Having spent many happy hours putting this website together, the
one thing that gives me great pain and heartache is the fact we are still killing each other in the thousands, each and every
day. Children and babies die in their thousands every day. We fight over land, we fight over religion, we fight over oil.
Do we not have any humanity or love left in our hearts for our brothers and sisters, forget creed and colour each of
us is here for only a very short time, can we not share the Earths limited reserves of food and resources with the needy
and hungry, it seems not, and then again we can do wonderfull things for others perhaps there is hope for us all!
has perhaps seen more changes than any other and perhaps more than any future generation will see, by the late 19th century,
new powers had arisen and became powerful rivals to the British Empire: the United States and Germany, both outstripped Britain
economically, and in the case of Germany, became involved in a naval building race with Britain. In the last decades of the 19th century
and the first years of the 20th century, extensive thought was given to granting "home rule" to Ireland however
a final decision on what policy to adopt had not been made when war broke out. In 1916, while World War I was still raging,
Irish nationalists launched a rebellion against British rule in Ireland, seizing control of strategic points in Dublin. As
for music we have seen more innovation and trends from 20s jazz to rock and blues to the new romantics and punk.
When I was a kid, adults used to bore me to tears with
their tedious diatribes about how hard things were. When they were growing up; what with walking twenty-five
miles to school every morning.... Uphill... Barefoot... BOTH ways... yadda, yadda, yadda And
I remember promising myself that when I grew up, there was no way in hell I was going to lay a bunch
of crap like that on my kids about how hard I had it and how easy they've got it!
now that I'm over the ripe old age of thirty, I can't help but look around and notice the youth
of today. You've got it so easy! I mean, compared to my childhood, you live in a darn Utopia!
And I hate to say it, but you kids today, you don't know how good you've got it! I mean, when I was a kid
we didn't have the Internet. If we wanted to know something, we had to go to the damn library and
look it up ourselves, in the card catalog!! There was no email!! We had to actually write somebody
a letter - with a pen! Then you had to walk all the way across the street and put it in the mailbox,
and it would take like a week to get there! Stamps were 10 pence! Social Services didn't care
if our parents beat us. As a matter of fact, the parents of all my friends also had permission to kick
our ass! Nowhere was safe! There were no MP3's or Napsters or iTunes! If you wanted to steal music, you had to
hitchhike to the record store and shoplift it yourself! Or you had to wait around all day to tape it
off the radio, and the DJ would usually talk over the beginning and @#*% it all up! There were no CD
players! We had tape decks in our car. We'd play our favourite tape and "eject" it when
finished, and then the tape would come undone rendering it useless. Cause, hey, that's how we rolled,
Baby! Dig? We didn't have fancy crap like Call Waiting! If you were on the phone and somebody else
called, they got a busy signal, that's it!
There weren't any freakin' cell phones
either. If you left the house, you just didn't make a damn call or receive one. You actually had to be out of touch
with your "friends". OH MY !!! Think of the horror... not being in touch with someone 24/7!!!
And then there's TEXTING. Yeah, right. Please! You kids have no idea how annoying you are. And we
didn't have fancy Caller ID either! When the phone rang, you had no idea who it was! It could be
your school, your parents, your boss, your bookie, your drug dealer, the collection agent... you just
didn't know!!! You had to pick it up and take your chances, mister! We didn't have any fancy
PlayStation or Xbox video games with high-resolution 3-D graphics! We had the Atari 2600! With games like 'Space
Invaders' and 'Asteroids'. Your screen guy was a little square! You actually had to use your
imagination!!! And there were no multiple levels or screens, it was just one screen... Forever! And
you could never win. The game just kept getting harder and harder and faster and faster until you died!
Just like LIFE! You had to use a little book called a TV Guide to find out what was on! You were
screwed when it came to channel surfing! You had to get off your ass and walk over to the TV to change
the channel!!! NO REMOTES!!! Oh, no, what's the world coming to?!?! There was no Cartoon Network either!
You could only get cartoons on Saturday Morning. Do you hear what I'm saying? We had to wait ALL WEEK for cartoons,
you spoiled little rat-finks! And we didn't have microwaves. If we wanted to heat something up,
we had to use the stove! Imagine that!
our parents told us to stay outside and play... all day long. Oh, no, no electronics to soothe and
comfort. And if you came back inside... you were doing chores! And car seats - oh, please! Mom threw you in the back seat and you hung on. If you were luckily,
you got the "safety arm" across the chest at the last moment if she had to stop suddenly,
and if your head hit the dashboard, well that was your fault for calling "shot gun" in the first place! See!
That's exactly what I'm talking about! You kids today have got it too easy. You're spoiled
rotten! You guys wouldn't have lasted five minutes back in 1980 or any time before!
Now that the Twentieth Century has drawn to a close, let us sit back and savor our memories
of the events that shaped our world. Or shaped our country. Or didn't shape much of anything. And of
course, at least half of these probably won't really be memories to most of you unless you're a Centenarian or something.
But don't let that stop you. Just pause for a moment with me here, won't you, and reflect on these Days Gone
At the end of the last Century, Rome had long since fallen. The Dark Ages were
drawing to a close and the Medieval Period was . . . no, wait, that's the end of the last Millennium, not the end of the
last Century, isn't it? Ahem. At the end of the Nineteenth Century, the automobile had just been invented.
Disinfection was still a new medical technique, and anesthesia was limited to circus side shows. Human beings had never
flown in heavier-than-air machines, unless you count gliding, which aviation historians apparently don't. The term
"computer" referred to a profession, not a machine. Or at least that's what somebody told me, and it sounded
like a good story so I'm reprinting it here. In fact, all of my alleged historical facts pretty much belong in the
hearsay category. I ain't a historian. I don't need to be. All I need to do is publish false information
on a webpage and everybody will send me e-mail correcting it, won't you? Ah, the beauty of modern technology.
(Actually, I didn't lavish nearly as much attention on this page as I did on That Wacky Millennium!.
This page only covers 1/9 as much history, after all.)
And if there's a favorite Historical
Event of yours that happened in this century but that I left out (no, your first date does not count), send it to email@example.com
and I may or may not get around to reading it. 1901 – The Nineteenth Century officially ends
and the Twentieth Century begins. Unfortunately, everybody did all their partying in 1900 and never bothered to ask a ca 1903 – Wilbur and Orville Wright's biplane, christened with the thoroughly original name "The
Flyer", takes off from a field in Kitty Hawk and stays airborn for 12 seconds. It is not the first powered heavier-than-air
machine to sustain flight for any length of time, though. The Wright Brothers' biggest contribution to aviation
comes several years later with the invention of the aileron. Those wacky bicycle mechanics! 1908
– Henry Ford begins cranking out Model Ts, reducing the price of cars drastically by dumbing down the job of the auto
assembly worker. This causes traffic jams and suburbia. Meanwhile, the Chicago Cubs win their last World Series.
That wacky Fred Merkle! 1909 – Hans Geiger (of Geiger-Müller Counter fame) and E. Marsden
shoot some helium at some gold, causing Ernst Rutherford to discover that atoms have a nucleus. This leads to the Nuclear
Generation, whose members manage to mispronounce it as "nuke-you-lar". That wacky alpha particle scattering! 1912 – Leonardo DiCaprio and Kate Winslett fall madly in love aboard a sinking Royal Mail Steamer Titanic,
killing over a thousand passengers. It was sad when the great ship went down. Those wacky lifeboats! 1913 – Federal Reserve Act and Income Tax Constitutional Amendment enacted. Many conspiracy theories
follow. Those wacky Bavarian international banker freemason illuminatists! 1914-1918 –
World War I happens. Record-breaking numbers of people die. Those wacky trench diggers! 1916
– U.S. Supreme court (in the Brushaber Case) says the Income Tax Amendment didn't really amend the Constitution,
it just clarified it by classifying an income tax as an indirect or excise tax. Ha ha. Those wacky justices! 1917 – Russia and a few of its neighbors become the first test case for Marx's theories.
Unfortunately, some of the variables from the control group infect the sample and skew the results. Then Stalin comes
in and really skews the results. Those wacky communists! 1918 – Britain and France
blame World War I on Germany, and require them to pay a hillion jillion Deutschmarks in reparations; Germany accomplishes
this by printing a hillion 1-jillion-Deutschmark bills. Ethanol is banned throughout the United States thanks to, of
all things, a Constitutional amendment. The Boston Red Sox win their last World Series of the millennium. That
wacky Harry Frazee! 1920 – 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified, allowing
all female U.S. citizens to vote. Unfortunately, they screw up their first chance big-time by electing Warren G. Harding
president. Those wacky suffragettes! 1925 – John Logie Baird, a Scotsman, invents the
first working television. It sends 30 piddling scan lines worth of picture to a rotating motorized display unit, which
can't even display a proper shade of white. And if it isn't Scottish, it's crrrrrrap. That wacky collection
of way too many moving parts! 1927 – Philo T. Farnsworth (yes, that's his real name)
invents real television. This paves the way for the later invention of the TV Dinner, the Couch Potato, and Joanie Loves
Chachi. That wacky cathode ray tube! 1928 – Alexander Fleming, another Scotsman, accidentally
leaves one of his Petri dishes exposed to the air, and it gets infected with bread mold. When he noticed that the area
around the mold was bacteria-free, he proclaimed, "Ach, cap'n, the engines canna take it any more!" Just
kidding; he actually proclaimed, "There can be only one!" and decapitated Sean Connery with his claymore.
This led to the development of penicillin. That wacky fungal defense-mechanism secretion! That
very same year – Otto Frederick Rohwedder invents sliced bread. It's the best thing since itself. That
wacky Wonder Bread®! 1929 – U.S. Television video standard approved by the F.C.C., which
will eventually require (yich) NTSC to be backward-compatible with it. Stock prices across the entire New York Stock
Exchange take a nosedive. This sets off a minor recession in the U.S.. Those wacky stockbrokers! 1931 – U.S. economy is in recovery from the minor recession set off by the Stock Market Crash in 1929.
Those wacky wage earners! 1932 – The world-wide recession finally hits the United States.
The U.S. enters the Great Depression. In a brilliant political maneuver, presidential candidate Franklin D. Roosevelt
blames the depression on the Stock Market Crash of 1929, which as we all know was entirely Herbert Hoover's fault.
No one bothers to correct Mr. Roosevelt. Those wacky Democrats! 1933 – Ethanol is un-banned
in the U.S. thanks to another Constitutional amendment. Edwin Howard Armstrong invents Frequency Modulation; his boss,
Lee DeForest, eventually drives him to suicide. Acting on emergency power authority granted to him by the U.S. Congress,
newly elected U.S. president Roosevelt institutes the "new deal" in which he outlaws private ownership of gold.
That wacky Gold Standard! 1934 – Now that private ownership of gold is illegal in the U.S.,
Roosevelt re-defines the U.S. "dollar" from 25.8 grains of 900-fine gold to 15.375 grains of 900-fine gold, and
starts paying off the 20 billion dollar federal debt in these new smaller "dollars". That wacky national debt! 1935 – As if a Great Depression wasn't bad enough, the destructive farming practices used in the
midwest finally catch up with them, and formerly arable land becomes a great big Dust Bowl. This causes Steinbeck to
engineer a new strain of wrathful grapes. That wacky nitrate depletion! 1938 – Realizing
that the British Air Force secretly under construction is not yet big enough to challenge Nazi Germany, Neville Chamberlain
lets the Nazis invade North Czeckoslovakia, giving some wimpy public excuse about "peace in our time". This
buys Britain time to build more airplanes but gets Chamberlain kicked out of office. His successor burps at Lady Astor
a lot. That wacky Appeasement policy! 1939-1945 – World War II happens. Five
times as many people die as in World War I, but you'd never know it from the movies that come out of this war. As
a result of the length of the war, the rate of technological innovation takes on a lightning-paced life of its own that continues
through to the next Millennium. Those wacky Nazis!
1941 – Howard Florey (an Australian)
and Ernst Chain (a British guy) discover that the Penicillium chrysogenum fungus can be grown in huge vats. Armed with
this invaluable bread-mold knowledge, they invent a way to mass-produce penicillin. Penicillin makes good for, oh, 30
or 40 years, before penicillin-resistant strains of disease-causing bacteria begin to show up. That wacky natural selection
process! 1945 – First nuclear bomb tested in New Mexico. Second and third nuclear bombs
tested in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Those wacky fissionables! 1947 – India stops being
a British colony, thanks to Ben Kingsley's Oscar®-winning performance. That wacky doctrine of non-cooperation! 1948 – Stalin blockades West Berlin in order to draw attention away from his attempts to acquire U.S.
nuclear secrets. He buys the final pieces of the puzzle from J. Robert Oppenheimer, for $500 and a free dinner.
Meanwhile, Bell Labs invents the Transistor, paving the way for cheap computers, portable stereo amplifiers, and the Tamagachi.
Those wacky doped silicon substrates! 1949 – The Soviet Union, also known as The Bad Guys,
detonates its first nuclear device. The Cold War begins. That wacky military-industrial complex! 1950 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg become the first big-time victims of the U.S. Red Scare, thanks to Jell-O®
brand gelatin dessert. Meanwhile, Alan Turing, arguably the world's first computer scientist, having broken the
Nazi's secret code to help Great Britain win the second world war, is jailed in Great Britain for being a homosexual.
Those wacky homophobes! 1950-1953 – The Korean War happens. Lots of people die.
Both sides end up exactly where they started. That wacky 38th parallel! 1954 – Building
on Einstein's lesser-known theory of stimulated emissions, Charles Townes invents the first laser (called a "maser"
because its emissions lay in the microwave spectrum). Those wacky population inversions! That
very same year – Sherwood "Shakey" Johnson opens up the first Shakey's Pizza Parlor, which became the
first restaurant chain to sell modern American pizza as we know it. That wacky crust spinner! 1955
– Disneyland opens, on the same day that Roger M. Wilcox, author of this esteemed webpage, will be born 10 years later.
That wacky Buena Vista! 1957 – The U.S. enters a minor recession, causing the VW Bug to catch
on. The Soviet Union places a beach-ball-sized artificial satellite in low Earth orbit, resulting in the formation of
the NASA and ESA bureaucracies. The U.S. Ford Motor Company introduces four mid-priced makes of cars produced by their
new Edsel division. Those wacky marketing blunders! 1958 – The U.S. completely fails
to catch up with the Soviet space program, because space exploration is "supposed to be peaceful" and Werner von
Braun used to be a military man. The notion of "rocket science" as being a difficult subject is coined into
the English-speaking imagination. It is a dark day for us all. Those wacky Keplerian orbital elements!
