The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles swung onto our
television screens, Salman Rushdie published Satanic Verses and farmers' favourite - the Barbour jacket - became inexplicably
trendy for city dwellers. And then there were those Liverpool players, showing remarkable lyrical dexterity for a bunch of
footballers, rapping how they had "won the league, bigger stars than Dallas, they got more silver than Buckingham Palace". Welcome to
1988 - the year where the UK charts were topped for five weeks by The Only Way Is Up - at a time when the UK economy was
beginning to have other ideas. Economic growth had peaked and was beginning to slow, while inflation was rising - both precursors
of the recession of the early 1990s. Heady days that seem an age away. Or do they?
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The Simpsons is an American animated television sitcom
created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company. The series is a satirical parody of a working class American lifestyle
epitomized by its eponymous family, which consists of Homer, Marge, Bart, Lisa, and Maggie. The show is set in the fictional
city of Springfield, and lampoons American culture, society, television and many aspects of the human condition.
The family was conceived by Groening shortly
before a pitch for a series of animated shorts with the producer James L. Brooks. Groening created a dysfunctional family
and named the characters after members of his own family, substituting Bart for his own name. The shorts became a part of
The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987. After a three-season run, the sketch was developed into a half-hour prime time show
and was an early hit for Fox, becoming the first Fox series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season (1989–1990).
Since its debut on December 17, 1989 the show
has broadcast 464 and counting episodes and the twenty-first season began airing on September 27, 2009. The Simpsons Movie,
a feature-length film, was released in theaters worldwide on July 26 and July 27, 2007, and grossed US$527 million worldwide.
The 1980's were a great decade for music, and probably the first that really put the female singer front and
center for a time. There were so many great female singers during this decade and while there's no doubt that the three
I'll mention here were extremely successful, this list is subject to debate, as it all comes down to a matter of personal
preference. I've done my best to narrow it down, but it was naturally a challenge to do so. Anyway, here's my list.
3. Whitney Houston. A true diva in every sense
of the word, Whitney Houston was a legendary R&B singer whose many #1 hits have gone down as 1980s classics. From more
upbeat songs like "I Wanna Dance With Somebody" to slower songs like "The Greatest Love of All", Whitney
belted out the high notes like no one else in the 1980s.
2. Tina Turner. This legendary singer was already a couple of decades into her career by the 1980s, but that didn't
stop her from achieving enormous commercial success. Some of Tina's biggest years took place in the 1980s, and her many
hits were classic 1980s music.
Madonna. Were you expecting anyone else? Madonna produced more chart toppers than any female singer in the 1980s, and more
than any female singer in history. She truly revolutionized the concept of the female pop star, and she amazingly still produces
great music over 25 years later.
The 1980s became the Me! Me!
Me! generation of status seekers. During the 1980s, hostile takeovers, leveraged buyouts,
and mega-mergers spawned a new breed of billionaire. Donald Trump, Leona Helmsley, and Ivan Boesky
iconed the meteoric rise and fall of the rich and famous. If you've got it, flaunt it and
You can have it all! were watchwords. Forbes' list of 400 richest people became more
important than its 500 largest companies. Binge buying and credit became a way of life and 'Shop Til
you Drop' was the watchword. Labels were everything, even (or especially) for our children. Tom Wolfe
dubbed the baby-boomers as the 'splurge generation.' Video games, aerobics, minivans,
camcorders, and talk shows became part of our lives.
The decade began with double-digit
inflation, Reagan declared a war on drugs, Kermit didn't find it easy to be green, hospital costs rose, we lost many,
many of our finest talents to AIDS which before the decade ended spread to black and Hispanic women, and unemployment
rose. On the bright side, the US Constitution had its 200th birthday, Gone with the Wind turned 50, ET phoned
home, and in 1989 Americans gave $115,000,000,000 to charity. And, Internationally, at the very end of the decade the
Berlin Wall was removed.
