The hippie movement was all about peace and love and freedom. These concepts
are commonly known. The 1960s was a time of big change and adjustment. It was a time of war. I am sure that you are familiar
with the Vietnam War. During this time, older men as well as young boys who had just turned eighteen were being drafted to
join the army. Many of these older men and young boys who were sent to fight in the Vietnam War did not make it home alive.
This is a very touchy subject for many, so I will not delve too deep in it. The point that I am trying to stress is that the
60s was molded by people who fought in the war happening at that time, the people who supported this war, and the people who
sought for peace and strongly believed in love and freedom. These people who strongly believed in love and freedom were called
hippies. These concepts were the root of the hippie culture, and the hippie movement with this foundation of beliefs has stood
the test of time up until today. There are still many people who consider themselves to be hippies.
Fads have come
to typify periods of time in popular culture over the 20th century. From flagpole sitting in the 1920's, dance marathons
and the zoot suits of the 1930's and goldfish swallowing of the 1940's, fads really emerged in the 1950's, 1960's
and 1970's with the coming of the hula hoop, telephone booth stuffing, bellbottoms, platforms shoes, mood rings and the
pet rock. The 1980's and 1990's are represented as well with the Rubik's Cube, Beanie Babies and the Hacky Sack.
In the 1960s, fashion reflected the changing times.
Additional Lee Cooper production facilities in Ireland and France were opened at the beginning of the decade, consolidating
its strong European position. Campus casuals and tartan slacks began the decade and the first Lee Cooper decorated jeans for
the “flower power generation” ended it. What a contrast ! The season’s best seller in 1962, the “Gay
flower stripe skirt” wilted quickly, giving way to the first bell-bottom hipsters. “Shrink to fit” arrived
on the scene the year after, producing the popular “shrinker jean.” Lee Cooper sponsored the first London Twist
Championship with the winner receiving a Jeannine blouse as a prize. But as the dance trends got wilder than the twist, so
did the cut and fashion of the jeans. In 1965, faded denim was introduced into the Lee Cooper range, but this fashion was
apparently before its time, and rapidly faded away. What replaced it ? Lee Cooper T-shirts and coloured jeans. Yes, the decade
that brought us coloured television also brought us coloured jeans. Coloured jeans then took London so much by storm that
in 1968 the newspapers declared that “Denim is Dead.”
Throughout the years, women's
fashion and design has always been influenced by history, politics, and location. A woman's status and station in society
also affected the types of clothing choices deemed acceptable or expected of her. When taking a look at history, the role
of the woman unfolds through popular clothing styles, as revealed through hemlines, layers of clothing, shoes, and overall
fashion. Below you will find a collection of significant changes in women's fashion trends starting with the 1900s.
During the 1900s, legs and feet of the woman
were rarely seen (unless in the sitting position). This meant that stockings, shoes, and other footwear didn't gain
much attention. Clothing and shoes of the time highlighted silk bows, small buckles, and dark colors. Pointed toes and a
moderate high heel were in fashion. Women's skirts became narrower after the Civil War and displayed more of a cone-shape
rather than a bell. Clothing was heavily starched and "shirtwaists" became the latest style, which were fashioned
after men's shirts.
1920s, legs became an asset and showed through the kind of clothing worn during this time period. Hemlines rose and women
began to take great interest in flesh-colored stockings and shoes. The expensive silk stocking accompanied eveningwear,
while ribbed and patterned selections (diamond-cut) became the rage. "Flapper" fashion took over with the Roaring
20s, highlighting floating fabrics, handkerchief hemlines, and girdles.
When the 1930s arrived, women's fashion took a turn back to portraying a more "ladylike" appearance.
The clothes were feminine in style - crisp and clean during the day and glamorous by night. More sophisticated shoes emerged,
including the strappy open-toed sandal. Additional features of the decade included short-fitted suits and jackets, the "little
black dress," and the introduction of nylon.
In the 1940s, World War II took a toll on women's fashion, as leather shoes lessened and certain fabrics were
limited. Heavy wooden soles and wedge heels became commonplace. A host of clothing items were rationed - bought using a
"coupon" system. Some of the non-rationed items included mending wool, ribbons, lace, suspenders, and clogs. Women
began painting their shoes with bright colors or decorating the sides of the soles with small shells or studs to elevate
their sense of style.
During the 1950s,
glamour took over and it showed in the latest women's fashion designs. Full skirts with petticoats, swoop-line empire
dresses, and fancy suits became popular. Many women now wore a stiletto heel and Italian shoes (known for ultra-elegance
and refinement). Seamless stockings and beehive hairdos accompanied the clothing of the 50's.
The 1960s brought more freethinking attitudes of the
world, including fashion. Skirts became much shorter - leading to the creation of the "mini."
Stockings were tossed to the side and pantyhose made an impression on the women of the 60's.
Flat boots were worn with very short dresses. Additional fashion introductions of the 60s included psychedelic
fabric prints, denim jeans, and the pill box hat. Shoes became chunkier, displaying thicker low heels with
rounded or squared toes. Buckle shoes were quite "in" with matching gold or silver heels
to match the buckles.