1961 – The first human being in space, Yuri Gagarin, also makes (on the same flight) one almost-complete
orbit of the Earth. Is that cool, or what? Those wacky Soviet-employed German scientists! 1963
– The U.S. becomes probably the last country on earth to go off the Gold Standard. U.S. President John F. Kennedy
gets assassinated, from the Grassy Knoll, by Space Aliens under mind-control from Elvis who are working with the Bavarian
Illuminati to get Jackie Kennedy pregnant with Bigfoot's love-child. That wacky Warren Commission! 1965 – Roger M. Wilcox, author of this esteemed webpage, is born. U.S. dimes and quarters stop being
made out of silver, thus ending the era of U.S. specie money. (U.S. half dollar coins are still made partially out of
silver through 1970, but most of their bulk is now taken up by a thick layer of copper.) Disney releases That Darn Cat!.
(It's not much of a movie, but its title epitomizes Disney live-action movie making.) Malcom X gets assassinated
for not being a black separatist anymore. That wacky Nation of Islam! 1966 – The original
Star Trek TV series makes its debut on NBC. It will eventually get cancelled, gain an underground cult following, spring
back to life as a long drawn-out motion picture, and snowball into the biggest franchise in the history of Paramount.
All while completely missing the profound implications of half the magic-technology it proposes (and forgetting about 9/10
of this technology when it's convenient for the plot). That wacky Great Bird! 1968 –
Another Kennedy, and Martin Luther King Jr., both get assassinated. In protest to this, youngsters grow their hair long,
burn their draft cards, and listen to songs with subversive lyrics like "Picture yourself on a train in a station."
Those wacky hippies! 1969 – Woodstock happens. The U.S. goes off the Silver Standard.
Neil Armstrong, and some other guy nobody ever remembers, walks on the moon; his first words after touching the lunar surface
are "The dust is really fine, almost like a powder." Those wacky NASA astronauts! 1970
– Astronauts Tom Hanks, Bill Paxton, and Kevin Bacon lead a star-studded special effects extravaganza when their oxygen
tank explodes en route to the moon. Private ownership of gold is re-legalized in the United States. Those wacky
gold futures contracts! 1971 – In response to new U.S. emission control laws, the catalytic
converter appears on nearly every new car, choking off engine horsepower and reducing fuel efficiency. Auto manufacturers
could have built multiple ignition engines instead, but nooooooo. Those wacky incompletely-combusted hydrocarbons!
That very same year – E. Gary Gygax publishes a little 3-part supplement to the Chainmail! medieval
wargaming system called "Dungeons & Dragons." That wacky +5 holy vorpal defender frost-brand flame-tongue
dragon-slayer luckblade of wounding, dancing, sharpness, thunderbolts, speed, quickness, life stealing, nine-lives stealing,
and final word! 1972 – The last human beings set foot on the moon. That wacky geologist
astronaut! 1973 – The U.S. Supreme Court declares that laws prohibiting abortion during the
first 3 months of pregnancy are in violation of the Constitution's 4th amendment. That wacky Operation Rescue! 1974 – Richard Milhous Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to resign from office. Gerald Ford
becomes the first U.S. president to get there without ever having won an election. Those wacky Watergate burglars! 1975 – Ebola makes its show-stopping world premiere in Zaire, killing 90% of the people it infects.
Those wacky viruses! 1976 – The movie Logan's Run is released. It's almost
nothing like the book, but is good in its own way, as is evidenced by The Highly Unofficial Logan's Run FAQ. That
wacky William F. Nolan! 1977 – Star Wars is released, reshaping the face of high-budget cinema
forever. Those wacky imperial stormtroopers! 1979 – Susan B. Anthony is immortalized
by putting her image on a U.S. dollar coin so badly designed that it stops being minted almost immediately. The older,
large coin dollars with Eisenhower's picture on them are not re-introduced. That wacky undecagon! 1981 – IBM introduces a microcomputer based on an Intel CPU designed to be source-compatible with 8080 assembly
language; this so-called "Personal Computer" eventually takes over the world. Perhaps the least intelligent
U.S. president in this millennium is inaugurated into office, and as a result the U.S. Congress accelerates federal Deficit
Spending to a level unheard of since the end of the second world war. That wacky national debt! 1982
– U.S. one-cent pieces stop being made out of copper. If you make a deep scratch in one, you'll see a definitely
non-copper-looking metal underneath, which is cheap zinc. No U.S. coin is worth anywhere near its face value any more.
Those wacky tokens! 1984 – The Macintosh, the only serious rival to the PC architecture,
sputters onto the scene; it borrows some ideas from Xerox PARC and eventually leads to MS Windows. The U.S. Center for
Disease Control announces that a newly-isolated virus called H.I.V. is the cause of AIDS. Unfortunately, the arrogance
behind their assertion fuels doubts and results in a kind of AIDS underground, most prominently exemplified by Peter Duesberg,
which spends years asserting that HIV is not the cause of AIDS. Those wacky T-cells! 1985
– "New Coke" appears, at about the same time the old radioactive water problems at the Three Mile Island nuclear
power plant are cleaned up. (Coincidence? Read the book!) Those wacky Edsel-like marketing blunders! 1986 – Experimenters at the Soviet nuclear power plant in Chernobyl take all the control rods out of
the reactor, making it go boom. NASA plays catch-up with the Soviet space program in terms of body count; the last thing
to go through Christa McAuliffe's mind is a heat-resistant tile (rim-shot). Those wacky solid rocket booster rubber
sealant rings! 1989 – The walls separating Federal Germany from Communist Germany come down.
The bricks are carefully preserved, though, so as to make nice souvenirs for people who want to shell out good money to own
a broken brick. Meanwhile, students on protest in Tianenmen Square get run over by tanks. Those wacky most-favored-nation
trading partners! 1991 – The U.S. and a few measly nations wage a lopsided war against Iraq.
Lots of people die. The Soviet Union dissolves after a failed coup attempt, officially ending the Cold War. (The
military-industrial complex and the NASA bureaucracy that grew up because of the Cold War, however, do not end.) Now
freed from Communism, the Russians suffer a severe economic depression and blame it all on women. Those wacky Russkies! 1992 – Dan Quayle misspells "potato" in front of a news camera crew. And that's
all any U.S. voter will ever remember about him from that moment onward. Quayle may be stupid, but voters are stupider.
The 2-hour pilot episode of Babylon 5 premieres. That wacky JMS! 1998 – The Useless
Pages chooses That Wacky Millen[n]ium! as its Useless Site of the Week for the week of March 15th. Those wacky Ides
of March! 1999 – U.S. President Bill Clinton repeats Andrew Johnson's performance on
the impeachment floor. Then, on September 13th, Moonbase Alpha gets thrown into deep space by a nuclear lunar explosion.
That wacky Commander Koenig! 2000 – The last year of the 20th Century. And the Second
Millennium. Once again, the Book of Revelation fails to come true, despite widespread predictions that it would.
(Never mind the fact that the Book of Revelation doesn't mention any specific dates. That has never kept anyone
from leaping to the unjustified conclusion that the End Is Near.) The world does not come to an end, unless you count
those few pieces of software out there that break when the year ends in "00", and the lack of popular acceptance
of the new Sacagewia dollar coin in the U.S.. Those wacky doomsayers!
CREDIT TO Roger M. Wilcox.
Among the many social changes wrought by modern communications,
perhaps none is so striking as our new found ability to learn about and react to violence. In an earlier age, cities, countries,
and even civilizations could be swallowed up in bloodshed without other parts of the world even knowing about it.Today, tragedies in the farthest corner of the globe are comprehensively reported
and widely discussed. The system of attention and concern begins with the news media, which instantly bring us details
of worldwide strife, but it doesn’t end there. The world now has a vast network of scholars, academic centers, and
think tanks specializing in war, genocide, and repression. In addition, many government agencies and international bodies
keep records on terrorism, refugees, and military forces. Information on violence is made available to everyone through an
extensive publishing system that generates vast quantities of books, reports, and Web pages. The Library of Congress catalog,
for example, already contains fifty-one entries on the Rwanda genocide, an episode that occurred just six years ago in an
obscure corner of the world. Another illustration of the intensity of modern record keeping is a recent book on the “troubles”
of Northern Ireland that lists the names and circumstances of death of all 3,637 victims of the political infighting since
Today, tragedies in the farthest
corner of the globe are comprehensively reported and widely discussed. The system of attention and concern begins with the news media, which instantly bring us details
of worldwide strife, but it doesn’t end there. The world now has a vast network of scholars,
academic centers, and think tanks specializing in war, genocide, and repression. In addition, many government
agencies and international bodies keep records on terrorism, refugees, and military forces. Information
on violence is made available to everyone through an extensive publishing system that generates vast quantities of books, reports, and Web
pages. The Library of Congress catalog, for example, already contains fifty-one entries on the Rwanda genocide,
an episode that occurred just six years ago in an obscure corner of the world. Another illustration of the intensity
of modern record keeping is a recent book on the “troubles” of Northern Ireland that lists
the names and circumstances of death of all 3,637 victims of the political infighting since 1970
The Berlin Wall was erected in the dead of night and
for 28 years kept East Germans from fleeing to the West. Its destruction, which was nearly as instantaneous as its creation,
was celebrated around the world. At the
end of World War II, the Allied powers divided conquered Germany into four zones, each occupied by either the United States,
Great Britain, France, or the Soviet Union (as agreed at the Potsdam Conference). The same was done with Germany's capital
city, Berlin. As the relationship between
the Soviet Union and the other three Allied powers quickly disintegrated, the cooperative atmosphere of the occupation of
Germany turned competitive and aggressive. Although an eventual reunification of Germany had been intended, the new relationship
between the Allied powers turned Germany into West versus East, democracy versus Communism.
In 1949, this new organization of Germany became official when
the three zones occupied by the United States, Great Britain, and France combined to form West Germany (the Federal Republic
of Germany). The zone occupied by the Soviet Union quickly followed by forming East Germany (the German Democratic Republic).
This same division into West and East occurred
in Berlin. Since the city of Berlin had been situated entirely within the Soviet zone of occupation, West Berlin became
an island of democracy within Communist East Germany. Within a short period of time after the war, living conditions in West Germany and East Germany became distinctly
different. With the help and support of its occupying powers, West Germany set up a capitalist society and experienced such
a rapid growth of their economy that it became known as the "economic miracle." With hard work, individuals living
in West Germany were able to live well, buy gadgets and appliances, and to travel as they wished.
Nearly the opposite was true in East Germany. Since
the Soviet Union had viewed their zone as a spoil of war, the Soviets pilfered factory equipment and other valuable assets
from their zone and shipped them back to the Soviet Union. When East Germany became its own country, it was under the direct
influence of the Soviet Union and thus a Communist society was established. In East Germany, the economy dragged and individual
freedoms were severely restricted.
By the late 1950s, many people living in East Germany wanted out. No longer
able to stand the repressive living conditions of East Germany, they would pack up their bags and head to West Berlin. Although
some of them would be stopped on their way, hundreds of thousands of others made it across the border. Once across, these
refugees were housed in warehouses and then flown to West Germany. Many of those who escaped were young, trained professionals.
By the early 1960s, East Germany was rapidly losing both its labour force and its population. Having already lost 2.5
million people by 1961, East Germany desperately needed to stop this mass exodus. The obvious leak was the easy access East
Germans had to West Berlin. With the support of the Soviet Union, there had been several attempts to simply take over West
Berlin in order to eliminate this exit point. Although the Soviet Union even threatened the United States with the use of
nuclear weapons over this issue, the United States and other Western countries were committed to defending West Berlin. Desperate
to keep its citizens, East Germany decided to build a wall to prevent them from crossing the border.
Amelia Earhart endures in the
American consciousness as one of the world's most celebrated aviators. Amelia remains a symbol of the power and perseverance
of American women, and the adventurous spirit so essential to the American persona.
Born in Atchison, Kansas on July 24, 1897, the daughter of a railroad attorney,
she spent her childhood in various towns, including Atchison and Kansas City, Kansas and Des Moines, Iowa. At age 19, Amelia
attended Ogontz School near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two years later, after visiting her sister, Muriel, in Toronto, Canada,
Amelia felt compelled to leave school. Taking a course in Red Cross First Aid, Amelia enlisting as a nurse's aide at
Spadina Military Hospital in Toronto, Canada, tending to wounded soldiers during World War I. The following year, Amelia
enrolled as a premedical student at Columbia University in New York. Shortly thereafter, Amelia's parents insisted she
move to California where they were living.
Learning to fly in California, she took up aviation as a hobby, taking odd jobs to pay for her flying lessons.
In 1922, with the financial help of her sister, Muriel, and her mother, Amy Otis Earhart, she purchased her first airplane,
a Kinner Airster.
Following her parent's
divorce, Amelia moved back east where she was employed as a social worker in Denison House, in Boston, Massachusetts. It
was there she was selected to be the first female passenger on a transatlantic flight, in 1928, by her future husband, the
publisher, George Palmer Putnam.
had already published several writings by Charles Lindbergh, and he saw Amelia's flight as a bestselling story for his
publishing house. With pilot Wilmer Stultz and mechanic Lou Gordon, Amelia flew from Newfoundland to Wales aboard the trimotor
plane Friendship . Amelia's daring and courage were acclaimed around the world. Upon the flight's completion, Amelia
wrote the book 20 Hours - 40 Minutes .
1931, Amelia married George, but continued her aviation career under her maiden name. Amelia and George formed a successful
partnership. George organized Amelia's flights and public appearances, and arranged for her to endorse a line of flight
luggage and sports clothes. George also published two of her books, The Fun of It , and Last Flight .
After a series of record-making flights, she became the first
woman to make a solo transatlantic flight in 1932. That same year, Amelia developed flying clothes for the Ninety-Nines.
Her first creation was a flying suit with loose trousers, a zipper top and big pockets. Vogue advertised it with a two-page
photo spread. Then, she began designing her own line of clothes "for the woman who lives actively."