The history of the United States (1980-1991)
includes the last year of the Jimmy Carter presidency, eight years of the Ronald Reagan administration, and the first two
years of the George H. W. Bush presidency, up to the collapse of the Soviet Union. Plagued by the Iran Hostage Crisis and
mounting domestic opposition, Carter lost the 1980 presidential election to Republican Reagan. In his first term, Reagan
introduced expansionary fiscal policies aimed at stimulating the American economy after a recession in 1981 and 1982, including
oil deregulation policies which led to the 1980s oil glut. He met with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in four summit conferences,
culminating with the signing of the INF Treaty. These actions accelerated the end of the Cold War war, which occurred during
the early part of the Bush presidency, and the removal of the Berlin Wall. The second largest stock market crash (percentage-wise)
in United States history occurred in 1987, preceding another recession. The largest scandal of the years was the Iran-Contra
affair, wherein weapons had been sold to Iran, and the proceeds used by the CIA to aid Contras in Nicaragua.
Many cartoon characters such
as Smurfs, Rainbow Brite, Strawberry Shortcake, Care Bears, My Little Pony, GI Joe, Garfield, He-Man and the Masters of the
Universe, Thundercats, Voltron, and Transformers appeared in the media and on merchandise, becoming huge trends of the 1980s.
Many of these reappeared about twenty years later in slightly updated versions as decade nostalgia began to take hold. # Martial arts and Ninja mania swept North America
due to the popularity of Kung Fu Theater and ninja movies. The Karate Kid became a blockbuster hit film, and raised interest
in karate. The emergence of self-styled martial arts experts gave rise to the so-called "McDojo" and "Bullshido"
trends. The cartoon characters Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles became a widely mass-marketed pop culture phenomenon in the
late 1980s. "Raybans" or sunglasses
became popular "must-wear" items, as well as Nike sneakers, Members Only jackets, men's shorts and other athletic
wear such as sweats and jerseys for an active generation of young people.
The decade began with a backlash against
disco music and a movement away from the orchestral arrangements that had characterized much of the music of the 1970s.
Music in the 1980s was characterized by unheard of electronic sounds accomplished through the use of synthesizers and keyboards,
along with drum machines. The Sheffield (UK) based band The Human League were pioneers of 'synthesized music' and
were heavily influential in this genre.
This made a dramatic change in music. The music channel MTV had just began so many very creative
music videos were being made alongside songs. The very first video to be aired on MTV was Buggles- Video Killed The Radio
Star. This video heavily showed off the use of synthesizers as they were new to many people and the sounds they produced
had been unheard of.
* Michael Jackson revolutionized music with his best-selling album Thriller. Thriller,
released in 1982, is the world's all-time best selling album with over 104 million sold copies. His mannerisms and trends
were copied repeatedly, from the single-glove, to the various jackets he wore, and the now-famous moonwalk.
* In the United States, MTV was launched and music videos began to have a huge effect on the record industry. The first
video aired was Video Killed the Radio Star by the British band The Buggles, and it proved oddly prophetic. Bands such as
Duran Duran made lavish music videos which made MTV a cultural phenomenon. Early eighties groups such as Devo and Haircut
100 were pioneers. Pop artists such as Madonna and Michael Jackson mastered the format and turned it into big business.
