1980's watching Nigel Mansell racing in Formula One wheel to wheel with Ayerton Senna was intoxicating.

When England won the football World Cup in 1966 against Germany the English team became icons worldwide. I was 5 years old and have memories of watching the final (on our black and white TV). The whole team were greats and ever since we won the world cup the shadow of 1966 has haunted English football teams.

In the 1970 F.A. Cup Final Chelsea were playing Leeds United and my brother mark chose to back Chelsea and I backed Leeds United. Chelsea won the final after a replay and I followed Leeds united all through the 1970's. The team included the hardest shooter in World Football History - Peter Lorimer whose shots were registered at over 130 miles an hour.

My favourite players past and present include: Gordon Banks, Bobby Moore, Jimmy Greaves, Gary Lineker, David Beckham. At Bayhouse Secondary School I ran 1500 metres against other local schools at Portsmouths Alexandria Stadium so this created an interest in athletics.

I remember watching David Bedford break the World 10,000M record in 1973 and destroying the field. During the seventies and eighties English athletes ruled the world and to name a few: Seb Coe, Steve Ovett, Daley Thompson, Linford Christie etc. I have always been a fan of Rowing and followed Sir Steve Redgrave at all of his 5 Gold Medal winning Olympics was amazing.

My sporting hero's today include: Lewis Hamilton, Jensen Button, Phillips Idowu, David Beckham, Ben Ainslie, Johnny Wilkinson, Rebecca (Becky) Adlington and the new Rugby Union sensation Chris Ashton. My favourite English Sporting icons: England 1966 World Cup Winning Team Sir Jimmy Greaves 1950's to 1970's. Graham Hill Motor Racing 1960's to 1970's Sir Alf Ramsey England Football Manager 1960's to 1970's Gordon Banks Footballer 1960's to 1970's Bobby Moore 1960's to 1970's David Bedford Athletics 1970's Leeds United F.C. 1970's Lord Seb Coe Athletics 1970's to 1980's Steve Ovett Athletics 1970's to 1980's Daley Thompson 1970's to 1980's.

Barry Sheen MotorCycling 1970's to 1980's Duncan Goodhew Swimming 1970's to 1980's James Hunt Motor Racing 1970's to 1980's Sir Ian Botham Cricket 1970's to 1990's Gary Lineker Footballer 1980's to 1990's Rory Underwood Rugby Union 1980's to 1990's Nigel Mansell Motor Racing 1980's to 1990's Linford Christie Athletics 1980's to 1990's Sir Steve Redgrave Rowing 1980's to 2000 Chris Boardman Cycling 1990's Dame Kelly Holmes Athletics 1990's to 2000's Andrew "Freddie" Flintoff Cricket 1990's to 2000's Tim Henman Tennis 1990's to 2000's Jensen Button Motor Racing 1990's to Present Johnny Wilkinson Rugby Union 1990's to Present Phillips Idowu Athletics 1990's to Present David Beckham Football 1990's to Present Ben Ainslie Sailing 1990's to Present Lewis Hamilton Motor Racing Present Rebecca (Becky) Adlington, 2000's to Present Chris Ashton Rugby Union 2000's to present Copyright © 2011 Paul Hussey. All Rights Reserved.


early cricket


The game of Cricket has a long history dating back to English royalty in the 1600's as a source of activity, competition, and sport. In the 1800's England introduced the game to their colony, Australia, where interest grew and became the national sport. The early Australian teams consisted of mostly Aboriginal players that toured around England, which began a rivalry between England and Australia.

Aussies enjoy sports of many types including golf, tennis, rugby, and several styles of football. However, no sport in the nation tops the attention given to Cricket and the Ashes series, a Test between England and the Australian National Cricket Team.

For more than two hundred years the Australian nation has enjoyed the game of cricket, as it has become popular with more than one half million men, women, and children. The game is played on four levels, by the middle and working class, in the bush, and in every state. Cricket is played on an oval-shaped field using a bat, ball and gloves.