She dressed according to the occasion whether
it was flying or an elegant affair. She was most conscious of the image she projected. Several New York garment manufacturers
made an exclusive Amelia Earhart line of clothes which were marketed in 30 cities, with one exclusive store in each city,
such as Macy's in New York and Marshall Field's in Chicago.
Amelia made great strides in opening the new field of aviation to women. In 1935, Amelia became the first person
to fly from Hawaii to the American mainland. By doing so, Amelia became not only the first person to solo anywhere in the
Pacific, but also the first person to solo both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Also in 1935, Amelia joined the faculty
of Purdue University as a female career consultant. It was the purchase of a Lockheed Electra, through Purdue University,
that enabled Amelia to fulfill her dream -- circumnavigating the globe by air.
In June 1937, Amelia embarked upon the first around-the-world flight at the equator.
On July 2, after completing nearly two-thirds of her historic flight -- over 22,000 miles -- Amelia vanished along with her
navigator Frederick Noonan. They took off from Lae, New Guinea, bound for tiny Howland Island in the vast Pacific Ocean.
The distance from Lae to Howland was about equal to a transcontinental flight across the U.S. A great naval, air and land
search failed to locate Amelia, Noonan, or the aircraft, and it was assumed they were lost at sea. To this day, their fate
is the subject of unending speculation.
theorized the pair ran out of fuel looking for Howland Island, and had to ditch in the Pacific. Others thought they may
have crash landed on another small island. Some speculated they were captured by the Japanese, accused of espionage, then
held as bargaining chips in the event war erupted between the U.S. and Japan.
The white youth of today have begun
to react to the fact that the American Way of Life is a fossil of history. What do they care if their old baldheaded and
crew-cut elders don't dig their caveman mops? They couldn't care less about the old, stiff-assed honkies who don't
like their new dances: Frog, Monkey, Jerk, Swim, Watusi. All they know is that it feels good to swing to way-out body-rhythms instead of dragging across the dance floor like
zombies to the dead beat of mind-smothered Mickey Mouse music.
confidently predict the collapse of capitalism and the beginning of history. Something will go wrong in the machinery that
converts money into money, the banking system will collapse totally, and we will be left having to barter to stay alive. Those
who can dig in their garden will have a better chance than the rest. I'll be all right; I've got a few veg. I wouldn't
wish the eighties on anyone, it was the time when all that was rotten bubbled to the surface. If you were not at the receiving
end of this mayhem you could be unaware of it. It was possible to live through the decade preoccupied by the mortgage and
the pence you saved on your income tax. It was also possible for those of us who saw what was happening to turn our eyes in
a different direction; but what, in another decade, had been a trip to the clap clinic was now a trip to the mortuary. I wouldn't
wish the eighties on anyone, it was the time when all that was rotten bubbled to the surface. If you were not at the receiving
end of this mayhem you could be unaware of it. It was possible to live through the decade preoccupied by the mortgage and
the pence you saved on your income tax. It was also possible for those of us who saw what was happening to turn our eyes in
a different direction; but what, in another decade, had been a trip to the clap clinic was now a trip to the mortuary.I confidently
predict the collapse of capitalism and the beginning of history. Something will go wrong in the machinery that converts money
into money, the banking system will collapse totally, and we will be left having to barter to stay alive. Those who can dig
in their garden will have a better chance than the rest. I'll be all right; I've got a few veg..
We were that generation called silent,
but we were silent neither, as some thought, because we shared the period's official
optimism nor, as others thought, because we feared its official repression. We were silent
because the exhilaration of social action seemed to many of us just one more way of escaping the personal, of
masking for a while that dread of the meaningless which was man's fate..I confidently
predict the collapse of capitalism and the beginning of history. Something will go
wrong in the machinery that converts money into money, the banking system will collapse totally,
and we will be left having to barter to stay alive. Those who can dig in their garden will have a better
chance than the rest. I'll be all right; I've got a few veg. I wouldn't
wish the eighties on anyone, it was the time when all that was rotten bubbled to the
surface. If you were not at the receiving end of this mayhem you could be unaware of it. It was possible
to live through the decade preoccupied by the mortgage and the pence you saved on your income tax.
It was also possible for those of us who saw what was happening to turn our eyes
in a different direction; but what, in another decade, had been a trip to the clap
clinic was now a trip to the mortuary.
The massive arms
race of the 19th century finally culminated in a war which involved every powerful nation in the world: World War I - 1914 1918 (1914 1918). This war drastically changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as machine guns, tanks, chemical
weapons, and grenades created stalemates on the battlefield and millions of troops were killed with little progress made on
either side. After more than four years of horrifying trench warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead, those powers who had formed the Triple Entente (France, Britain, and Russia, later replaced by the United States and joined
by Italy) emerged victorious over the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire). In addition to annexing
much of the colonial possessions of the vanquished states, the Triple Entente exacted punitive restitution payments from their
former foes, plunging Germany in particular into economic depression. The Russian Empire was plunged into revolution during
the conflict and transitioned into the first ever communist state, and the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were dismantled
at the war's conclusion. World War I - 1914 1918 brought about the end of the royal and imperial ages of Europe and established the United States as a major world military
Broadway, as the name implies, is a
wide avenue in New York City. While New York has several other Broadways, in the context of the city it usually refers to
the Manhattan street. It is the oldest north-south main thoroughfare in the city, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement.
The name Broadway is an English translation of the Dutch name, Breede weg. A stretch of Broadway is famous as the pinnacle
of the American theater industry.
Broadway originated as a Native American trail, called the Wickquasgeck Trail,
which was carved into the brush land of Manhattan. This trail originally snaked through swamps and rocks along the length
of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from New Amsterdam
at the southern tip. The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the
year 1642 ("the Wickquasgeck Road over which the Indians passed daily"). The Dutch named the road "Heerestraat".
In the 18th century Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where Eastern Post Road continued through the
East Side and Bloomingdale Road the west side of the island. In the late 19th century the widened and paved part of Bloomingdale
Road north of Columbus Circle was called "The Boulevard" but at the end of the century the whole old road (the Bloomingdale
Road and what was previously called Broadway) was renamed to Broadway
There are many places
where you can go to have a great time but none of these will provide you hours of magic like Broadway. Now even though we have all at one time or another seen musical shows and plays on Broadway there must have been a time
when Broadway was just a dream. To really know the Broadway history you may have to look in various places.
You can however be assured
that you will find rich facts which will make visiting this period in time quite fascinating. You will find out the time when
Broadway was first created and the various plays which have been shown. You can find out the ways in which Broadway has managed
to withstand the advances of technology.
While you are looking through Broadway history you might also want to see the various plays which
have help to keep the history of this place alive. Now even though this part of the Broadway history can be quite fascinating
you should look at the different aspects of producing a show. This will illustrate just how well a place like Broadway has
the capability of keeping audiences coming.
One of the facts that you will find in the Broadway history files is the fact that Broadway has been
around to help people understand and get involved in various national crisis issues. While the media dominates the mainstream
of today’s entertainment there is still a place for Broadway entertainment. The many wonderful plays and musical shows
that you will see are a testament to the popularity of Broadway.
One tiny note which should be mentioned is that despite its popularity
Broadway has never been able to regain the popularity that it enjoyed in the The 1920s. Even so you can still see many great plays which have been produced by a number of talented people. These people are ones
like Oscar Hammerstein, George Gershwin, Richard Rodgers, and Cole Porter to name a few.
1920 Electric hand iron goes on
sale in London. The tommy-gun is patented by John T Thompson. First ice cream on a stick is sold by Harry Burt at his Good Humour Bar. Swiss psychiatrist
Hermann Rorschach devises "inkblot test." Caesar salad was invented in Tijuana, Mexico in the 1920s by Caesar
Gardini. 1921 Johnson & Johnson launches the
band-aid bandage. Avus Autobahn in Berlin is the first motorway. Californian medical student John Larson invents the
polygraph (lie detector). Philo Farnsworth realized an idea for TV.1922 Husband-and-wife team De witt Wallace and Lila Acheson launch Reader's Digest. British Egyptologist
Howard Carter discovers the tomb of Tutankamun, pharaoh 1316-1322BC. The snowmobile is built by 15-year old Joseph Bombardier
in Quebec. The police car, called a bandit-chaser, is launched in Denver, Colorado, using a Cadilac engine.1923
Swiss John Harwood invents the self-winding watch. Jacob Schick patents the electric shaver. 16mm home movie camera
is launched by Kodak. Frank Epperson invents the popsicle when he leaves his lemonade mix on a windowsill overnight.1924 First round-the-world flight. First Winter Olympics at
Chamonix, Switzerland. Columbia Pictures and MGM founded. Spindryer launched by Kleenex. Caesar Cardini, owner of
"Caesar's Palace" in New York invents Caesar salad.
After World War
II, most of the European-colonized world in Africa and Asia gained independence in a process of decolonization. (Most Latin
American countries had gained their independence in the 19th century.) This, and the drain of the two world wars, caused Europe,
which had been the pre-eminent continent for centuries, to lose much of its power. On the other hand, the world wars drew
the United States into taking a position of major influence over world affairs. American culture spread around the world with
the advent of Hollywood, Broadway, rock and roll, pop music, fast food, big-box stores, and the hip-hop lifestyle. After the
Soviet Union collapsed under internal pressure in 1991, a ripple effect led to the dismantling of communist states across
eastern Europe and their rocky transitions into market economies. By the end of the century, the United States was the undisputed
economic, military, and cultural powerhouse of the world. It was allied with a still-powerful Europe, meaning that the West
dominated the world at the end of the century as it had at its beginning.
Royal Naval Service (WRNS; popularly and officially known as the Wrens) was the women's branch of the Royal Navy. Members
included cooks, clerks, wireless telegraphists, and electricians, and a small number of air mechanics during the Second World
War. It was formed in 1917 during the First World War, and by the end of the war had 5,500 members, 500 of them officers.
It was disbanded in 1919. It was revived in 1939 at the beginning the Second World War, with an expanded list of allowable
activities, including flying transport planes. At its peak in 1944 it had 75,000 people. During the war there were 100 deaths.
One of the slogans used in recruiting posters was "Join the Wrens -- free a man for the fleet." It remained in existence
after the war and was finally integrated into the regular Royal Navy in 1993. Women sailors are however still known as wrens
in naval slang. Before 1993, all women in the Royal Navy were members of the WRNS except nurses, who joined (and still join)
Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service, and medical and dental officers, who were commissioned directly into the
Royal Navy, held RN ranks, and wore WRNS uniform with gold RN insignia.
As the century began, Paris was the
artistic capital of the world, where both French and foreign writers, composers and visual artists gathered. By the end of
the century, the focal point of culture had moved to the United States, especially New York City and Los Angeles. Movies,
music and the media had a major influence on fashion and trends in all aspects of life. As many movies and music originate
from the United States, American culture spread rapidly over the world. After gaining political rights in the United
States and much of Europe in the first part of the century, and with the advent of new birth control techniques women became
more independent throughout the century. In classical music, composition branched out into many completely new domains,
including dodecaphony, aleatoric and chance music, and minimalism. Electronic musical instruments were developed as well,
vastly broadening the scope of sounds available to composers and performers. The jazz and rock and roll genres developed
in the United States, and quickly became the dominant forms of popular music. Many other genres of pop music were born in the latter half of the century, such as heavy metal, punk, alternative rock, house, dance, reggae, soul, rap
launches the Sputnik satellite into space. The EEC, European Economic Community, founded. The Medical Research Council links
lung cancer with smoking. BMW launches the three-wheel Isetta
1958 Yves Saint Laurent holds his first fashion show in Paris. Danish toymakers Ole and Godtfred Kirk Christiansen
launches Lego. Bill and Mark Richards of California invents the skateboard. Australian David Warren invents the black box
flight recorder. NASA founded. Jack Kilby from Texas and Robert Noyce from California invents the integrated circuit at the
same time! However, their idea is not new - Briton GW Dummer had suggested such a design in 1952.
1959 First pictures of dark side of the moon by Luna III. Fidel Castro takes power in Cuba. Alec
Issigonis's Morris Mini is launched. Haloid launches the first copier, the "Xerox 914," able to reproduce documents
at the press of a button. Briton Christopher Cockerell launches the hovercraft. Ermal Cleon Fraze invents the easy-open can.
First Daytona 500 takes place, won by Lee Petty in an Oldsmobile. The Beatles form. Barbie doll debuts, after she started life years earlier as Lilli.
1960 US submarine Triton makes the first round the world undersea voyage. Two hackers from MIT create
the first computer video game, Spacewar. "Ben Hur" is awarded 10 Oscars. Largest earthquake recorded in Chili.
1961 Yuri Gagarin the first man in space. A coup, backed
by the CIA and President John F Kennedy, fails at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. Russia starts building the Berlin Wall. Alan B.
Shephard Jr is the first American in space. Bob Dylan plays his first gig, in New York. World Wildlife Fund founded. Weight
Watchers founded by 97kg (214 lb) Jean Nidetch.
The Beatles debut with "Love me do". John Glenn becomes first American to orbit earth in space. Dow Corp invent
silicone breast implants. Ivan Sutherland demonstrates Sketchpad, the first programme to use windows, icons, and a light pen.
In "the Cuban crisis," Khrushchev removes Russian nuclear missiles from Cuba, but only after Kennedy agrees to remove
US missiles from Turkey.
History gets a bad rap in school. Many of us have memories
of history class being taught by rote memorization of facts and dates and names with little or no application to our daily
lives. No wonder its considered boring and dull. Any time we are expected to simply recite and repeat bare data for the sole
purpose of passing a test, that information is unlikely to have any lasting change or effect on our lives. In order to use
the valuable lessons that history can teach us, it needs to be presented to children (and adults!) in a way that brings it
alive and connects to our present day way of life.
History has many valuable lessons for us that can spur
us on to greater achievement and accomplishments, but only if we can find a way to teach it to our children in a way that
will get them excited and revved up. If a child is taught that the great discoveries and milestones in our history shaped
our culture and our world, and that these discoveries were made by ordinary people JUST LIKE THEM, they can be inspired to
go and achieve huge milestones and accomplishments of their own.
If a child learns the history of the civil rights movement,
in a way that shows and creates empathy for the very real feelings of the people that lived and still do live with such terrible
injustice and intolerance, cruelty and ignorance, she can learn to find ways to end the rest of the racism in America. The
lives of leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. are taught in history classes, but usually not to the depth that can create
real change. If a child could be shown the creation of prejudice by a class-based society when he is seven, eight or nine
years old, before he has been exposed to a lifetime of bigotry, he could readily accept the faulty thinking involved and prevent
it from passing on to his generation.