* New Wave and Synthpop were developed by artists such as The Cars, Duran Duran, A Flock of Seagulls, Gary Numan, Depeche
Mode, Japan, Soft Cell, Bananarama, New Order, and Tears for Fears, and become popular phenomena throughout the decade,
especially in the early eighties. * Artists with Gender Bender styles such as Boy George, Annie Lennox, Pete Burns,
and Marilyn were popular in America and Europe. The famous drag queen Divine even had a top 20 hit in the UK (#16 in 1984)
with You Think You're A Man. * Heavy metal, Big Hair Bands and Glam metal, experienced extreme popularity
in 1980s, becoming one of the most dominating music genres of the 1980s with artists such as Iron Maiden, Judas Priest, Van
Halen, KISS, Twisted Sister, Aerosmith, Poison, Ratt, Skid Row, Hanoi Rocks, Mötley Crüe, Def Leppard, Queen,
Whitesnake, Quiet Riot, Bon Jovi, Guns N' Roses, AC/DC, and Rush, all receiving extensive airplay. * Thrash
metal appeared and became an underground sensation originating mostly in the San Francisco Bay Area, and New York City. A
few of these acts, such as Metallica, Megadeth (formed in Los Angeles), Anthrax and Slayer (formed in Huntington Beach),
managed to achieve mainstream exposure (especially during the early 1990s), and were frequently seen as alternatives to
the poppier "glam metal" bands of the day. * Extreme metal began, with bands such as Venom, Bathory, Hellhammer, Celtic
Frost, Death, Possessed, Morbid Angel and gained prominence in the underground. * House music was a new development
in dance music mid-way through the decade, growing out of the post-disco scene early in the decade and later developed into
acid house, a harder form of dance often associated with the developing late 1980s drug culture. * Hip hop and rap music, introduced
by urban youths of predominantly African American descent, debuted in the pop culture scene as early as 1979, with the Sugar
Hill Gang's single release Rapper's Delight. MTV picked up on this movement with "Yo! MTV Raps", a one-hour
show dedicated to hip-hop music videos,which began to air in 1988 and hip hop became popular in 1986 when the golden age
started. The Hip hop scene evolved to become a powerful
musical force, bringing with it several dance styles and began to diverse. As hip hop artists such as Run-D.M.C.,Beastie
Boys and LL Cool J were the first to gather mainstream attention and by 1986 Hip Hop broke into the mainstream and became
diverse, also Hip-Hops first female group called Salt-n-Pepa marked the rise of women in Hip hop.
* Alternative rock appeared as a then-aptly titled
alternative to the mainstream rock trends of the day, with American bands such as R.E.M., The Replacements, Sonic Youth,
They Might Be Giants, Camper Van Beethoven, the Violent Femmes and the Pixies, and British bands such as The Cure, The Smiths
and Echo and the Bunnymen, as pioneers. This style of music was widely popular with college students and received almost
all of its airplay from college radio stations, to the extent that it was known as college rock in the US for much of the
Wedding of Lady Diana and Prince Charles
(1981): On July 29, 1981, Lady Diana Spencer (20 years old) married Prince Charles (32 years old) at St. Paul's Cathedral.
Their wedding was large, extravagant, and wondrous. It was the wedding of the decade. Nearly 3,500 people attended personally,
600,000 people lined the streets of London hoping to catch a peek, and approximately 750 million people from around the
world watched it on television.
The ceremony began at 11:20 a.m. with Archbishop of Canterbury Dr. Robert Runcie officiating. Lady
Diana's wedding gown, designed by Elizabeth and David Emanuel, was made of ivory silk taffeta with antique lace and
had a 25-foot-long train.
This is princess Diana's
romantic wedding to the man she was in love with, prince Charles. It's a selection of pictures and film footage. The
marriage turned out to be a nightmare for her, but the wedding was a fairytale for sure! If only they had lived happily
The Space Shuttle Challenger disaster
occurred on January 28, 1986 when Challenger, a Space Shuttle operated by NASA, consisting of an orbiter vehicle named Challenger,
designated OV-099, an External Tank (ET) containing liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer, and two Solid Rocket
Boosters (SRBs), broke apart 73 seconds into its flight leading to the deaths of its seven crew members. The spacecraft
disintegrated over the Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of central Florida, United States at 11:39 a.m. EST (16:39 UTC). Disintegration
of the shuttle stack began after an O-ring seal in its right solid rocket booster (SRB) failed at liftoff. The O-ring failure
caused a breach in the SRB joint it sealed, allowing a flare (of pressurized hot gas from within the solid rocket motor)
to reach the outside and impinge upon the adjacent SRB attachment hardware and external fuel tank. The SRB breach flare
led to the separation of the right-hand SRB's aft attachment and the structural failure of the external tank, dumping
the liquid hydrogen fuel load all at once and causing a massive explosion as this fuel was immediately ignited by various
present flame sources. Aerodynamic forces promptly broke up the orbiter after this event caused loss of attitude control.
The crew compartment and many other vehicle fragments were eventually recovered from the ocean floor after a lengthy search
and recovery operation. The crew were probably killed by impact of their crew compartment with the ocean surface, although
they might have suffered lethal injuries from the forces of the disintegration.