Two teams of eleven players each compete for an agreed amount of time and number of innings with equal turns at batting and fielding. A formal game of cricket may last for an afternoon, or go for several days. Runs are scored by a batsman in one of four ways, and the team with the most runs is the winner.

In Australia, the National Team is made up of men that make a living playing cricket. As a result of the popularity of the game, many players become legends and national heroes based on brilliant performances on the field. Footwork and stamina are key to being successful as a cricket player.

While several players have all-time best rankings, Sir Donald Bradman is considered to be the greatest batsman of all time. During a twenty-year career that began before World War II, Bradman is credited with a Test batting average of 99.94, a feat that will likely never be matched. Bradman is the only Australian to be knighted for his achievements in the game of cricket. The Bradman Foundation, established in Sir Donald's name supports youth cricket across the continent.

More recently, Shane Warne and Glenn McGrath retired as two of the all-time top four greatest bowlers. Warne's on-the-field reputation was especially impressive in Ashes and World Cup matches. He is currently ranked seventh all-time most catches as a fielder in Test cricket. McGrath retired as the third highest wicket taker in Test cricket.

Leading the National Team into the 2010/11 Ashes competition beginning on 25 November in Brisbane, captain Ricky Ponting is counting on victory going to the hosting team. Ponting is one of two most experienced players on the Aussie team playing his seventh Ashes series and his fourth as captain.

Currently holding the championship urn, England won the trophy in the 2008/09 Test. In favour of the hosting Aussie team, England last won that trophy on Australian soil almost twenty-four years ago.



Generally speaking, when you think of sports you think of rousing victors and great, uplifting moments. For example, one might imagine a member of the winning hockey team hoisting the Stanley Cup high into the air, or a baseball locker room being sprayed with champagne while a team celebrates. However, there have been some truly tragic moments as well that should not be forgotten. Here are some that should be remembered. One of the greatest tragedies was the story of the plane crash in the Andes with an entire rugby team on board.

The story is devastating not only because many of the players died on impact, but it is even more horrible because of what happened to the surviving members. Freezing, stranded in the Andes, and near starvation with no idea of when a rescue might come, the surviving members were forced to consume the flesh of their departed teammates in order to survive.

One can only imagine the horror that they must have felt in having to make that decision. Likely it is something which haunts the players to this day, and which forces one to ask oneself the question of how far you would go and what measures you would take to survive. True sports are meant to push humans to the extreme, but not in this way! The story is so tragic it has actually been commemorated in the wonderful movie Alive.

Another awful sports tragedy was the death of Roberto Clemente. Clemente was a wonderful, young player with a phenomenal career ahead of him who was known for getting involved in local charities and trying to help young kids make their way. Unfortunately, Clemente was killed in the prime of his life in a plane crash. However, he is commemorated to this day with a road named after him in the Bronx, where his beloved Yankees play. Internationally, perhaps the greatest sports tragedy was what happened at the Munich Olympics.

During the Olympics that year, the young country of Israel was proudly sending a team to represent them despite being a brand new country with a tiny population that was besieged by war and enemies. However, a group of terrorists held the Israeli Olympians hostage for several days before finally slaughtering them. It was a horrible act of terrorism and violence that marred an event that is supposed to represent people from all over the world coming together.

In retaliation, Israeli forces then hunted down and killed the perpetrators of the terrorist attack, thereby perpetuating the cycle of violence. Israel's response, and the operation to kill the Munich operatives, is detailed in Spielberg's spellbinding movie Munich. Of course, sports history is littered with stories of young, talented, promising players dying to early.

Every year there is another story of young people having horrible accidents on and off the field, and so on. These are just a few of the terrible things that can and have happened but they should be commemorated and the players' memories honored.


Motocross


Action Sports are very popular these days and there are many types. They include sports such as Motocross racing, Surfing, Waterskiing, Parasailing, Rock Climbing and the list goes on. Here is a brief history of the beginnings of a few of the more popular Action Sports.

History of Skateboarding. Skateboarding began in Southern California sometime in the late 40s or early 50s. Southern California has some of the most popular surfing spots in the state which attract surfers from all over the world.