? If a child learns the truth of wars like Vietnam he could learn that war really doesn't solve a thing. Although we salve our egos with noble causes like ending Communism,
ending slavery, ending terroristic rule, most wars are caused by power, hatred, and greed. If a child learns that these are really the reasons that thousands and thousands
of soldiers and civilians die, he might learn to live a life free of these crippling, deadly emotions. If all of our children
in third, fourth and fifth grade could learn to live without a need for power, a hatred of others and a greed that drives
him to do unthinkable things, how might that change our world in 25 years?
Radio Free Europe begins beaming world news to listeners
behind the Iron Curtain from an operations base at Munich. Gen. Lucius D. Clay has helped start the organization and is chairman
of the board; he asks for private contributions to help fund its broadcasts, but nearly all of its support comes from the
CIA. Pacifica Radio has its beginnings in the FM station KPFA that goes on the air at Berkeley, Calif., April 15. Kansas City-born
pacifist Lewis Hill, 29, spent the war in a camp for conscientious objectors; moved from Washington, D.C., to the Bay Area
3 years ago; and pioneers in listener-sponsored radio, with on-air pledge drives in place of commercial sponsors to free it
from dependence on advertisers who might object to some of its views. The station is housed in a Victorian house, where on-air
hosts must sometimes speak over the sound of bathroom plumbing noises
By late 1961, the Viet Cong had won control of virtually half of South Vietnam with little local opposition. The United States increased its military
and economic aid to combat the Communist threat and at the same time put pressure on President Diem for democratic reforms.
In Apr., 1961, Diem was reelected president, but many voters boycotted the election. Resentment against the government was
dramatized by the Buddhist crisis, which erupted in May, 1963, as a result of government persecution. A number of self-immolations
by Buddhist monks followed. Large antigovernment demonstrations provoked police shootings, mass arrests, and more repressive
government measures. These actions, along with the increasing loss of territory to the Viet Cong, prompted Diem's own
military commanders to resort to a coup (Nov. 1, 1963), in which Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu (who headed the secret
police), were murdered. A period of great political instability followed, with frequent changes in government, mounting disorders,
and continued religious unrest (both Buddhist and Catholic).
THEODORE ROOSEVELT 1901-1909
With the assassination of President McKinley,
Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and
power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign
policy. He took the view that the President
as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden
by law or the Constitution." I did not usurp power," he wrote, "but I did greatly broaden the use of executive
power." Roosevelt's youth differed
sharply from that of the log cabin Presidents. He was born in New York City in 1858 into a wealthy family, but he too struggled--against
ill health--and in his triumph became an advocate of the strenuous life. In 1884 his first wife, Alice Lee Roosevelt, and his mother died on the same day. Roosevelt spent much of the next
two years on his ranch in the Badlands of Dakota Territory. There he mastered his sorrow as he lived in the saddle, driving
cattle, hunting big game--he even captured an outlaw. On a visit to London, he married Edith Carow in December 1886. During the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt was lieutenant
colonel of the Rough Rider Regiment, which he led on a charge at the battle of San Juan. He was one of the most conspicuous
heroes of the war. Boss Tom Platt, needing
a hero to draw attention away from scandals in New York State, accepted Roosevelt as the Republican candidate for Governor
in 1898. Roosevelt won and served with distinction. As President, Roosevelt held the ideal that the Government should be the great arbiter of the conflicting economic
forces in the Nation, especially between capital and labor, guaranteeing justice to each and dispensing favours to none.
Back then most of the clothes for families were made by the family mom. Soon they were fitted and made by tailors, though. By the end of this
decade almost everyone was buying already made clothes. The kinds of clothes that a woman would wear were usually skirts
that came down to the ground. Even if she was doing "unladylike" things, such as farming or bicycling.
Another thing that they wore were high, buttoned shoes. Another popular type of clothes for a woman was whale bone corsets,
and hats with festive plumage and decorations. The men's suits were almost always dark and heavy. In the summer,
out in the country a man might wear white flannel, but back then there was no such thing as a "summer weight suit".
The shirts had high collars and detachable cuffs for easier washing. Almost every man wore a hat. Farmers wore
straw hats, rich people wore silk hats, and middle-class men wore derbies. So, as you can see the dress code back then
British reinforcements arrive in Ireland May 15 to support
His Majesty's forces against attacks by Sinn Fein political militants who continue resistance to British regulars and
to the new "Black and Tans"—Royal Irish Constabulary recruits whose khaki tunics and trousers and dark green
caps are almost black. Nicknamed after a familiar breed of Irish hound, the Black and Tans have been helping the British suppress
Irish nationalists since March and take reprisals for nationalist acts of terrorism (see 1919). They arrest Countess Markievicz September 26 and hold her in Mountjoy Jail. Two agitators for Irish independence die in
an English prison after fasting for 75 days in a protest demonstration. Cork Lord Mayor Terence James MacSwiney, 41, collapses
on the 15th day, physicians are unable to save him, and his death in October produces widespread rioting. The rebels shoot
14 British spies November 21, the Black and Tans retaliate that afternoon by firing at random during a football match at Croke
Park, killing 12 women and men (including one of the players) and wounding 60. The countess is court-martialed December 2
and 3 on charges that she organized the Fianna in 1909. The Government of Ireland Act passed by Parliament December 23 gives
Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland the right to elect separate parliaments of their own with each to retain representatives
in the British Parliament at London
The U.S. population reaches 105.7 million. Urban residents
total 54 million, up from 1.4 million in 1840, and for the first time exceed rural residents (51.5 million), but one in every
three Americans still lives on a farm, a proportion that will drop in the next 50 years to one in 22. The world population
reaches 1.86 billion. A new French legal ruling classes contraception with abortion and makes anything having to do with birth
control illegal. The action is designed to compensate for the population loss experienced in the Great War. Severe fines and
prison sentences are ordered for anyone who administers or receives an abortion, but the law will be widely flouted. The number
of illegal abortions will climb to an estimated 500,000 per year within 50 years, with bungled abortions causing an estimated
500 deaths per year. "Any Protestant woman in her senses would object to marrying a Roman Catholic," writes
Marie Stopes October 18 in a letter to an Irish Catholic. "They prohibit the use of proper hygienic Birth Control methods
preferring that a woman's health should be entirely ruined and that she should bring forth feeble, dying, or imbecile
infants rather than that proper hygienic methods should be used."
"We have evidence that in recent weeks an atomic
explosion occurred in the USSR," President Truman announces September 23. A specially modified U.S. B-29 flying off Siberia's
Kamchatka Peninsula has picked up traces of microscopic particles that contained disintegrating nuclei, and scientists have
determined that the invisible grains of matter caught in the plane's sniffer were part of a highly radioactive, eastward-drifting
cloud produced by a device exploded August 29 in a desert about 100 miles south of Semipalatinsk. Physicist Igor V. Kurchatov,
now 47, has headed the Soviet team that developed the Soviet bomb (see 1945); his team includes chiefly Andrei Dmitriyevich
Sakharov, 28, who won a doctorate at age 26, and 1925 German Nobel laureate Gustav Hertz, 62, whose uncle Heinrich Hertz pioneered
the wireless in 1887. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists reacts to news of the Soviet nuclear explosion by advancing the
hands of its "Doomsday Clock" from 7 minutes before midnight to 3 minutes
Four black college freshmen stage a sit-in February
1 at a whites-only F. W. Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College freshmen
David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, and Ezell Blair Jr. occupy stools at the lunch counter, a white waitress refuses
to take their order; white counter manager Clarence L. Harris, 55, gives orders that no other action be taken; and the youths
sit for more than an hour before Harris closes for the day. Within 2 days 80 students have joined the protest, and by week's
end some 200 men and women are spelling each other at the counter, refusing to be provoked by white youths who come in from
outlying areas to incite violence. Some Bennett College students, including government president Gloria E. Brown, 21, participate
in passive protest against discrimination, and Brown will later say, "I was scared. We knew what could happen to us.
We knew it was a time when we were being watched very, very carefully." The sit-in spreads within 2 weeks to 11 cities
in Alabama, Virginia, and three other states. The Congress of Racial Equality and NAACP call for a nationwide boycott of F.
W. Woolworth in March. Atlanta civil rights activist Ruby (née Rubye) Doris Smith, 18, is arrested with others after
a student lunch-counter sit-in protesting Jim Crow laws. She and three others (the "Rockville Four") refuse to be
released on bail, preferring to serve jail sentences that will draw attention to their cause. Ella Baker quits the SCLC to
work in a YWCA regional student office, using it to recruit backers and student members of a new organization. Support groups
for Greensboro's sit-in demonstrators organize at 21 northern schools, including Harvard, Yale, Princeton, the University
of Chicago, City College of New York, and the University of California, Berkeley. A race riot at Biloxi, Miss., April 25 is the worst in the state's history; it ends only after eight blacks and
two whites have been shot dead.
Popular songs: "Yellow Submarine," "Nowhere Man," and "Eleanor Rigby"
by John Lennon and Paul McCartney of the Beatles (who give their last public concert August 29 in San Francisco's Candlestick
Park); "Sunshine Superman" and "Mellow Yellow" by Scottish rock singer Donovan Leitch; Aftermath (album)
by Mick Jagger and Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones includes the single "Paint It Black"; "Happenings
Ten Years Time Ago" by the British rock group the Yardbirds (Keith Reif, 33; Eric Clapton [originally Eric Patrick Clapp],
31; Chris Dreja, 29; Jim McCarty, 33; Jeff Beck, 32; and Jimmy Page, 32); "If I Were a Carpenter" by Tim Hardin;
"Scarborough Fair—Canticle" by Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel; "Alice's Restaurant" by folksinger
Arlo Guthrie, 20, who has written the song of social protest to promote a Stockbridge, Mass., eating establishment/commune
run by Alice and Ray Brock, two of his former schoolteachers, in an abandoned church; "Monday, Monday" and "California
Dreamin'" by South Carolina-born singer-songwriter John E. A. Phillips, 30, of The Mamas and The Papas (Phillips,
Arlington, Va.-born Cass Elliott [originally Ellen Naomi Cohen], 22, Dennis Doherty, 24, Holly Michelle Gilham, 22); Jefferson
Airplane Takes Off (album) by the Jefferson Airplane (Chicago-born singer Grace Slick [née Wing], 22, guitarist-banjoist
Paul Kantner, 24, bass guitarist Jack Casady, 22, guitarist Jorma Kankonen 25, drummer Spencer Dryden, 23), a rock group
that has been playing at San Francisco's Fillmore Auditorium; "Summer in the City" by New York-born rock-folk
singer-songwriter John B. Sebastian, 22, Mark Sebastian, and Joe Butler of the Lovin' Spoonful; "These Boots Are
Made for Walkin'" by Oklahoma-born songwriter Lee Hazelwood, 36, who has written it for Nancy Sinatra; "You
Don't Have to Say You Love Me" by Italian composer Pietro Donaggio, English lyrics by British TV producer Vicki
Wickham (who has adapted the Italian lyrics of Vittorio Pollavigini); "Guantanamero" by Pete Seeger and Hector
Angulo, lyrics from a poem by the 19th-century Cuban patriot José Martí; Reflections in a Crystal Wind (album)
by Richard and Mimi Fariña; "The Ballad of the Green Berets" by Carlsbad, N.M.-born singer-songwriter Barry
Sadler, 26, who has served as a U.S. Special Forces medic in Vietnam; "Winchester Cathedral" by English songwriter
Geoffrey Stephen; "Alfie" by Burt Bacharach, lyrics by Hal David (title song for film); "Georgy Girl"
by Tom Springfield, lyrics by English actor-singer Jim Dale, 31 (title song for film); "Born Free" by John Barry,
lyrics by Don Black (title song for film); "Strangers in the Night" by Bert Kaempfert, lyrics by Eddie Snyder (for
the film A Man Could Get Killed); "Happy Together" by Alan Lee Gordon and Garry Bonner; "Good Vibrations"
by Brian Wilson of the Beach Boys; "Society's Child" by New York songwriter-singer Janis Ian (Janis Eddy Fink),
15, is about a white girl and a black boy; More than a New Discovery (album) by New York singer-songwriter Laura Nyro (originally
Nigro), 19, includes "Wedding Bell Blues," "When I Die," and "Stoney End" that will be hits
for The Fifth Dimension and Blood Sweat and Tears (both rock groups) and for Barbra Streisand; "Don't Come Home
a-Drinkin'" by Loretta Lynn; "If Teardrops Were Silver" by Jean Shepard; North Dakota country singer
Lynn Anderson, 18, records "Ride, Ride, Ride" by her mother, Liz, 36, and joins Lawrence Welk's weekly TV show
that will keep her on the air until 1968. The
electric guitar gains prominence in England, where Seattle-born rock musician Johnny Allen "Jimi" Hendrix, 23,
begins to exploit the full potential of the relatively new instrument. Hendrix uses imagination, virtuosity, invention,
and sexual pantomime in his stage appearances.
U.S. personal bankruptcies jump to 367,000, up from
209,500 last year. A new federal bankruptcy law that went into effect October 1, 1979, enables individuals to protect much
more of their property against seizure by creditors.
Some 36 million Americans receive monthly Social Security
checks, 26 million Medicare benefits, 22 million Medicaid benefits, 18 million food stamps, 15 million veterans' benefits,
11 million Aid to Families with Dependent Children funds; millions of students receive federal scholarship aid; 27 million
children benefit from school lunch programs, and most of these categories overlap. Ronald Reagan promises to reduce the size
A U.S. recession in the second quarter cuts real output by 9.9 percent; double-digit inflation continues,
fueling opposition to President Carter. Ronald Reagan campaigns on what his running mate George H. W. Bush has called "voodoo
economics" (based on supply-side ideology) during the primary elections, but Bush drops his opposition at the Republican
Convention. The U.S. economy is on the rise again by fall, but prices have risen 12.4 percent by year's end as compared
to 13.3 percent last year; some countries have triple-digit inflation.
British unemployment rises above 2 million
for the first time since 1935 (when the workforce was one-third smaller) as recession depresses the economies of many countries.