On November 9, Germany celebrated the
15th anniversary of the collapse of the 97-mile long Berlin Wall. This wall famously divided the city of Berlin and the
country of Germany into the West, a democratic area, and the East, a communist area. On November 9, 1989, this wall was torn
down after dividing the country for 28 years.
Fifteen years ago, the collapse of the Berlin Wall was greeted with joyous celebrations throughout
Berlin. Yet the opening of the wall was almost an accident. Access between East and West Berlin had been denied for almost
thirty years, but on November 9, 1989, Guenter Schabowski, a spokesman for East Germany’s communist government, announced
that East Germany would lift traveling restrictions to the West. When asked when this would happen, Schabowski spontaneously
announced “immediately, without delay,” though this had not been previously planned.
That night, East Berliners arrived at the wall in
such numbers that the armed guards gave up and allowed them unrestricted access. Some of the most lasting memories of that
night include Berliners from both sides dancing on the wall in celebration. Eleven months later, East and West Germany unified
into the Germany that exists today.
Butcher of Lyons arrested in Bolivia Klaus Barbie, the Nazi
Gestapo chief of Lyons, France, during the German occupation, is arrested in Bolivia for his crimes against humanity four
decades earlier. As
chief of Nazi Germany's secret police in occupied France, Barbie sent thousands of French Jews and French Resistance
members to their deaths in concentration camps, while torturing, abusing, or executing many others. After the Allied liberation
of France, he fled to Germany, where under an assumed identity he joined other ex-Nazi officials in the formation of an
underground anti-communist organization. In 1947, the U.S. Counter-Intelligence Corps (CIC) broke up the organization and
arrested its senior members, although Barbie remained at large until the CIC offered him money and protection in exchange
for his cooperation in countering Soviet espionage efforts. Barbie worked as a U.S. agent in Germany for two years and in
1949 was smuggled to Bolivia, where he assumed the name of "Klaus Altmann" and continued his work as a U.S. agent.
In addition to
his work for the Americans, he performed services for Bolivia's various military regimes, especially that of Hugo "El
Petiso" Banzer, who came to power in 1971 and became one of the country's most oppressive leaders. Barbie provided
a similar expertise for Banzer as he had for the Nazis, torturing and interrogating political opponents and dispatching
many of them to internment camps, where many were executed or died from mistreatment. It was at this time that Nazi hunters
Serge Klarsfeld and Beatte Kunzel discovered Barbie's whereabouts, but Banzer refused to extradite him to France. In
the early 1980s, a liberal regime came to power in Bolivia and agreed to extradite Barbie in exchange for French aid to
the destitute nation. In January 1983, Barbie was arrested, and he arrived in France on February 7.
Legal wrangling, especially
between the groups representing his Jewish and French Resistance victims, delayed his trial for four years. Finally, on
May 11, 1987, the "Butcher of Lyons," as he was known in France, went on trial for 177 crimes against humanity.
In a courtroom twist unimaginable four decades earlier, Barbie was defended by three minority lawyers--an Asian, an African,
and an Arab--who made the dramatic case that the French and the Jews were as guilty of crimes against humanity as Barbie
or any other Nazi. Barbie's lawyers were more interested in putting France and Israel on trial than in actually proving
their client's innocence, and on July 4, 1987, he was found guilty. For his crimes, Klaus Barbie was sentenced to spend
the rest of his life in prison, France's highest punishment. He died in prison of cancer on September 25, 1991, at the
age of 77.
As had happened in
the late 1950s, in the late 1970s and early 1980s the Soviet Union and the United States both enhanced their nuclear arsenals.
This development reignited a peace movement worldwide. For New Zealanders there was a South Pacific focus. Initially provoked
by French nuclear testing, from 1975 it was directed more at the United States' nuclear presence in the region. Reinforced
by world trends, the New Zealand movement exploded in size in the early 1980s.
In 1985 the fourth Labour government
clashed with the United States over its ban on port visits by nuclear-powered or nuclear-armed ships. This distanced New Zealand
from its Cold War allies and led the United States to suspend its ANZUS obligations to New Zealand. Nevertheless, the depth
of sentiment in New Zealand was such that the National Party also adopted Labour's 'anti-nuclear' stance in 1990.