By the late 1960s fashion trends changed again towards
a more natural “hippy” look. The women’s liberation movement took flight and encouraged the burning of bras
and girdles which seemed to represent women’s previous oppression. Peasant skirts, granny dresses, love beads, halter
tops, and blue jeans became de rigueur for college students as well as burgeoning fashionistas. For the first time in fashion
history women began to wear blue jeans and trousers on a regular basis.
The 1960s were a time of change,
for throwing out the past and creating a bold new future. The music became progressively more psychedelic, societal norms
turned upside down, and fashion was no exception with bold new colours and shapes replacing those of earlier eras. The first
part of the decade was characterized by ladylike fashions with clean shapes and bright colours a la Jackie O's iconic
fashion. As the decade continued, the mod look with its short hemlines and pop art influenced patterns became widely popular.
Britain, and most especially London, was the unarguable leader of the 1960s fashion revolution.
If there is a quintessential 1960s look, it might possibly be Mary
Quant and the daring miniskirt which revolutionized fashion. Quant popularized the look by hiking the hemlines up 6-7 inches
and pairing them with simple accessories that only emphasized their youthful attitude. Quant's design became known as
the Chelsea Look and was widely worn by "it" girls throughout Britain and eventually all over the world. The popularity
of miniskirts meant that women needed leg wear that would help cover their legs as well as keep them warm. Tights or pantyhose
were invented in the 1960s and quickly took the place of stockings as the leg wear of choice for fashionable women across
Mod often paired pop art
colours and patterns with simple shift dresses or pinafores to make a new statement. They often chose go-go boots in vinyl
and other modern materials to accompany their short hemlines. Eventually, boots went above the knee and hemlines rose even
higher. The British Invasion was twofold, taking the world by storm via their music and fashion.
Giorgio Armani was born in Piacenza, Italy. He originally
trained in medicine and then went to train in photography. Unfortunately Giorgio in 1957 was called up to do National Service
with the Italian army as was compulsory for all Italian nationals at the time. After 3 years of national service Giorgio started
his career in the fashion industry by joining well known Italian fashion house called Nino Cerrati. He worked at Nino for
just under 9 years until 1970 and left to work as a designer for himself. However, it wasn't until 1974 that he set up
the Armani brand.
Since then a number of alternative Armani labels have been conceived, each with a difference. Armani Exchange was intially created in 1991 to be Armani's inexpensive range and was soon very popular with the masses
due to how cheap the products were. Interests grew at such a rate there is now 63 boutiques in the USA and 47 internationally.
Prices for Armani Exchange have rose steadily over the years since 1991 and it is no longer as popular as it initially was. Armani Casa is a collection of furniture and home furshings which shows how successful the Armani brand is. Recently an
Armani arm chair sold for over $1950 in New York! Armani Jeans is the by far the most popular brand in the UK with sales
extremely high in both London and the North West (particularly Manchester & Liverpool). The most poplular styles are the
J16 and J31 range which retail for over ï¿½120 in boutiues across the UK.
Emporio Armani was
introduced as part of the brand as a youthful inspired line that markets to young adults. The success of this brand in the
USA has been exceptional and continues to be the best seller in the USA. Nowdays this is the least expensive of the Armani
range. Armani Collezioni is aimed at young high fliers and professionals. Popular within the city of London as the collection
is workwear such as tailored suits, it is the most expensive of all the brands. Along with all the other designer fashion
houses Armani now has a cosmetics collection which forms a significant part of the turnover of the Armani brand. This includes
the skin care range and fragrance range including male and female range.
Finally Armani has made a massive diversification
into the bar/cafe market and now has over 14 bar/cafes in the Europe/Asia area with the Armani bar in Hong Konk being the
most popular. In March 2007 Giorgio Armani informed the media that he was willing to sell the famous trademarks to the Armani
Brand and this will surely spark a bidding war.
Patricia Anne "Pattie" Boyd (born 17 March
1944) is an English model and photographer, and the former wife of both George Harrison and Eric Clapton. She was the inspiration
for love songs written by both musicians, Harrison's, "Something" and "For You Blue", and Clapton's
"Layla", "Wonderful Tonight," and "Bell Bottom Blues."
Boyd started her modelling career in 1962, but was rejected by many photographers
owing to her unconventional looks, including rather prominent front teeth; one stated, "models don't look like
rabbits". She modeled in London, New York and Paris (for Mary Quant and others), and was photographed by David Bailey
and Terence Donovan.
An exhibition of photographs taken by Boyd during her
days with Harrison and Clapton opened at the San Francisco Art Exchange on February 14, 2005, titled Through the Eye of a
Muse. The exhibition also ran again in San Francisco in February 2006, and for six weeks between June and July 2006, in London.
Boyd was born in Taunton, Somerset, to Colin Ian Langdon Boyd and Diana Frances Drysdale (married 14 September 1942).