Unemployment reaches nearly 2.5 million by year's end, up from 800,000 early in 1975, and industrial production falls
5 percent as the government's monetarist policies try to stem a new burst of inflation, which again climbs above 20 percent,
double the rate when Thatcher took office.
West Germany has a currency deficit of $14.2 billion, up from $5.4 billion
last year (there was a surplus of nearly $9 billion in 1978) as energy costs climb, interest rates rise, and consumer spending
eases. Imports grow more costly as the mark falls 15 percent in relation to the U.S. dollar.
Popular songs: "Wind Beneath
My Wings" by Hollywood songwriters Larry Henley and Jeff Silbar; Tender Love (album) by Indianapolis-born rhythm &
blues songwriter-crooner Babyface (Kenneth Edmonds), 30, includes the singles "It's No Crime" and "Whip
Appeal" Don't Be Cruel (album) and "My Prerogative" by Bobby Brown; "Oh Mercy" by Bob Dylan;
Hangin' Tough (album) by New Kids on the Block (a quintet from Boston); Forever Your Girl (album) by former Los Angeles
Lakers cheerleader Paula Abdul, 26, whose well-choreographed music video singles "Straight Up" and "Cold Hearted"
help her debut album sell more than 11 million copies worldwide (her 1990 income, mostly from endorsements for Reebok and
Diet Coke, will be $23 million); The Raw and the Cooked (album) by Fine Young Cannibals; The Traveling Wilburys (album) by
The Traveling Wilburys; Let Me Tell You about Love (album) by Carl Perkins, now 57; Girl You Know It's True (album) by
Milli Vanilli; "Look Away" by the rock band Chicago; Nick of Time (album) by Bonnie Raitt includes her own song
"The Road's My Middle Name" as well as John Hiatt's "Thing Called Love" and Bonnie Hayes's
"Have a Heart" (Raitt has quit drinking and calls it her "first sober album"); Flowers in the Dirt (album)
by Paul McCartney includes "Figure of Eight" and "We Got Married"; State of the Heart (album) by Mary-Chapin
Carpenter includes "How Do," "Never Had It So Good," "Something of a Dream," and the video favorite
"This Shirt;" Fear of a Black Planet (album) by the 7-year-old Long Island rap group Public Enemy (Chuck D [originally
Carlton Ridehour], 29; Flavor Flav [originally William Jonathan Drayton, Jr.,], 30; Professor Griff [Richard Griffin], 29;
Terminator X [Norman Rogers], 23) includes the single "Fight the Power;" All Hail the Queen (album) by Newark, N.J.-born
rap artist Queen Latifah (Dana Elaine Owens), 18.
1905 Jan 2, Sir Michael Tippett, British composer, was born in London. His childhood was
divided among England, France and Italy. His work included the oratorio Jan 9, (Old Style calendar) On what would become
known as "Bloody Sunday," Russian Orthodox Father George Gapon led a procession in St. Petersburg of some 200,000
who were marching on the Winter Palace to present their grievances to Czar Nicholas. Troops on the scene panicked, firing
into the crowd and killing hundreds, thus igniting the Revolution of 1905. Across Russia, government officials were attacked,
peasants seized private estates and workers’ strikes virtually paralyzed the economy. In St. Petersburg, a council (soviet)
of workers’ delegates threatened to take over the government. Nicholas consented to the adoption of a constitution
and election of a parliament (Duma). The first Duma met in 1906. Jan 25, Largest diamond, Cullinan (3106 carets), was
found in South Africa. Feb 8, A cyclone hit Tahiti and adjacent islands killing some 10,000 people. Apr 19, Tom
Hopkinson, British writer, was born. May 28, A Japanese fleet under Adm. Heihachiro Togo defeated a Russian fleet under
Adm. Zinovi Petrovich Rozhestvensky in the Battle of Tsushima. The Russian fleet lost 22 ships out of 38 to the Japanese in
the Battle of Tsushima Straits. In 2002 Constantine Pleshakov authored "The Tsar’s Last Armada: The Epic Voyage
to the Battle of Tsushima." Jun 7, Norway declared independence from Sweden. Their union had been in effect in since
1814 Jun 29, Archibald Wright “Moonlight” Graham (1876-1965) of the New York Giants played for two innings
in right field in his only professional baseball game on this day and was promptly forgotten until 1989 when the movie “Field
of Dreams” was released. “Moonlight” never got to bat, instead he was left on deck, a late substitute in
a lopsided 11-1 win. Graham completed his medical degree from the University of Maryland in 1908. He obtained his license
the following year and began practicing medicine in Chisholm, Minnesota. Jan 1, Kim Philby was born. He became a ringleader
of a group of upper crust Englishmen who entered public service or, in many cases, the British Secret Service, then spied
for the Soviets. Philby got away and spent his last years in Moscow. Feb 6, Eva Braun, mistress (Adolph Hitler), was
born. 1936 Jan 14, American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon were rescued by the
research ship Discovery II. The pair had made the first flight across Antarctica, 2,300 miles from the Weddell Sea to the
Ross Sea, landed when their plane's engine faltered, and waited in the previously constructed shelter at Little America
for a month to be picked up. After his earlier attempts to cross Antarctica failed, Ellsworth set out with Hollick-Kenyon
in the monoplane Polar Star and succeeded. Part of the area that Ellsworth and Hollick-Kenyon flew over in 1935 has been named
the Ellsworth Highlands. 1943 Jan 9, Soviet planes dropped leaflets on the surrounded Germans in Stalingrad requesting
their surrender with humane terms. The Germans refused. 1943 Jan 14, Roosevelt, Churchill, and DeGaulle met at Casablanca,
Morocco, to discuss the direction of the war. The Casablanca Conference, a pivotal 10-day meeting during WWII between U.S.
President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, determined unconditional surrender would be the
only basis of negotiations with the Axis. Roosevelt and Churchill also pledged maximum aid to the Soviet Union and China in
1966 Jan 1,
Simon & Garfunkel's "Sounds of Silence" reached #1. 1966
Jan 10, In Mississippi Vernon Dahmer, a revered civil rights leader, was killed in a firebombing. In 1998 Klansmen Sam Bowers
(1924-2006), Deavours Nix and Charles Noble were arrested for the murder. 8 men in 2 cars loaded with shotguns
and 12 gallons of gasoline attacked Dahmer’s home. Billy Roy Pitts participated and later testified how Bowers had called
meetings and presided over the planning of the bombing. Bowers was convicted in his 5th trial and sentenced to life in prison
where he died. 1966 Jan 12, "Batman" with Adam West & Burt Ward
premiered on ABC TV. 1966 Jan 31, U.S. planes resumed bombing of North Vietnam
after a 37-day pause. 1966 Feb 1, Nicholas Piantanida, set a balloon flight
record & died during the descent. 1966 Feb 3, The Soviet probe Luna 9 became
the first manmade object to make a soft landing on the moon. 1966 Feb 4, Gilbert
H. Grosvenor , president National Geographic Society, died. 1966 Feb 9, Sophie
Tucker Russian-US singer, actress (My Yiddish Mama), died. 1966 Feb 10,
Protester David Miller was convicted of burning his draft card. 1966 Feb 12,
The South Vietnamese won two big battles in the Mekong Delta. In Vietnam's Mekong Delta, Navy SEALs were the military's
eyes and ears, providing vital intelligence on enemy operations. 1966 Feb 16,
The World Council of Churches being held in Geneva, urged immediate peace in Vietnam. Vietnam was the war that five presidents
"owned"--and yet no president "owned."
1986 Jan 1, Libyan leader Moammar Khadafy threatened to retaliate
if attacked as the United States built its strength in the Mediterranean . 1986 Jan 2, Bill Veeck former baseball owner, died in Chicago. He
is remembered for his well-publicized stunts and promotional gimmicks, including an exploding scoreboard and a midget pinch-hitter. 1986 Jan
4, Christopher Isherwood, British born author, died of prostate cancer in Santa Monica, Ca. He was best know for his 1935
semi-autobiographical "The Berlin Stories," which was the basis for the 1966 musical Cabaret and made into a 1972
film. His life-partner was painter Don Bachardy. His "Diaries: Volume II, 1939-1960" were published in 1997. In
2005 Peter Parker authored “Isherwood: A Life Revealed.” 1986 Jan 6, In Johannesburg, South Africa, Impala Platinum fired 20,000
black mine workers. 1986
Jan 7, US president Reagan proclaimed economic sanctions against Libya. 1986 Jan 12, Space shuttle Columbia blasted off with a crew that included
the first Hispanic-American in space, Dr. Franklin R. Chang-Diaz. 1986 Jan 13, In Guatemala just before turning over power to Pres. Cerezo,
Gen. Humberto Mejia Victores issued a blanket self-amnesty for acts committed during the 3-year rule of the military government. 1986 Jan
14, Donna Reed (b.1921), actress (Donna Reed Show, Dallas), died of cancer in Beverly Hills, Ca., at age 64. 1986 Jan
14, In Guatemala, Vinicio Cerezo (b.1942) began serving as president. 1986 Jan 17, President Reagan approved a finding that authorized the sale
of weapons to Iran through third parties 1986
Jan 20, The United States observed the first federal holiday in honor of slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr.
Jan 20, Britain and France announced plans to build the Channel Tunnel. 1986 Jan 22, The body of Yvonne Coleman was found in a park in Inglewood,
California. In 2008 DNA evidence linked Michael Hughes , already in jail for 4 other murders, to her murder and 3 others.
1999 Jan 31, In Florida the
Denver Broncos, led by quarterback John Elway, beat the Atlanta Falcons 34-19 in Super Bowl XXXIII. There were 127.5 million
viewers for Fox Broadcasting. 1999
Jan 31, Scientists from the University of Alabama at Birmingham reported that the AIDS virus originated from a subspecies
of chimpanzee in western Africa and that it jumped to humans in the last 50 years. 1999 Jan 31, Kofi Annan called on large corporations to enact and uphold
standards of conduct for themselves and sub-contractors for investments and operations in poor countries. 1999 Jan 31, From Azerbaijan it was reported that Vafa Gulkuzade,
chief foreign affairs advisor, had asserted that the country needed a military protector. He said Turkish or American military
bases would be welcomed. 1999 Jan,
The US Catholic Family Radio Network began broadcasting in response to programming dominated by evangelical Protestants.
The death of Ernesto
"Che" Guevara in a small clash in South-east Bolivia is somewhat ironic. A man hailed as the master guerrilla strategist
of the Cuban revolution has met his death at the hands of the ill considered troops of a Bolivian dictatorship. In his 1960 guerrilla manual, Guevara wrote: "Given
suitable operating terrain, land hunger, enemy injustices, etc., a hard core of thirty to fifty men is, in my opinion, enough
to initiate armed revolutions in any Latin- American country." Born in 1928 in Rosario, Argentina, Guevara opted early for a life of adventure and took up sport
in an effort to overcome his enduring asthma. His father - who told me In July in Buenos Aires that he had no idea of his
son's whereabouts - found that they were both independently involved in anti-Peron conspiracies in the early 1950s. By
then Guevara had already qualified as a doctor and had travelled through Chile and Peru and had been thrown out of Colombia
and Venezuela for his political activism. Sought
refuge Forced to flee from Argentina by
Peron's secret police, Guevara was compromised in a revolt in La Paz, Bolivia, and moved to Guatemala, which was then
being governed by the Popular Front President, Arbenz Guzman. He took refuge in the Argentine Embassy when the CIA-sponsored
coup by Castillo Armas overthrew Arbenz and the experience undoubtedly ripened his anti-Americanism. In Mexico City he was
introduced to Fidel Castro through Castro's brother, Raul.
On December 2, 1956, Guevara landed with Castro's expedition on the shores of Batista's Cuba
and the happiest period of his life commenced. Starting simply as the party's doctor, he gradually became its ideologist,
tactician, and Castro's indispensable lieutenant.
He was the strategist of the battle of Santa Clara, which precipitated Batista's flight, and was put in charge
of the fortress of Havana after its capture. Later he was named Chief of Education in the Revolutionary Army and in November,
1959, he became President of the National Bank and subsequently Minister of Industry.
Among his books are "Guerrilla Warfare" (1960), accepted as a classic, and " Passages
of Revolutionary War" (1963) which contains his personal impressions of the Sierra Maestra. In his writing he concentrated
on the moral requirements of a revolutionary and hoped that Cuba would see the dawn of a "new man" such as was dreamt
of in 1917.
Rumours of disagreements
with Castro grew. After months of mystery Castro announced that Guevara, who was known to have a garibaldian yearning to liberate
the entire Latin American land mass, had resigned Cuban citizenship and left for "a new field of battle in the struggle
against imperialism". Like an elusive
Pimpernel Guevara was thereafter reported anywhere from the Congo to Santo Domingo via Vietnam.
His presence with the Bolivian guerrillas was
affirmed by Regis Debray and first denied then affirmed by the Bolivian Government. He had written his
own epitaph: " Wherever death may surprise us, let it be welcome, provided that this our battle
cry may have reached some receptive ear and another hand may be extended to wield our weapons."
Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858–January 6,
1919) was born in New York into one of the old Dutch families which had settled in America in the seventeenth century. At
eighteen he entered Harvard College and spent four years there, dividing his time between books and sport and excelling at
both. After leaving Harvard he studied in Germany for almost a year and then immediately entered politics. He was elected
to the Assembly of New York State, holding office for three years and distinguishing himself as an ardent reformer.
In 1884, because of ill health and the death of his wife, Roosevelt abandoned his political work for some time. He invested
part of the fortune he had inherited from his father in a cattle ranch in the Badlands of Dakota Territory, expecting to remain
in the West for many years. He became a passionate hunter, especially of big game, and an ardent believer in the wild outdoor
life which brought him health and strength. In 1886 Roosevelt returned to New York, married again, and once more plunged into
President Harrison, after his election in 1889, appointed Roosevelt as a member of the Civil Service
Commission of which he later became president. This office he retained until 1895 when he undertook the direction of the Police
Department of New York City. In 1897 he joined President McKinley's administration as assistant secretary of the Navy.