By then, with Soviet control having collapsed in east and central Europe, the Cold War was approaching its end. The end
of the Cold War
The Berlin Wall came down in 1989. The demise of the Soviet Union itself at the end of 1991 completed
the process. Some commentators saw the massive build-up of the American nuclear arsenal in the 1980s as a crucial factor,
given that the Soviet Union proved unable to match it. The collapse of Soviet power probably owed more to Eastern European
resentment of Soviet domination, and to internal factors, in particular the declining ability of the Soviet system to meet
its citizens' needs, and the loss of legitimacy on the part of the country's governing Communist Party.
Developing countries across the world
facing increasing economic and social difficulties as they suffer from multiple debt crises in the 1980s, requiring many
of these countries to apply for financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Ethiopia
witnessed widespread famine in the mid-1980s, resulting in the country having to depend on foreign aid to provide food to
its population and worldwide efforts to address and raise money to help Ethiopians, such as the famous Live Aid concert
in 1985. Margaret
Thatcher and Ronald Reagan were the leaders of the UK and the USA. Both leaders led the revival of right-wing politics.
These policies eventually became known as Thatcherism and Reaganomics respectively in their home countries.
The western world witnessed
the political revival of right-wing politics and advancement of neoliberalism with the rule of politicians including Margaret
Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Ronald Reagan as President of the United States, Helmut Kohl as Chancellor
of Germany, Brian Mulroney as Prime Minister of Canada and Carlos Salinas de Gortari as President of Mexico.
In the UK, although the blood transfusion
cases had widened public perception of who was vulnerable to AIDS, it was clear that those affected
by it in the UK at this point were mostly homosexual, and that many had a history of sex with US
nationals.7 A number of newspapers ran articles that labelled AIDS ‘the gay plague’.8 In July,
there was discussion in the House of Commons after press reports suggested that the large number of gay men planning
to attend a forthcoming festival could pose a public health risk:
“Scottish health experts are
worried that the Edinburgh international festival next month may become a breeding ground for the spread
of the mystery disease acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome” - The Times, July 1983.
In the same
month, Dr Tony Pinching and his colleagues at St Mary’s Hospital in London released preliminary
results of a study of 97 gay men in the capital. The study showed that a high proportion of these
men had immune cell abnormalities, and a decreased ability to fight off disease. It was believed that
these abnormalities might represent a latent phase of AIDS.
One of the most well-know eras of music is the
nineteen-eighties. In this period the virus AIDS hadn't been quite discovered yet and everyone was still under the notion
that having a good time with as many people as possible was the best way to live. Hair styles and clothing looked as weird
they could, with long hair and mullets being in fashion throughout the decade. And of course, the musical genre was forever
changed as many, many rock bands made a name for themselves and created well-known hits we still play on the radio today.
The eighties was a great time period for musical lyrics, and this article will focus on what made them so great and some of
the more popular ones that were created.
start out with, the nineteen-eighties was the time to rock and roll. Many songs words said nothing besides this fact. Everyone
wanted to rock and roll and they went ahead and did so. The songs would often be filled only with fun lyrics, as the American
economy and culture prospered throughout the decade without any problems, none like we have today at least. In addition, a
common theme attached to rock and roll was sex and drugs. Drugs were not as highly banned as they are today, and it would
be quite common to see people smoking a bag of weed or other drugs while at a concert of a high profile rock band. It makes
sense, therefore, that many rock hits focused on the good times of this era and what made it so great.
Upbeat is the keyword when it comes to the eighties. It would be a
hard matter indeed to find musical lyrics as depressing as sad as one can find today. Whereas today it is easy to hear about
child abuse, suicide, and massive terrorist attacks through the radio, those were topics unheard of in this golden era of
rock and roll. Many songs would focus on dancing and having a good time, as mentioned before. But there would also be songs
intending to lift the spirits of the listeners. The most popular of these was written and performed by Journey. "Don't
Stop Believin'" is still a popular hit for people of all ages even to this day.