Even when the waves were not right the surfers wanted to be able to surf so somehow skateboarding evolved, no one really knows who built the very first skateboard, but the idea caught on and spread like wild fire. Today there are skateparks, ramp skating, trick skating and the Skateboard itself has evolved to allow skaters the ability to perform very complicated tricks and maneuvers. History of Snowboarding. The first Snowboard was called the Snurfer and was manufactured as a toy in 1966.

I was basically a Skateboard with no wheels that you would steer with a rope. It had no bindings but would allow your boots to adhere to the board. In the early 70s a surfer developed a Snowboard called the Winterstick based on the feel of a surfboard but with the same function as skis. Through the years Snowboards and Snowboarding have increased greatly in popularity with the boards now being designed to enable Snowboards to race and perform freestyle tricks.

History of Skiing. Skiing began as a means of travel and transportation. Sondre Norheim of Norway helped develop Skiing as Recreation and a Sport. In the mid to late 1800s lighter, thinner, cambered skis and a new stiff binding were developed which made it possible for skiers to swing, jump and maneuver turns while skiing down hill. Some types of skiing are; Alpine Skiing is what you do when you go to a ski resort, ride the lift and let gravity propel you down the run.

Alpine Freestyle or Jib skiing is where skiers use jumps or kicks to do aerial tricksBack Country Skiing or Nordic touring uses Nordic style equipment which allows skiers to ski up hill in areas where there are no chairlifts. Cross Country Racing is one third up hill, one third downhill and one third flat. Adaptive Skiing is done by people with physical disabilities and allows for adaptations to standard ski equipment.

Military Skiing is recreational and a means of transportation for the military, many armies train for ski warfare. Nordic Jumping or ski flying is where skiers slide down a ramp and fly to see who can to the furthest before landing on the ground. Nordic Skiing is the most popular style and does not require a special ski area and was developed in Scandinavia as a means of travel in winter.

Telemark skiing uses flexible ski boots that do not lock the heels into the skis which allow the skier to travel at higher speeds. History of Cycling. Cycling has grown in popularity over the years and throughout the world.

In some countries it is a means of transportation through very narrow streets that will not allow cars to travel or countries where cars are too expensive. Cycling as a sport has increased in popularity throughout the world as well and uses bikes that are specially designed for the terrain and speeds. Action Sports Gifts. Action Sports are becoming more popular everyday and there are many types.

They can include other sports such as Motocross racing, Surfing, Waterskiing, Parasailing, Rock Climbing, 4 Wheeling, Snowmobiling, Drag Racing, Mountain Biking and more. Some interesting gift ideas for an Action Sports enthusiast might be to decorate a small tree with Action Sports Ornaments.

There are Skateboarding Ornaments, Bike Racer Ornaments, Gifts for Snowboarders, Snowboarding Ornaments and Skiing Ornaments. These are just a few of the different types of Action Sports Gifts that are available. They are sure to be a hit with any Action Sport enthusiast.


 baseball journeyman Harry Chiti


Just when you think the sports world has produced every possible bizarre trade imaginable, they still manage to top themselves ... When baseball journeyman Harry Chiti got dealt to the New York Mets for a player to be named later, little did he know that player would be him. The Chicago Cubs could spare a backup catcher during the early season, and apparently, the Mets saw enough of Chiti afterward.

So, when they later gave a list of players from which to choose in order to complete the deal, Chiti's name was there. Perhaps their choice said something about the other players, but there can be no doubt that the Cubs got equal value in return. At least that transaction was a player-only deal, albeit only one player.

Transactions involving no players have had various impacts on the teams involved. An obvious example was a swap between the Detroit Tigers and Cleveland Indians. In mid-season, they managed to trade managers. Jimmy Dykes was shipped to the Tribe, with Joe Gordon moving to the Motor City, making it the only deal of its kind in North American sports history.

Both were probably disoriented for the rest of the season, but they'd surely agree that it beat being fired, which is usually what happens when teams want to jettison their skipper. However, there was a more notorious no-player deal. It might have happened more discreetly, except it affected New York Yankees.