While in this office he actively prepared for the Cuban War, which he saw was coming, and when it broke out in 1898, went
to Cuba as lieutenant colonel of a regiment of volunteer cavalry, which he himself had raised among the hunters and cowboys
of the West. He won great fame as leader of these «Rough-Riders», whose story he told in one of his most popular
Elected governor of the state of New York in 1898, he invested his two-year administration with the vigorous
and businesslike characteristics which were his hallmark. He would have sought re-election in 1900, since much of his work
was only half done, had the Republicans not chosen him as their candidate for the second office of the Union. He held the
vice-presidency for less than a year, succeeding to the presidency after the assassination of President McKinley on September
14, 1901. In 1904 Roosevelt was elected to a full term as president.
Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll
is a form of music that evolved in the United States in
the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly spread to the rest of the world.
Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string
bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally
replaced or supplemented by guitar in the mid to late 1950s. The beat is essentially a boogie woogie blues rhythm with an
accentuated back beat, the latter almost always provided by a snare drum.
The massive popularity and eventual worldwide view of rock and roll gave it an unprecedented social
impact. Far beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and in the new medium of television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. It later spawned the various sub-genres of what is now called
simply 'rock music'.
The immediate origins
of rock and roll lie in the late The 1940s and early The 1950s through a mixing of the genres of blues, country, R&B, folk and gospel music. Alan Freed, a disc jockey based in Cleveland,
Ohio is generally credited with first using the phrase rock and roll in 1951, though the phrase was in constant use at time
in lyrics of R&B songs of the time. The phrase rocking and rolling has its origins in slang for dancing or having sex.
Many early rock and roll hits were re-writes of earlier R&B or blues songs. Black music was still taboo on radio stations,
so producers and artists began making white versions of black music. In 1955, Bill Haley’s Rock Around the Clock became
the first rock and roll song to top the charts. The song became one of the biggest hits in history, and hordes of teenagers
began flocking to hear Haley and his band The Comets. Blues would continue to inspire rock for decades with great acts like
Cream, The Yardbirds and Led Zeppelin drawing their inspiration from musicians like Robert Johnson and Skip James. Rock and Roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes and language. It also appeared at a time when racial tensions were coming to a
head in the United States, the music contributed to the civil rights movement as both black and white teenagers followed the
music. It was a fresh sound which spawned fresh ideas and approaches which paved the way for the swinging sixties.
Captain Marvel (1941) is a twelve-chapter film serial directed by John English and William Witney for Republic Pictures, adapted from the
popular Captain Marvel comic book character then appearing in Fawcett Comics publications. It starred Tom Tyler (who also
played The Phantom) in the title role of Captain Marvel and Frank Coghlan, Jr. as his alter ego, Billy Batson. This
serial was the twenty-first of the sixty-six serials produced by Republic and their first comic book adaptation (not counting
comic strips such as Dick Tracy). Spy Smasher, also based on a Fawcett character, would follow in 1942. This serial
was the first film adaptation of a comic book superhero. That claim would have gone to the previous serial, Mysterious Doctor
Satan, which was intended to have been a Superman serial until National Comics (now DC Comics) pulled out of negotiations. National Comics unsuccessfully attempted to sue Republic for producing a Captain Marvel serial
At the start
of the period, Britain was the world's most powerful nation. However, its economy was ruined by World War I, and its empire
began to shrink, producing a growing power vacuum in Europe. Fascism, a movement which grew out of post-war angst and accelerated
by the Great Depression of the 1930s, gained momentum in Italy, Germany and Spain in the 1920s and 1930s, finally culminating in World War II (1939
1945), sparked off by Nazi Germany's aggressive expansion at the expense of its neighbours. Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly
industrialized and transformed itself into an aggressive and technologically-advanced industrial power. Its aggressive expansion
into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean brought the United States into World War II. Germany was defeated after pushed by
the Soviet Union to the east and the D-Day invasion of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Free France from
the west. The war was ended with the dropping of two devastating atomic bombs on Japan. Japan has since transitioned into
one of the most pacifistic countries on the planet, building a powerful economy based on consumer goods and trade. Germany
was divided between the western powers and the Soviet Union; all areas recaptured by the Soviet Union (East Germany and eastward)
were essentially transitioned into Soviet puppet states under communist rule. Meanwhile, western Europe was revitalized by
the American Marshall Plan and made a quick economic recovery, becoming major allies of the United States under capitalist
economies and free governments. The largest and most devastating war ever fought, World War II - 1939 1945 claimed the lives of about 60 million people.
When the conflict ended in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two most powerful nations, and while they had been allies in the war,
they soon became hostile to one other as the competing ideologies of capitalism and communism occupied Europe, divided by
the Iron Curtain and the dreaded Berlin Wall. The military alliances headed by these nations (NATO in North America and western
Europe; the Warsaw Pact in eastern Europe) were prepared to wage total war with each other throughout the Cold War (19471991). The period was marked by a new arms race, and nuclear weapons, the most devastating ones yet to have been developed, were
produced in their tens of thousands, sufficient to end most life on the planet had they ever been used. This is believed by
some historians to have staved off an inevitable war between the two, as neither could win if their full nuclear arsenals
were unleashed upon each other. This was known as mutually assured destruction (MAD). Although the Soviet Union and the United
States never directly entered conflict with each other, several proxy wars, such as the Korean War (1950 1953) and the Vietnam War (1957 1975) were waged to contain the spread of Communism.
After decades of struggle by the women's
suffrage movement, all western countries gave women the right to vote. Rising nationalism and increasing national awareness
were among the many causes of World War I (1914–1918), the first of two wars to involve many major world powers including
Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Russia/USSR, the United States and the British Empire. World War I led to the creation of many
new countries, especially in Eastern Europe. At the time it was said by many to be the "war to end all wars". Warfare
in the early 20th Century (1914–1918)Clockwise from top: front line Trenches, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench,
the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine
gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes. Warfare in the early 20th Century (1914–1918) Clockwise
from top: front line Trenches, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking
after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III
biplanes. A violent civil war broke out in Spain in 1936 when General Francisco Franco rebelled against the Second Spanish
Republic. Many consider this war as a testing battleground for World War II as the fascist armies bombed some Spanish territories.
The economic and political aftermath of World War I and the Great Depression in the 1930s led to the rise of fascism and nazism
in Europe, and subsequently to World War II (1939–1945). This war also involved Asia and the Pacific, in the form of
Japanese aggression against China and the United States. Civilians also suffered greatly in World War II, due to the aerial
bombing of cities on both sides, and the German genocide of the Jews and others, known as the Holocaust. In 1945, Hiroshima
and Nagasaki were bombed with nuclear weapons. During World War I, in Russia the Bolshevik putsch took over the Russian Revolution
of 1917, precipitating the founding of the Soviet Union and the rise of communism. After the Soviet Union's involvement
in World War II, communism became a major force in global politics, notably in Eastern Europe, China, Indochina and Cuba,
where communist parties gained near-absolute power. This led to the Cold War and proxy wars with the West, including wars
in Korea (1950–1953) and Vietnam (1957–1975). The Soviet authorities caused the deaths of millions of their own
citizens in order to eliminate domestic opposition. More than 18 million people passed through the Gulag, with a further 6
million being exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. The civil rights movement in the United States and the movement
against apartheid in South Africa challenged racial segregation in those countries. The two world wars led to efforts to increase
international cooperation, notably through the founding of the League of Nations after World War I, and its successor, the
United Nations, after World War II. The creation of Israel, a Jewish state in the Middle East, by the British Mandate of Palestine
fueled many regional conflicts. These were also influenced by the vast oil fields in many of the other countries of the mostly
Arab region. The end of colonialism led to the independence of many African and Asian countries. During the Cold War, many
of these aligned with the United States, the USSR, or China for defense. The Great Chinese Famine was a direct cause of the
death of tens of millions of Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962. It is thought to be the largest famine in human history.
The revolutions of 1989 released Eastern and Central Europe from Soviet supremacy. Soon thereafter, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia,
and Yugoslavia dissolved, the latter violently over several years, into successor states, many rife with ethnic nationalism.
After a long period of civil wars and conflicts with European powers, China's last imperial dynasty ended in 1912. The
resulting republic was replaced, after yet another civil war, by a communist People's Republic in 1949. At the end of
the century, though still ruled by a communist party, China's economic system had transformed almost completely to capitalism.
European integration began in earnest in the 1950s, and eventually led to the European Union, a political and economic union
that comprised 15 countries at the end of the century.
1925 Red double-decker
buses enter service in London. In-flight movie offered by German airline. Walter P Chrysler founded vehicle company. Frisbee is invented - by Yale students, using empty plates used to hold pies from the Frisbie Baking
1926 Marion B Skaggs founded Safeway
food stores. Scottish engineer John Logie Baird demonstrates a machine that transmits movie pictures using radio technology,
calling it a "televisor", based on a 1884 idea by German Paul Nipkow. (But the mechanical TV system is beaten to
general use by Philo Farnsworth's design of 1928.)
25-year old Charles Lindbergh flies non-stop from New York to Paris in Spirit of St Louis. The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson, is the first talkie movie. The first words were: "Wait a minute! You ain't heard nothing'
yet!" First transatlantic phone call - at $75 for 3 minutes, half the cost of a car.
1928 Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin. Philo Fransworth has a working model
for TV. TV sets go on sales in the US for $75. Harry Ramsden opens the first chip shop in Bradford, England. First Bubble Gum, Fleer's
Dubble Bubble, goes on sale in the US. JW Horton and WA Morrison invent the quartz crystal clock.
1929 US engineer Paul Galvin invents the car radio. Enzo Ferrari launches his company. Colour television pictures is transmitted in New York. Kelloggs launches Rice Krispies. Popey debuts
in the Thimble Theatre strip by Elzie Segar. New York Stock Exchange crash on "Black Thursday" 24 October. 1950
Otis invents the passenger lift. Charles Schultz launches "Peanuts". Mr Potato Head debuts. Diners Club issues the
first credit card. Korean war erupts. Danish doctor Christian Hamburger performs the first sex change operation on New Yorker
George Jargensen, who becomes Christine Jargensen. Yoshuito Nakamats invents the floppy disc (but it is introduced by IBM
only in 1970).
1951 First Miss World contest
is held at the Lyceum theatre in London, won by Miss Sweden. John Paul Getty becomes the richest man. Zenith Radio Corp introduces
cable television. Chrysler introduces power steering. First space flight by living creatures when US sends 4 monkeys into the stratosphere. Remington
Rand launches the first commercially available computer, the Univac 1.
1952 M&R Labs introduce the first coffee creamer, "Pream". Kirsch launches the first
diet soft drink, "No-Cal Ginger Ale". Car safety belts introduced. BOAC starts first jet passenger service. Sony invents pocket-sized transistor radio. Ian Fleming's James Bond debuts in novel
1953 US physiologist
Ancel Keys suggests link between heart disease and high fat diet. Dr James Watson discovers the structure of DNA. Playboy
magazine is launched. Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reach summit of Mount Everest. Baron Bich launches Bic ballpoint in
France. Queen Elizabeth II crowned.
student Roger Bannister breaks the 4-minute mile. Elvis Presley debuts with "That's all right, Mamma." Racial segregation in US schools banned. Nuclear power station begins
production in Obninsk, USSR. First mass-produced computer by IBM, installing 120 "650's". Ray Kroc start McDonalds.
1955 Guinness Book of Records is published. Clean Air Act is passed
in Britain. Walt Disney opens Disneyland in Anaheim, California.
1956 CIA launches the U-2 spy plane. Swiss Georges de Metral perfects Velcro. John Bachus and his IBM team
invent FORTRAN, the first high-level programming language.
The early twenties when we drank
wood alcohol and every day in every way grew better and better, and there was a first abortive shortening of the skirts, and
girls all looked alike in sweater dresses, and people you didn't want to know said Yes, we have no bananas, and it seemed
only a question of a few years before the older people would step aside and let the world be run by those who saw things as
they were -- and it all seems rosy and romantic to us who were young then, because we will never feel quite so intensely about
our surroundings any more. Never before has a civilization reached such a degree of a contempt for life; never before has
a generation, drowned in mortification, felt such a rage to live Never before has a civilization reached such a degree of
a contempt for life; never before has a generation, drowned in mortification, felt such a rage to live Infantilism is possibly
the hallmark of our generation.
Due to continuing industrialization and expanding trade,
many significant changes of the 20th century were, directly or indirectly, economic and technological in nature. Inventions
such as the light bulb, the automobile, and the telephone in the late 1800s, followed by supertankers, airliners, motorways,
radio, television, antibiotics, frozen food, computers and microcomputers, the Internet, and mobile telephones affected the
quality of life for great numbers. Economic development was the force behind vast changes in everyday life, to a degree which
was unprecedented in human history. Still, the gulf between the world's rich and poor grew much wider than it had ever
been in the past. While increasing industrialization and world trade had helped great numbers out of at least abject poverty
by the century's end, the poorer half of the world population — three billion people — lived on the purchasing
power of two U.S. dollars or less per day
If a child learns the history of Marie Curie what might
that lead to? When Marie Curie and her husband Pierre discovered radium, it eventually led to an effective treatment for many
types of cancer. Their work and subsequently Madame Curie's own death from aplastic anemia, almost certainly from overexposure
to radiation, also led to the discovery that too much radioactive exposure is fatal. We now live in a world where nuclear
radiation is a global threat. If a child can learn about chemistry and Marie Curie, then she can learn how to counteract any
bio-terrorism or nuclear attack and save millions from certain death and devastation.
If a child learns the story of George Washington Carver
or the history of agriculture, she will learn that the introduction of agriculture was instrumental in civilizations being
able to evolve from hunter-gatherers who were constantly on the move in order to feed themselves to becoming more stable and
settle in one place. Furthermore, developments in agriculture, allowed individuals and families to produce enough food to
feed the entire community, freeing up others to perform other tasks that led to further growth and expansion. They will learn
that innovations in agriculture changed the entire economic dynamic of the American south as reliance on cotton was lessened.
By learning about crop rotation and hybridization, then she will grow up knowing that there are new techniques and hybrids
waiting to be developed and she may finally find a way to feed the starving children of the world.
? If a child
learns about the reality of the Holocaust and the murder of six million Jews, as well as millions of other Europeans who were determined to be less than desirable
by Adolf Hitler and his Nazi followers and their rampage of hatred across Europe, he can become the political statesman that
finds a way to end the genocide that still takes place in this world in many places such as Darfur and Rwanda. The fact that
genocide still takes place in our world after the unthinkable horrors of the Holocaust is a tragic outcome of what happens
when we refuse to learn from history. But it will be a child who has found a passion for history who becomes the individual
who finally finds a way to end this kind of calamity and prevent it from being allowed to continue or begin again.