Van Halen was another popular eighties band that was good for many great lyrical
music pieces. While their hits about being hot for a teacher, smoking in school, or running with the devil certainly aren't
as deep as some of the hits today, that doesn't change the fact that they reflected the time period they played in perfectly.
Eighties lyrics, above anything else, showcased the prosperity and good times of the decade we left behind twenty years ago. Overall, the eighties was a great time for the country and
nation as a whole and it shows in the musical lyrics still played on radio stations today. While the clothing and hair styles
have long since been out of fashion, the music remains to inspire and cheer up people all over the world and sends the message
that good times do exist and can happen.
It was discovered that a number of
people in the UK had developed AIDS following blood transfusions. This problem particularly affected haemophiliacs, whose
condition made them dependent on blood products. The Mail on Sunday ran a story about ‘killer blood’ in UK hospitals,
describing how two male haemophiliacs had discovered that they had AIDS after routine blood transfusions.5 On TV, a Horizon
programme entitled “The Killer in the Village” and a Panorama special on AIDS were both screened. The British
media were starting to pay more attention to AIDS.
By June, epidemiological studies in the US had led researchers to conclude that AIDS was “most
likely to be caused by an agent transmitted by intimate sexual contact, through contaminated needles, or, less commonly,
by percutaneous inoculation of infectious blood or blood products. No evidence suggests transmission of AIDS by airborne
spread.” They also suggested that AIDS may be transmitted from mother to child before, during, or shortly after birth.
Huge Poison Gas Leak in Bhopal, India
(1984): During the night of December 2-3, 1984, a storage tank containing methyl isocyanate (MIC) at the Union Carbide pesticide
plant leaked gas into the densely populated city of Bhopal, India. It was one of the worst industrial accidents in history.
India, Ltd. built a pesticide plant in Bhopal, India in the late 1970s in an effort to produce pesticides locally to help
increase production on local farms. However, sales of pesticide didn't materialize in the numbers hoped for and the plant
was soon losing money. In 1979, the factory began to produce large amounts of the highly toxic methyl isocyanate (MIC),
because it was a cheaper way to make the pesticide carbaryl. To also cut costs, training and maintenance in the factory
were drastically cut back. Workers in the factory complained about the dangerous conditions and warned of possible disasters,
but management did not take any action.
Sport became more international in
the 1980s as satellite television grew, with many sporting events reaching more countries than before. Examples include
the first live broadcasts of the Super Bowl in the United Kingdom. In 1980, the US Olympic hockey team defeated the Soviet Union 4 to 3, bolstering many U.S. citizens'
feelings of national pride in what was termed a Miracle On Ice. In this decade, the West Indies established themselves as the unofficial world champions of cricket,
though in a shock upset, they lost the 1983 Cricket World Cup to India. This victory is cited as the reason cricket is almost
a religion in India.
Despite the relatively low clock speed of 1 Mhz, the 6502's performance was actually competitive
with other CPUs using higher clock speeds in the late 1970's and early 1980's (the Zilog Z80 for example). It has
only very few registers - one 8-bit accumulator register (A), two 8-bit index registers (X and Y), an 8-bit processor status
register (P), an 8-bit stack pointer (S), and a 16-bit program counter (PC) and a quite simple instruction set. The 16 bit
address but allowed to allocate up to 64 kb of memory.
One of the first computers to use the 6502 were the Apple I (1976), the Apple II, and the Commodore
PET, the Atari home computers and the BBC Micro. The famous Commodore 64 used a MOS 6510, which was a successor of the 6502
with a digital I/O port and a three-state bus. The 6507, a simplified version of the 6502, was used in the Atari 2600 videogame
console. The 8502 was a 2 Mhz version of the 6502 which was used in the Commodore 128. Millions of computer systems with MOS
6502 processors shipped during the 1980's.