The year was 1972, and while half a decade had passed from The Summer of Love, pitchers Mike Kekich and Fritz Peterson kept its spirit alive. They and their wive were close friends. Really close. So close, in fact, that during spring training of the next season, they wound up making a trade of their own. When Marilyn Peterson changed houses with Susanne Kekich, it was news which made more than the agate type in America's newspapers.

Said Yankees general manager Lee MacPhail, "We may have to call off Family Day." A bag of baseballs isn't nearly as hot for headline fodder. So, when minor-leaguer Tim Fortugno was unceremoniously moved to another team in return for one of those bags, we can only imagine that the amount of $2500 in cash got tossed into the deal to make him feel better. Much more cash was put on the table in 1919 for an emerging star named Babe Ruth. The Boston Red Sox had just completed a lousy season and owner Harry Frazee wanted to unload salaries.

He also had his eye on Broadway, so he sold Ruth to the Yankees for $125,000 and a $300,000 loan (with Fenway Park serving as the collateral). Frazee used the proceeds to stage 'No No Nanette,' the sprightly musical that gave the world tunes such as 'Tea for Two' and can still be found up in lights to this day. This is the deal that gave rise to the Curse of the Bambino, which may have affected the Red Sox for so many years, but Frazee did very well by it.

Ruth justified his title as the Sultan of Swat in 1927, becoming the first player in history to hit 60 home runs in a season, a revered record that would stand for 34 years. That wasn't the only notable achievement in 1927; Walt Disney also brought the first cartoon rabbit to the silver screen. Oswald the Lucky Rabbit looked like a rip-off of Felix the Cat, and he probably was. However, cartoon characters were a novelty back then, so Oswald enjoyed a measure of commercial success.

In fact, Disney was certain he could expand the rabbit's fame if he had a bigger budget, which is why he traveled to Universal Studio's head office and requested as much. The studio refused, even showing their power by cutting the budget by 20% and telling Disney to like it or lump it. Chagrined, Disney quit and decided to work independently. He was certain he could create another cartoon character to help him realize his visions of commercial success.

We now see that the empire built around the fame of Mickey Mouse never forgot its origins. When the ABC network decided to move Monday Night Football to its subsidiary, ESPN, long-time broadcaster Al Michaels decided he didn't want to accompany it.

He expressed a preference to remain paired with virtuoso analyst John Madden, who left to join NBC, which had acquired the NFL's Sunday Night Football broadcast rights. Michaels' career was launched at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York. He exclaimed to the USA, "Do you believe in miracles? Yes!" when the American hockey team completed the biggest upset in team sports history by defeating the Soviet Union's juggernaut and paved the way to an improbable gold medal.

One of the best in the business, Michaels ultimately moved to the prime time of Monday Night Football and stayed there for 20 years. NBC saw his addition to their broadcast team as a natural move. ABC saw an opportunity, too, and the idea of a trade was broached. ABC is owned by the Disney empire. They noted NBC's association with Universal and decided it was time to bring Oswald the Lucky Rabbit home. Dick Ebersol, president of NBC Sports, did a double-take.

He accepted the trade package for Michaels containing cable rights to golf's Ryder Cup through 2014 and expanded access to Olympic highlights, but he had never even heard of the cartoon rabbit. Michaels took being swapped for a cartoon pioneer in stride. "Oswald is definitely worth more than a fourth-round draft choice," Michaels said, referring to the compensation that New York's Jets got for releasing head coach Herman Edwards to the Kansas City Chiefs. Walt Disney's daughter, Diane Miller, is thrilled, saying "Having Oswald around again is going to be a lot of fun."

And so it came to pass that the strangest sports trade to date was sealed. NBC got the polished veteran it wanted, while Disney could be hoping their re-acquisition can earn a Comeback of the Year award. For Oswald, it's going to be a brand new ballgame.


Pindar


In ancient societies, athletics and especially competitive contact games always have been rough, but aggression in the past was tempered by an insistence that playing hard, playing to win, did not countenance playing to cheat and to hurt.