Robert Kennedy once said, “Few will have the greatness
to bend history itself; but each of us can work to change a small portion of events, and in the total; of all those acts will
be written the history of this generation.” We cannot change our history, nor should we want to. We can learn from it,
grow from it and become better because of it. The history of this next generation is waiting to be written….Equip them
with the skills to make it a memorable one.
The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, a United States
Senator and brother of assassinated President John F. Kennedy, took place shortly after midnight on June 5, 1968 in Los Angeles, California. Robert F. Kennedy was killed during celebrations
of his successful campaign in the Californian primary elections while seeking the Democratic nomination for President of the
United States. The perpetrator was a twenty-four year old Palestinian immigrant named Sirhan Sirhan, who remains incarcerated
for this crime as of 2009 The shooting was recorded on audio tape by a freelance newspaper reporter, while the aftermath was
captured on film.
Kennedy's body lay in repose at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York for two days before
a funeral mass was held on June 8. His body was interred near his brother John at Arlington National Cemetery. His death prompted
the protection of presidential candidates by the United States Secret Service. Hubert Humphrey went on to win the Democratic
nomination for the presidency, but ultimately lost the election to Richard Nixon.
Britain's Edward VII dies at Buckingham Palace May
6 at age 68 after a 9-year reign of peace and prosperity. He is succeeded by his 44-year-old second son, who will reign until
1936 as George V with help from his wife, Mary, nearly 44 herself. She will be credited with helping the bluff king adapt
to changing conditions and make himself popular with the people, although he will never be as popular as she.
proclaims herself an independent Balkan kingdom August 28, and Prince Nicholas, who obtained recognition of his country's
independence in the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, receives the title king by a vote of the national legislature. Now 69, he will
reign until 1919 as Nicholas I.
The Portuguese monarchy founded in 1143 by Afonso Henriquez ends October 4 in a
revolution at Lisbon after a 2-year reign by Manoel II. He flees to England (where he will live as a country gentleman until
his death in 1932) and a republic is proclaimed with a provisional government headed by scholar-writer Teofilo Braga, 67.
A coalition of rebellious U.S. congressmen led by George W. (William) Norris, 48, (R. Neb.) and Champ (originally
James Beauchamp) Clark, 60, (D. Ky.) curtails the powers of Speaker Joseph (Gurney) "Uncle Joe" Cannon, 73, (R.
Ill.) and excludes him from the House Rules Committee March 19. The congressmen establish a system of seniority that will
control committee chairmanships for decades, Clark will be speaker of the House from 1911 to 1919, and Norris will serve in
the Senate from 1912 to 1942.
A civil disobedience campaign against British rule in
India begins March 12 . The All-India Trade Congress has empowered Mohandas K. Gandhi to begin the demonstrations (poet Rabindranath
Tagore has called Gandhi Mahatma, meaning great-souled, or sage, and that honorific has been commonly used for the past decade).
Ashramites have left the Sarbamanti ashram outside Ahmedabad and march 240 miles to the beach at Dandi, on the Gujurat Coast
of the Arabian Sea, where Gandhi breaks the law as a gesture of defiance against the British monopoly by picking up a handful
of salt crystallized by the evaporation of seawater. It is illegal to manufacture or sell salt except under license from the
raj, and Gandhi exhorts his fellow Indians to follow his example. British forces are unable to deal with a protest on such
a large scale. The British release agitator Gandhi from prison April 5 and allow him to recuperate just outside Bombay. Britain's
prime minister Ramsay MacDonald convenes a Round Table Conference on Indian affairs at Westminister in November, but neither
Gandhi nor any other member of the Congress is able to attend and little or nothing is accomplished
Physicist Klaus Fuchs is found guilty March 1 of having
given British atomic secrets to Soviet agents. Attorney General Lord Shawcross of Nuremberg trials fame has prosecuted Fuchs,
whom the British hired to do nuclear research in 1941, knowing he was a communist; he was a member of the team that developed
the atomic bomb beginning in 1943, his work at Alamagordo and Los Alamos, N.M., made him privy to the bomb's design, construction,
components, and detonating devices, and he will serve 9 years in a British prison. His U.S. accomplice, Harry Gold, gets 30
Communist North Korean armored columns clank across
the border into the Republic of South Korea June 25, beginning a 3-year Korean War that will involve 16 nations against the
communists. Josef Stalin rejected Kim Il Sung's request for assistance last year, but he saw that the United States did
not come to Chiang Kai-shek's aid against Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) and has construed a statement made in January by U.S.
Secretary of State Dean Acheson to mean that the United States would not go to war in support of South Korea; he has supplied
his client state with planes, tanks, and other military weapons, UN Secretary-General Trygve Lie urges UN members to support
South Korea June 27, and President Truman that day orders U.S. air and sea forces to "give the Korean government troops
cover and support." He has resisted sending ground troops to the peninsula, but Seoul falls to the North Koreans June
28. Gen. MacArthur visits Korea June 29 and resolves not only to drive the communists back but also to unite Korea. He takes
command of UN forces July 9.
Norman Borlaug says in his Nobel Prize acceptance
speech at Stockholm December 10 that only population control can win the battle against world hunger. The world's population reaches 3.63 billion, up from just over
3 billion in 1960, with 1.13 billion in South Asia, 929.9 million in East Asia (including Japan), 462.1 million in Europe,
344.4 million in Africa, 283.3 million in Latin America, 227.6 million in North America, 19.4 million in Oceania. The USSR has only 9 urban centers with populations
of 1 million or more versus 35 such urban centers in the United States. Only 8.5 percent of the Soviet population is in these
large urban centers versus 41.5 percent of the U.S. population. Soviet census figures show that Muslim populations in the
Uzbek S.S.R., the Tadjik S.S.R., and other Muslim republics have increased by roughly 50 percent since the 1959 census but
that the number of Great Russians in these republics has declined. Ethnic Russians remain the largest single national group
within the USSR, they are roughly three times as numerous as the Ukrainians, but they will become a minority by 1976.
Population in the Soviet Union reaches 242.6
million, in the People's Republic of China 760 million, in India 550 million, in the United States 205 million. The United
States has 85 people per square mile, the PRC 305, India 655, Japan 1,083. Egypt's population has been growing at the
rate of 1 million per year, and some 35 million people are crowded into the Nile valley and delta.
A 50-pound bomb planted by Irish Republican Army terrorists
explodes August 27 on the fishing boat of Lord Mountbatten off the coast of County Sligo, killing the 79-year-old cousin of
Elizabeth II with his 14-year-old grandson and a 15-year-old passenger. Four others aboard the Shadow V are seriously hurt
(one dies the next day), and an IRA ambush 35 miles south of Belfast kills 18 British soldiers. A leading Conservative MP
has been killed by the IRA outside the House of Commons March 30 and the violence continues. A bomb of a different sort explodes
in Parliament November 15 when art historian Sir Anthony Blunt, 72, is revealed to have been a Soviet spy. Blunt confessed
to treason in 1964 and was given immunity from prosecution and permitted to remain curator to the queen. He is stripped of
French statesman Jean Monnet dies at his country home outside Paris March 6 at age 90, having laid
the groundwork for the European Community.
U.S.-educated German political leader Petra (Karin) Kelly, 32, quits
the Social Democratic Party in protest against its policies toward nuclear defense, health, and women. Stepdaughter of a U.S.
Army colonel, Kelly joins with some friends to found the Green Party, whose anti-nuclear, pro- environmental views will attract
many followers (see 1983).
Former Hungarian premier Ferenc Nagy dies of a heart attack at Washington, D.C., June
12 at age 75; former Czech president Ludvík Svoboda at Prague September 20 at age 83.
ties with Taiwan as of January 1 and establishes diplomatic relations with Beijing (see 1978). Deputy Premier Deng Xiaoping
accepts a New Year's invitation to the U.S. Embassy at Beijing and flies to the United States later in the month, becoming
the first Chinese leader to visit America (in addition to seeing President Carter at Washington, he tours the NASA Space Center
at Houston, tries out a flight simulator, and attends a Texas rodeo), but he cracks down on dissenters upon his return. Beijing
advises Moscow April 3 that China will not renew her 1950 treaty of friendship, due to expire in 1980. Moscow replies April
4 that the decision was taken "contrary to the will and interests of the Chinese people." The Taiwan Relations Act
signed into law by President Carter April 10 is the only domestic U.S. law governing relations with a foreign nation.
Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher, best known worldwide
as the "Iron Lady", was Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. She was the most powerful woman in the industrialized
world.Mrs Thatcher does not herself as a feminist. Thatcher was reflected Prime Minister in the 1980s and she was an active
anti-communist leader.Her economical philosophy provided a model for many countries as Hungary, Czech Republic, Mauritius,
Botswana, El Salvador, Chile and Cyprus. Under her leadership, the UK´s economy witnessed the most rapid growth in the
1980s.Ironically, she has not made campaigns for women´s rights, but she is an advocate for the ecology.Europe has produced
many leaders, but none as Margaret Thatcher...
Britain's prime minister Margaret Thatcher is forced
out after 11½ years in office, the longest ministry of the century. She is succeeded November 27 by her chancellor
of the exchequer and hand-picked successor John Major, 47-year-old son of a circus acrobat. The youngest prime minister thus
far in this century, he will prove inadequate.
Iraqi forces invade Kuwait August 2 after Kuwait refuses demands
by President Saddam Hussein that she pay compensation for allegedly drilling oil on Iraqi territory, cede disputed land, reduce
oil output, and raise prices. Kuwait has rebuffed Iraqi demands that she forgive $15 billion in loans extended during the
Iraq-Iran war. The Bush administration has told Saddam Hussein that it has no treaty obligation to defend Kuwait and would
not take sides (Saddam has interpreted remarks by U.S. ambassador to Iraq April Gillespie that Washington would not oppose
him), but Washington, Moscow, Tokyo, London, Teheran, and Beijing unite in denouncing his move and the United Nations Security
Council votes 13 to 0 August 6 to impose economic sanctions (Yemen and Cuba abstain). Iraq masses troops on the border of
Saudi Arabia, Riyadh agrees to receive U.S. ground and air forces. President Bush says Iraq's aggression "will not
stand" and dispatches forces to Saudi Arabia August 7, risking his presidency. Iraq annexes Kuwait August 8 and proceeds
to loot the country; Egypt, Syria, Morocco, and nine other Arab states vote August 10 to oppose Iraq with military force;
Saddam Hussein calls for a "holy war" against Westerners and Zionists, gaining wide popular support among Arabs;
he holds more than 10,000 foreigners hostage beginning August 18 but permits women and children to leave August 29 and releases
all the others by early December as the standoff continues. Kuwait's billionaire emir Sheik Jaber al-Ahmed al-Sabah, 64,
has narrowly escaped capture and fled to Saudi Arabia; he addresses the United Nations General Assembly September 27, urging
it to stand by the sanctions it has imposed. His relatives have acted swiftly to keep Kuwaiti funds abroad out of Saddam Hussein's
hands. Bush ups the ante November 8 (2 days after the elections), committing far more U.S. forces to "Operation Desert
Shield," but popular opposition grows to launching any offensive action.
Former French president François Mitterand dies
January 8 at age 79 of prostate cancer, which was diagnosed before he took office in 1981 but has never interfered with his
duties. President Jacques Chirac brings France back into NATO, and the nation pays homage to the 55,000 who died in 8 years
of war in Indochina with a modest memorial unveiled at Fréjus, near Toulon, December 19, the 50th anniversary of the
outbreak of hostilities in Indochina.
The Irish Republican Army ends a 17-month self-imposed cease-fire February
9 by exploding a bomb in East London, killing two people, injuring 140, and causing $100 million in property damage. Sinn
Fein leader Gerry Adams says he is saddened by the blast but declines to condemn it, calling on Prime Minister Major to help
him consolidate the sectarian peace process. Another bomb explodes June 15, this time in downtown Manchester, injuring more
than 200, and further violence follows (see 1997; Good Friday accord, 1998).
Italian economist Romano Prodi, 56,
heads a new government that takes office May 18 and will continue until October 1998
Russia's voters reelect
Boris N. Yeltsin, now 65, in a July 3 runoff race against Communist Party leader Gennadi A. Zyuganov, 51, despite falling
industrial production, a growing poverty rate, soaring death rates, and anxieties about Yeltsin's health. Retired general
Aleksandr I. Lebed, 46, has opposed the war in Chechnya but swings his support to Yeltsin, who wins 55 percent of the popular
vote to Zyuganov's 40 percent, becoming the first democratically elected head of state in Russia's 1,000-year history.
Chechen separatist Shamil Basayev leads 1,500 men and boys into Grozny from three directions before dawn August 6 and in less
than 2 weeks has routed the Russians from the capital, which they have held since January of last year. While numerically
far superior, the Russian Army is ill-trained, rarely paid, poorly equipped, and commanded by corrupt officers. Gen. Lebed
negotiates a peace accord in August, he says September 3 that about 85,000 have been killed and some 240,000 wounded in the
21-month Chechnya conflict, Yeltsin dismisses Lebed October 17 following reports that the national security chief is plotting
a coup, Yeltsin survives open-heart surgery a few weeks later, announces in November that all Russian troops will be withdrawn
from Chechnya, and resumes his presidential duties December 24.
Britain gets a U.S.-style Bill of Rights October 2 as
the Labour government enforces a new Human Rights Act incorporating a European Convention on Human Rights into British civil
law. Britain signed the convention in 1953 but there was little public enthusiasm for it and many right-wing elements feared
that it would give too much power to criminals, homosexuals, minorities, and women at the expense of government authority;
Scotland has incorporated the convention into her laws earlier in the year, it now becomes part of English and Welsh law,
but aside from absolute bans on slavery and torture most of the rights in the convention are qualified or limited in some
Jan 7, Singer Marian Anderson made her debut with the
Metropolitan Opera in New York, in Verdi's "Un Ballo in Maschera." She was the first black singer to perform
there. 1955 Jan 18, Kevin Costner, actor (Dances With Wolves), was born in LA, Calif. 1955 Feb 8, John
Grisham, writer (Client, Firm, Pelican Brief), was born 1955 Feb 17, Britain announced its ability to make hydrogen
bombs. 1955 Mar 3, A truck driver from Tupelo, Ms., made his first-ever TV appearance on this night. Elvis Aron
Presley was featured on "Louisiana Hayride". This prompted promoters to send Elvis to New York City to audition
for Arthur Godfrey’s immensely popular and career-making "Talent Scouts" program. Talent coordinators and
Godfrey are said to have passed on Elvis appearing on the show. Not much later, he was tossed out of the Grand Ole Opry as
well, and told to "go back to driving a truck." In a little over a year, however, the nation was caught up in Presley-mania
which continues even today.