The MOS 6502 had been very popular among assembly language programmers (mostly because if it's
simplistic design), and even 31 years later it is today used to teach assembly language and computer architecture by many universities.
produced 16 bit derivatives of the 6502, for example the Western Design Center 65C816 (still widely used today) or the (not
fully compatible) Mitsubishi 65816. A planned Synertek SY6516 was never released. 32-bit derivatives include the Western Design
Center W65T32 Terbium, a 6502 compatible chip with a 32-bit address bus, a 16-bit data bus, and a variable length instruction
MOS 6502 clearly dominated the 8 bit home computer and video game world, but then Apple, Commodore and Atari all switched
to the Motorola 68K architecture with their next generation 16 bit computers (the Macintosh, the Amiga and the ST). Although
the 6502 architecture faded in the home computer and video game market, it still remains a quite popular design that can still
be found as the core of many microcontroller chips today.
As the name suggests, this site is dedicated to everything
about growing up during this particular decade. Our aim is to entertain you with memories of TV, film, music, toys, sweets,
books and basically anything else aimed at kids, from pre-school to teenagers, during the 1980’s. Sometimes we may cover
things that actually originate from a time outside of this period, but if you were a kid for any part of the 80’s, you’ll
probably remember them. If you weren’t around in the 1980’s, then we hope we’ll give you some idea of what
you missed out on!
March 24, 1989, the tanker Exxon Valdez, en route from Valdez, Alaska to Los Angeles, California, ran aground on Bligh Reef
in Prince William Sound, Alaska. The vessel was traveling outside normal shipping lanes in an attempt to avoid ice. Within
six hours of the grounding, the Exxon Valdez spilled approximately 10.9 million gallons of its 53 million gallon cargo of
Prudhoe Bay crude oil. Eight of the eleven tanks on board were damaged. The oil would eventually impact over 1,100 miles
of non-continuous coastline in Alaska, making the Exxon Valdez the largest oil spill to date in U.S. waters.
The response to the Exxon Valdez involved more personnel and equipment over a longer period of time than
did any other spill in U.S. history. Logistical problems inproviding fuel, meals, berthing, response equipment, waste management
and other resources were one of the largest challenges to response management. At the height of the response, more than
11,000 personnel, 1,400 vessels and 85 aircraft were involved in the cleanup.
1989: Massacre in Tiananmen Square Several
hundred civilians have been shot dead by the Chinese army during a bloody military operation to crush a democratic protest
in Peking's (Beijing) Tiananmen Square. Tanks rumbled through the capital's streets late on 3 June as the army moved into the square
from several directions, randomly firing on unarmed protesters. The injured were rushed to hospital on bicycle rickshaws by frantic residents shocked by the army's
sudden and extreme response to the peaceful mass protest. Demonstrators, mainly students, had occupied the square for seven weeks, refusing to move until
their demands for democratic reform were met. The protests began with a march by students in memory of former party leader Hu Yaobang, who had
died a week before. But
as the days passed, millions of people from all walks of life joined in, angered by widespread corruption and calling for
military offensive came after several failed attempts to persuade the protesters to leave.
Throughout the day the government warned it would
do whatever it saw necessary to clamp down on what it described as "social chaos".
But even though violence was expected, the ferocity
of the attack took many by surprise, bringing condemnation from around the world. US President George Bush said he deeply deplored the use of force,
and UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher said she was "shocked and appalled by the shootings". Amid the panic and confusion students
could be heard shouting "fascists stop killing," and "down with the government". At a nearby children's hospital
operating theatres were filled with casualties with gunshot wounds, many of them local residents who were not taking part
in the protests. Early
this morning at least 30 more were killed in two volleys of gunfire, which came without warning. Terrified crowds fled,
leaving bodies in the road. Meanwhile reports have emerged of troops searching the main Peking university campus for ringleaders, beating
and killing those they suspect of co-ordinating the protests. The demonstrations in Tiananmen Square have been described as the greatest challenge to the communist
state in China since the 1949 revolution. They were called to coincide with a visit to the capital by Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, by
students seeking democratic reform. Troops were used to clear the square despite repeated assurances from Chinese politicians that there would
be no violence. It has been suggested that the Communist
leader Deng Xiaoping personally ordered their deployment as a way of shoring up his leadership.
Hundreds, and possibly thousands, of people were
killed in the massacre, although it is unlikely a precise number will ever be known.
Peking has since become more widely known as Beijing.