One of the very first nations that expressed athletic ideals, were the Greeks. As enunciated by Pindar, the athletic ideal incorporated courage and endurance with modesty, dignity, and fair-mindedness, those elusive qualities the Greeks called Aidos. As sports became more specialized, the general populace increasingly withdrew into spectatorship.

Sports history reveals that although Greek sports had increasingly marred by corruption and bribes, nonetheless they flourished in an era which witnessed the rapid expansion of stadiums and arenas under the Roman Empire. During the Roman Empire, violence in sports became the generally accepted principle and spectators not only endorsed it, but also embraced it as a social norm. In recent years sports violence has become to be perceived as a social problem.

Commissions have been appointed in Canada and England to investigate violence among hockey players and soccer fans. Numerous examples of violence in professional sports exist today, as counties like the United States, Canada, Greece, Italy and Germany, report court cases have been heard which concern the victims of violence perpetrators.

Newspapers, magazines and television programs portray bloodied athletes and riotous fans at hockey, boxing, football, soccer, baseball, and basketball games with what appears to be increasing regularity. But are sports violence incidents actually increasing, and if so, what is the reason of such a negative increase? Or does the heightened public attention and media focus on sports violence reflect not an increase in the incidence or severity of aggression, but greater public concern with moral issues and political discourse?

Contrary to popular belief, there appears to be growing dissatisfaction with sports violence. Changes in sports rules, developments in the design of equipment, and even the physical characteristics of modern sports arenas evolved in an effort to reduce violence or its consequences. But still, among athletic management teams, government officials, fans and athletes themselves, there is an ambivalence attitude towards sports violence. The ambivalence takes the form of justifying the existence of violence in sports, but not taking personal responsibility for it.

Coaches and managers tend to blame fans, saying that violence is what attracts people into stadiums, as the risk entailed makes the game more "interesting". Athletes frequently admit that they are opposed to violence, but it is expected of them by coaches.

Fans justify it by attributing aggressiveness to athletes and to situational aspects of the game. Spectators view violence as an inherent part of some sports as one cannot play games like hockey or football, without accepting the necessity of violent action.

Nevertheless, public opinion tends to focus more and more on sports violence as major advances in the technologies used have increased media coverage making information available to a vast global audience. Thus, contemporary critics tend to consider sports violence as a worldwide phenomenon with highly disturbing future course and social outcomes.


M.F. Horine High jumper


High jump is one of the oldest track field events in sporting history. It involves jumping over a bar placed at a certain height without any aids. It is a game of Scottish origin and the oldest records are from the nineteenth century. There were many techniques used by the jumpers to increase the length they covered. Some of the early techniques were a straight-on approach or the scissors technique. The game has been in practice since the Olympics of ancient Greece.

In the scissoring technique, the High jumper is supposed to approach the bar diagonally, the first leg to be thrown in is the inside leg with the other following in a scissoring kind of motion. The twentieth century saw a modernisation in the techniques; the first innovation was the eastern cut-off by an Irish-American high jumper called M.F. Sweeney.

The technique involved taking off like the scissors but then the player would extend his back and flatten out over the bar. He had set a world record of 1.97m in 1895. M.F. Horine, an American player again, has to his credit, the invention of the western roll. This style also has a diagonal approach to the bar. The difference is that it uses the inner leg to take off while the outer leg thrusts itself up and leads the body sideways to cross the bar. Horine has the name of the world record owner for the year 1912; he jumped 2.01m or 6 ft 7 in.

The western roll was very popular in the Berlin Olympics and helped Cornelius Johnson win the event with a 2.03m long jump. After 1912 the sport was ruled by American and Russian jumpers for the next forty years. Another technique that evolved during that time as a sister to the western roll was the straddle technique. This one, took off in the same way as the western roll but then the player would roll with his/her belly down around the bar the clearance this technique achieved was phenomenal.

It also helped Charles Dumas achieve the much coveted 7ft length in 1956. Many jumpers exceeded this record and then came Valery Brumel who stood unfettered from 1960 till 1964 when he won the Olympic gold medal for running up till 7ft and 6 inches. But his career came to a sad and abrupt end in a motorbike accident shortly after that, ending with it the many hopes of future achievements that he had given his coaches, fans and supporters.