1955 Mar 11, Alexander Fleming (73), English bacteriologist (penicillin),
1955 Mar 24, The Tennessee Williams play "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" opened on Broadway
with Barbara Bel Geddes as Maggie, Ben Gazzara as Brick and Burl Ives as Big Daddy. Paul Newman won Gazzara’s role for
the 1958 film. 1955 Apr 12, The Salk Vaccine was declared safe and effective. Salk vaccine shots for polio began
to be given out to school kids. The March of Dimes accomplished its mission within 20 years. Research led by Dr. Jonas Salk
and supported by funds (those marching little dimes) raised annually by thousands of volunteers, resulted in the announcement
that the Salk polio vaccine was "safe, potent and effective." The foundation also supported the research that led
to the Sabin oral vaccine, another safe, effective polio preventative discovered by Dr. Albert B. Sabin. Following the victory
over infantile paralysis, the March of Dimes turned its attention to conquering the largest killer and crippler of children:
the mental and physical problems that are present at birth. Some 100 million people were given the vaccine during the 1950s
and 1960s which was later found to be contaminated with the SV40 simian virus, a possible carcinogen.
Apr 18, Albert Einstein (76), physicist, died in Princeton New Jersey. Dr. Thomas Harvey, chief pathologist at Princeton Hospital,
performed Albert Einstein’s autopsy. He removed the brain and took it home. In 2000 Michael Paterniti authored
"Driving Mr. Albert: A Trip Across America with Einstein’s Brain." In 1999 it was reported that Einstein’s
inferior parietal lobe was larger than normal. In 2000 Amir D. Aczel published "God's Equation: Einstein, Relativity,
and the Expanding Universe." [see Apr 15] In 1983 Abraham Pais (d.2000 at 81) authored "Subtle Is the Lord: The
Science and the Life of Albert Einstein." In 2000 Dennis Overbye authored "Einstein In Love," on Einstein’s
1st marriage with Mileva Maric. In 2002 Fred Jerome authored "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover’s Secret War Against
the World’s Most Famous Scientist." In 2007 Walter Isaacson authored “Einstein: His Life and Universe;”
Jurgen Neffe authored “Einstein: A Biography;” and Jozsef Illy edited “Albert Meets America,” a chronicle
of Einstein’s first visit to the US (1921) on a fundraising tour with Zionist leader Chaim Weizman. Apr 1,
The first weather satellite, TIROS 1, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. May 9, The US Food and Drug Administration
(FDA) approved the pill Enovid as safe for birth control use. The pill was made by G.D. Searle and Company of Chicago. It
was commissioned by Margaret Sanger and funded by heiress Katharine McCormick. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This Man’s
Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in
1973 Jan 1, The European Union (EU) admitted Britain,
Ireland and Denmark even though they made chocolate containing a small percentage of vegetable fat. 1973 Jan 2,
The United States admitted the accidental bombing of a Hanoi hospital. 1973 Jan 3, The Columbia Broadcasting System
(CBS) got out of the baseball business this day by selling the New York Yankees to a 12-man syndicate headed by George Steinbrenner
III for $10 million. 1973 Jan 6, “You’re So Vain” by Carly Simon peaked in the top 10 singles.
1973 Jan 8, The trial of Watergate burglars began in Washington, DC. In 2006 Andreas Killen authored “1973
Nervous Breakdown: Watergate, Warhol and the Birth of Post-Sixties America.”
1973 Jan 8, Secret peace
talks between the US and North Vietnam resumed near Paris. 1973 Jan 9, All remaining differences were resolved
between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off of American aid to
South Vietnam, now unwillingly accepts the peace agreement, which still allows North Vietnamese troops to remain in South
Vietnam. Thieu labels the terms "tantamount to surrender" for South Vietnam.
1973 Jan 10, An empty
liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank in Bloomfield on Staten Island exploded and 40 workers were killed. 1973 Jan 11,
Owners of American League baseball teams voted to adopt the designated-hitter rule on a trial basis. 1973 Jan 11,
The Dow Jones Industrials hit a peak of 1051.70. The market then began a 24 month decline of 46%. 1973 Jan 12,
Yasir Arafat was re-elected as head of the Palestinian Liberation Organization.
1973 Jan 13, In Bernardsville,
N.J., Rabbit Wells (21) was shot a killed by a local patrolman. In 1998 William Loizeaux authored "The Shooting of Rabbit
Wells: An American Tragedy." 1973 Jan 15, Gene Shalit (b.1932) replaced Joe Garagiola on the Today Show panel. 1973 Jan 15, President Nixon announced the suspension of all U.S. offensive action in North Vietnam, citing progress
in peace negotiations. 1973 Jan 15, Four of six remaining Watergate defendants pleaded guilty. 1973
Jan 15, Pope Paul VI had an audience with Golda Meir at Vatican. 1973 Jan 16, NBC presented the 440th and final
showing of "Bonanza."
Alfred Hitchcock, destined to make sublime film thrillers,
was born in London at the end of the Victorian era. He was the youngest child of an East End family whose father ran a poulterer's
and greengrocer's business and whose mother came of Irish stock. The family was Catholic. Hitchcock loved his mother dearly
and took after her in her quiet constancy . He grew up an independent youth given to attending films and plays on his own.
He also read widely, including works by Dickens, Poe, Flaubert, Wilde, Chesterton, and Buchan. With training in electrical
engineering and draughtsmanship acquired at night school while working for a cable company, at age 20 he joined the London
studios of Famous Players-Lasky, already affiliated with Paramount Pictures. In these early years he worked under two top
directors. The first was an American, George Fitzmaurice, noted for the holistic way he conceived a picture, including its
sets and costumes. The other director was Graham Cutts. Cutts' vitality was reflected in both the subject-matter of his
films – often emphasising theatrical spectacle – and their mise en scène invoking a sadomasochism of “the
look” . Cutts' influence is obvious in the opening scenes of Hitchcock's first feature, The Pleasure Garden
(1925), set in and around a London music hall. But in fact the film was shot in Germany. For a year both men were employed
there as part of a deal by producer Michael Balcon of Gainsborough Pictures. Hitchcock seized the chance to observe F.W. Murnau
on the set of The Last Laugh (1924). Afterwards, he would describe Murnau's film as an almost perfect example of “pure
cinema” – visual storytelling employing a minimum of title-cards.
No less crucial to Hitchcock's
later development was his marriage in 1926 to his assistant Alma Reville. By all accounts, including that of the Hitchcocks'
only child, Patricia (born 1928), the couple always remained devoted to each other. Alma made an ideal working collaborator.
An experienced film editor and scripter, for 50 years she served as unofficial consultant on her husband's pictures, and
could be his severest critic. The marriage, though affectionate, was hardly a grand passion. By Hitchcock's admission,
he led a celibate lifestyle full of sublimations, foremost among which was his work but which included travel, gourmandising
at exclusive restaurants, attending both wrestling matches and symphony concerts at the Albert Hall, and collecting first
editions and original works of art. A persistent theme of his films is the battle of the sexes. It's tempting to speculate
how much he drew on his own marriage. One hears that the diminutive Alma more than stood up to the often grossly overweight
Alfred – being described as “peppery” and given to “bossing” her husband.
Blackmail (1929) was promoted as Britain's first full-length talkie (though that claim is still disputed). Then, in the
mid-1930s, the director gained an international reputation with a series of brisk and audacious “chase” thrillers
for Gaumont-British, including The 39 Steps (1935) and The Lady Vanishes (1938). In turn, Rebecca (1940) launched his American
career. That film began Hitchcock's systematic emphasis on “the subjective” (much of the film is ostensibly
told from the point of view of one character) and thus, I would argue, immeasurably deepened his capacity to bring audiences
out of the cold, to engage us at a fundamental level. Such Hitchcock masterpieces as Rear Window, Vertigo, and Psycho all
owe a debt to Rebecca.
Now, a key to Hitchcock's work is suitably psychological – “I like stories
with lots of psychology”, he once confirmed – and is the key to be pursued here. To gay actor/screenwriter Rodney
Ackland (Number Seventeen) he confided: “You know, if I hadn't met Alma at the right time, I could have become a
poof.” There's no reason to doubt it. The facts bear him out. In particular, biographer Donald Spoto reports
that the youthful Hitchcock read Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) “several times”; Wilde's
“decadent” novel may be the single most important literary influence on the director's work. It was, after
all, written by an Irishman, who converted to Catholicism on his deathbed, and it reads like an iconoclastic thriller. Hitchcock's
astute “everything's perverted in a different way” probably derives from it. (Another of his favourite sayings,
“Each man kills the thing he loves”, is classic Wilde.) To understand the importance of Dorian Gray to such pivotal
films as The Lodger, Murder!, Rope, Vertigo, and Psycho, we must traverse some surprising territory, but it may bring us to
the heart of “the Hitchcock paradox”.
1992 Jan 9, President
Bush declared his trade visit to Japan a success, saying Japanese officials had agreed to increase imports of American cars,
auto parts, computers and other goods. However, U.S. auto executives travelled with Bush sounded less enthusiastic. 1992 Jan 10, President Bush returned home from
his grueling 12-day journey to Australia, Singapore, South Korea and Japan, boasting of "dramatic progress" on trade
issues. 1992 Jan 10, In Algeria an
army coup cancelled elections that were running strongly in favor of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS). France supported the
move which led to a bloody struggle between the Algerian army and Algerian fundamentalist (Armed Islamic Group, GIA) guerillas
that by 1995 claimed nearly 40,000 lives and numerous bomb attacks in France. 1992 Jan 11, The president of Algeria (Chadli Bendjedid) resigned, two weeks after Muslim fundamentalists had
defeated his ruling party in legislative elections. 1992 Jan 12, The Washington Redskins won the NFC championship, defeating the Detroit Lions 41 to 10; the Buffalo
Bills won the AFC title, beating the Denver Broncos 10 to 7. 1992 Jan 12, HAL, the Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic Computer, from the 1968 Arthur C. Clark and Stanley
Kubrick movie and book, “became operational” at the HAL plant in Urbana, Illinois. [1997 article claimed 1/12/97
as birthdate] The book "HAL’s Legacy: 2001’s Computer as Dream and Reality" was published in 1997 by
MIT Press. The birthday in the movie was 1/12/92. 1992 Jan 12, One day after the surprise resignation of Algeria's president, Chadli Bendjedid, the army-backed
Algerian government canceled parliamentary elections to prevent fundamentalist Muslims from winning power. 1992 Jan 13, US serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer in a pretrial
hearing pleaded guilty but insane in fifteen of the seventeen murders he confessed to committing. 1992 Jan 13, Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian negotiators
began talks in Washington on Palestinian autonomy. 1992 Jan 13, Japan apologized for forcing tens of thousands of Korean women to serve as sex slaves for Japanese
soldiers during World War II. 1992
Jan 14, Historic Mideast peace talks continued in Washington, with Israel and Jordan holding their first-ever formal negotiations,
and the Israelis continuing exchanges with Palestinian representatives. 1992 Jan 15, The Yugoslav federation, founded in 1918, effectively collapsed as the European Community recognized
the republics of Croatia and Slovenia. 1992
Jan 16, Officials of the government of El Salvador and rebel leaders signed a pact in Mexico City ending 12 years of civil
war that had left at least 75,000 people dead. 1992
Jan 17, President Bush laid a wreath at the crypt of Martin Luther King Jr. in Atlanta. 1992 Jan 17, IBM announced a nearly $5B loss for 1991. 1992 Jan 17, Eight Protestant laborers were killed in an IRA
bombing in Northern Ireland. 1992
Jan 18, The Hollywood Foreign Press Association presented its Golden Globe awards, considered a forerunner of the Academy
Awards; no clear favourite emerged as the Walt Disney animated film "Beauty and the Beast," "Bugsy," "JFK"
and "The Prince of Tides" were honoured.
Jan 2, In Chicago about 22 inches of snow fell on the city and across the northern Midwest. In Detroit some 4,000 travelers
were stranded in planes on the tarmac for as long as 9 hours. 1999
Jan 2, Rolf Liebermann, Swiss composer, died in Paris. He led the Hamburg Opera from 1959-1972 and the Paris Opera from 1973-1980.
His work included "Eleonore 40/45," "Penelope," "L'Ecole des Femmes" and "La Foret." 1999 Jan 2, In Angola rebel forces
shot down a UN plane with 8 people shortly after takeoff from Huambo; there were no survivors. The plane was later found
with bullets in the tail section and the flight recorders removed. 1999
Jan 2, In Egypt police arrested 71 suspected Muslim militants over the last 3 days on suspicion of plotting to kill senior
Jan 2, In the Philippines rebels lobbed a grenade into a crowd watching firemen fight a fire on Jolo Island and at least 10
people were killed and 74 injured. The Abu Sayyaf guerrillas were believed to be responsible. 1999 Jan 3, The Mars Polar Lander was launched. Landing was scheduled for
Dec 3 with probes designed to burrow 3 feet into the Mars surface. 1999
Jan 3, Chicagoans dug out from their biggest snowstorm in more than 30 years. 1999 Jan 3, In Wyoming Cindy Thompson Dixon was found dead near a
road about 5 miles north of Laramie. She was reported to have frozen to death after leaving a bar. She was the mother of Russell
Henderson (21), who was waiting in jail for trial in the death of Matthew Shepard. Henderson pleaded guilty to murder in 1999
to avoid a trial and possible death sentence. He was sentenced to 2 consecutive life terms without eligibility for parole. 1999 Jan 3, In NYC Andrew Goldstein
pushed Kendra Webdale into the path of an oncoming train at Manhattan's 23rd St. and Broadway station. Goldstein,
a schizophrenic who refused to take his anti-psychotic medicine, was later convicted for 2nd degree murder. This led to "Kendra's
Law," which allows violent patients to be medicated by force.
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