Pan Am Flight 103 Is Bombed Over Lockerbie (1988): At 7:03 p.m. on December 21, 1988, Pan Am Flight
103, a London to New York flight, exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland. A total of 270 people were killed, 259 of which had
been on board the plane and another 11 had been killed from the debris that hit the ground.
An investigation into the explosion focused on terrorist motives for the bombing.
Abdelbaset Ali Mohmed al-Megrahi and Al Amin Khalifa Fhimah were blamed for the bombing.
After eleven years of negotiating for their extradition from Libya, Libya finally granted extradition in 1999. In 2000,
a trial began. In early 2001, Megrahi was found guilty of murder and Fhimah was acquitted.
Lockerbie Disaster. Pan Am Flight 103
was a Boeing 747-100 named Clipper Maid of the Seas. The jumbo jet was the fifteenth 747 ever built and was delivered in
February 1970, one month after the very first 747 had entered service with Pan Am.
On Wednesday 21 December 1988, Clipper Maid of the
Seas touched down at London's Heathrow Airport at noon from San Francisco. The aircraft was parked at stand Kilo 14,
Terminal 3, where it was guarded for two hours by Pan Am's security company, Alert Security, but otherwise was not watched. The first leg of Pan Am
Flight 103's journey began as the Boeing 727 feeder flight, PA103A, from Frankfurt International Airport, West Germany
to London Heathrow. Forty-seven of the 89 passengers on the Boeing 727, which was parked at stand Kilo 16 adjacent to the
Boeing 747, transferred to PA103 for the transatlantic flight from London Heathrow to New York JFK. There were 243 passengers and 16
crew members on board, led by pilot Captain James Bruce "Jim" MacQuarrie[, First Officer Raymond Ronald "Ray"
Wagner, and Flight Engineer Jerry Don Avritt. Mary Murphy served as the head purser. The flight was scheduled to depart
at 6:00, and pushed back from the gate at 6:04, but because of a rush-hour delay, it took off from runway 27L at 6:25, flying
northwest out of Heathrow, a so-called Daventry departure. Once clear of Heathrow, the crew steered due north toward Scotland.
At 6:56, as the aircraft approached the border, it reached its cruising altitude of 31,000 feet (9,400 m), and MacQuarrie
throttled the engines back to cruising power. At 7:00, PA103 was picked up by the Scottish Area Control Centre at Prestwick, Scotland, where it
needed clearance to begin its flight across the Atlantic Ocean. Alan Topp, an air traffic controller, made contact with
the clipper as it entered Scottish airspace. Captain MacQuarrie replied: "Good evening Scottish, Clipper one zero three. We are at level
three one zero." Then First Officer Wagner spoke: "Clipper 103 requesting oceanic clearance." Those were
the last words heard from the aircraft.
Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan were the leaders
of the UK and the USA. Both leaders led the revival of right-wing politics. These policies eventually became known as Thatcherism
and Reaganomics respectively in their home countries. The western world witnessed the political revival of right-wing politics
and advancement of neoliberalism with the rule of politicians including Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United
Kingdom, Ronald Reagan as President of the United States, Helmut Kohl as Chancellor of Germany, Brian Mulroney as Prime Minister
of Canada and Carlos Salinas de Gortari as President of Mexico. Major civil discontent and violence occurs in the Middle East
including the Iran-Iraq War, major conflict and violence in Lebanon from 1982 to 1983, U.S. military action against Libya
in 1985, and the First Intifada in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. In the eastern world, hostility to authoritarianism and
the failing command economies of communist states resulted in a wave of reformist policies by communist regimes such as the
policies of perestroika and glasnost in the USSR, along with the overthrows and attempted overthrows of a number of communist
regimes, such as in Poland, Hungary, the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 in China, the Czechoslovak velvet revolution, and
the overthrow of the dictatorial regime in Romania and other communist Warsaw Pact states in Central and Eastern Europe. It
came to be called as the late 1980s purple passage of the autumn of nations. By 1989 with the disintegration of the Warsaw Pact, the Soviet Union announced the abandonment of political hostility to the western world and thus
the Cold War ended. These changes continued to be felt in the 1990s and into the 21st century.
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