Since its beginning high jumpers have been very experimenting with their techniques and that has made the game achieve its current set of rules and status. The current and the longest standing record in men's history was made by Javier Sotomayor from Cuba, his jump was 2.45 metres i.e. 8ft 0.46 in long and the record has not been broken since the year 1993. The longest women's record is accredited to Stefka Kostadinova of Bulgaria since 1987 for a 2.09 metres or a 6 ft 10.28 in long high jump.


Donovan Bailey


Atlanta 1996. Men's 100-meter Olympic final. It was the most exciting 10 seconds in sports history. The fastest sprinter of that time Donovan Bailey was the last one who left the blocks at the track of overcrowded stadium in Atlanta. And nobody in the world had time to understand that he could simply lose the main race of his life, because during the next ten seconds everybody's eyes were chained to the Olympic track, where the fastest man ever was showing a magnificent blend of explosive power and awesome athleticism. Donovan Bailey crossed the finish line first to win 100-metre final in 9.84 seconds.

It was not just the new world record, this record was set in Olympic final by the man who had the worst start among all finalists. Step by step he passed other sprinters and by finish line he leaved them all behind. If you have never seen this race, than just go to video section at www.sprintic.com and do it now. 2. Atlanta 1996. Men's 200-meter Olympic final.

Michael Johnson not just broke the 200-meter world record, he shattered it, leaving other competitors many steps behind by finish line. Even today his time of 19.32 seconds seems fantastic. But it's not only about the time, it is also about the look on Michael's face when he saw it was 19.32. And every time people see the photo of that moment they can feel his passion. 3. Seoul 1988. Men's 100-meter Olympic final.

Canadian Ben Johnson recorded a new world best of 9.79 secs and he stormed away from his arch-rival Carl Lewis. However, three days later it was revealed that Johnson had tested positive for performance-enhancing drugs and was disqualified. 4. Seville 1999. Men's 400-meter world record. In retaining the world title in a time of 43.18 seconds Michael Johnson redefined the parameters of the one-lap event. With the staggered start, it took a while for his performance to become apparent.

But, running in his trademark hand-made golden spikes, he sailed off the top bend, leaving his rivals metres adrift. For once, he pushed himself all the way to the line, roared on by a capacity crowd of 50,000 who gasped in astonishment when the time came up on the electronic scoreboard. 5. Indianapolis 1988. Women's 100-meter world record.

Florence Griffith-Joyner stunned the world when - known as a 200 m runner - she ran a new 100 m World Record of 10.49 in the quarter-finals of the US Olympic Trials. This record stands unchallenged to this day, and it will surprise no one if it remains in the books for another 20 years. 6. Seoul 1988. Women's 200-meter Olympic final. Florence Griffith-Joyner set world record for 200 meters. Nobody could beat her time of 21.34 since then. 7. Athens 1999.

Maurice Greene breaks the world record in 100 meters. In 1999 Maurice Greene set new 100-meter world record of 9.79 seconds, beating Donovan Bailey's standing world record of 9.84, and lowering it by the largest margin since the advent of electronic timing. Also he proved that man could run 100-meter dash under 9.80 seconds without taking drugs. 8. Canberra 1985.

Women's 400-meter world record. During her career Marita Koch collected a remarkable 16 world records in outdoor sprints, as well as 14 world records in indoor events. On Otober 6, 1985 she set the current 400-meter world record of 47.60 seconds. 20 years ago from now nobody among the best female athletes could even think about such result. 9. Athens 2005. Men's 100-meter world record. Asafa Powell set a world record in the men's 100 meters, clocking 9.77 seconds at the Tsiklitiria Super Grand Prix meeting.

So far it was the fastest time ever. 10. Barcelona 1992. Men's 4x100m relay world record. Mike Marsh, Leroy Burrell, Dennis Mitchell, Carl Lewis. Exactly in this order the fastest American athletes were running their laps at Olympic stadium in Barcelona. The American team completed the race in 37.40. This record still stands today.



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