She was the eldest child, before Colin (1946), Helen Mary (later known as Jenny, 1947, later married to Mick Fleetwood), and
Paula (1951). Boyd nicknamed Helen "Jenny", after one of her favourite dolls. The Boyds moved to Nairobi,
Kenya, from 1948 to 1953, after her father's discharge from the Royal Air Force following a severe injury as a pilot during
WWII. Diana and Colin divorced in 1952, and Diana returned to England with her four children following her remarriage to Robert
Gaymer-Jones in February 1953 in Tanganyika (now Tanzania). They had two sons named David J.B. (1954) and Robert, Jr. (1955),
Pattie's half-brothers. Boyd attended convent boarding schools until 1961, and moved to London in 1962, first working
at Elizabeth Arden's as a shampoo girl. A client who worked for a fashion magazine asked her if she had thought of a modelling
as a career.
Boyd modelled in London, New York, and Paris (for Mary Quant), and was photographed by David Bailey
and Terence Donovan.She appeared on covers of the UK and Italian editions of Vogue in 1969. After becoming George Harrison's
girlfriend, Boyd was asked by Gloria Stavers to write a regular column for 16 Magazine. Twiggy, the popular 1960s model, commented
that she based her own look on Boyd when starting her modelling career in 1966.
Lisa fonssagrives is credited
as the first supermodel. Her image appeared on the cover of many magazines during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s from town
& country, life and the original vanity fair. She moved from sweden to paris to train for ballet. Fonssagrives once described
herself as a "good clothes hanger". She worked with fashion photographers which included george hoyningen-huene,
man ray, horst, erwin blumenfeld, george platt lynes, richard avedon, and edgar de evia. She married parisian photographer
fernand fonssagrives in 1935; they divorced. She later married photographer irving penn in 1950. Lisa fonssagrives died at
the age of 80, survived by her second husband, irving penn and her two children, daughter, mia fonssagrives-solow, a costume
designer and her son, tom penn, a designer.
Men of the 60s were
either a Rocker or a Mod, and they were notorious rivals. Consider the characters of the classic beach blanket movies. Mods
preferred classic fashions and British bands like The Beatles. However, the Rockers were often found on big Harley Davidson
bikes with their hair slicked back while wearing leather jackets, listening to the swinging rock-and-roll 50s favorites. The
trendiest of Mods were listening to the Beatles while riding along in their Vespers, while wearing the latest fashion inspired
by Italian and French designers. Most often their wardrobes consisted of pants, tailored suits with slim shirts and skinny
ties trimmed to just an inch. Mods most often wore their trademark fashion statement, the anorak jacket.
In 1966 men began embracing the Edwardian social graces and fashions. For instance, Brian Jones of the Rolling Stones
created a trend in wearing double-breasted suits of velvet. Longer hairstyles for men became popular at this time, while they
wore such apparel as frill collar shirts and brocade waistcoats. The patterns, prints, colours and textures of the fashion
era were astounding. Men and women were both searching for or wearing the long Nehru jacket with its luxurious stand-up collar.
Near the end of the decade fashions became more bizarre as individuals
began personalizing and altering their own clothing. Getting in touch with your feminine nature became easier for men while
allowing their hair to grow longer. The Hippie influence brought about the popularity of florescent colours, paisley patterned
shirts and polka dot neckties. Wide took first place again with a 5" wide tie trend as well as the wearing of bell-bottomed
pants. Almost everything was tie-dyed or featured paisley prints, pop art, or floral prints. Commonly neckties and shirts
were sold as a package deal as fashion designers continued creating with rich bold colours.
Bell-bottoms became very fashionable for women in the
mid 1960's in Europe and in North America by the late 1960s and much of the 1970s, both for men and women. By 1967,
they went from high-fashion to become part of the hippie counter-culture movement in the late 1960s, together with love beads,
granny glasses, and tie-dye shirts, even getting mentioned in popular music, such as Bell Bottom Blues" by Blues-Rock
super-group Derek and the Dominos in the 1970s, they moved into the mainstream. Sonny and Cher helped popularize bell-bottoms
in the USA by wearing them on their popular television show. However, they can be seen as early as 1964, in the concert film
The T.A.M.I. Show, worn (white "flares" with a baby-doll top) by a young Toni Basil, who at the time was a go-go
Today, the original men's bell bottom pants and flares from the 1970s are collectible vintage clothing
items. Worn by men to attend retro theme disco parties, worn in retro revival bands, and to wear clubbing - men's bell
bottom pants are a popular fashion item from the 1970s.
modelling one of the first modern bikinis.
The modern bikini
was invented by French engineer Louis Réard and fashion designer Jacques Heim in Paris in 1946 and introduced on July
5 at a fashion show at Piscine Molitor in Paris. It was a string bikini with a g-string back. It was named after Bikini Atoll,
the site of a nuclear weapon test called Operation Crossroads on July 1 in the Marshall Islands, on the reasoning that the
burst of excitement it would cause would be like the nuclear device. Monokini, a bikini variant, derives its name, as a back
formation, from bikini, interpreting the first syllable as the Latin prefix bi- "two" and substituting for it mono-
"one", on the (perhaps intentionally) mistaken notion that the bi- element was the Greek prefix meaning "two".
Réard's suit was a refinement of the work of Jacques Heim who, two months earlier, had introduced the "Atome"
(named for its size) and advertised it as the world's "smallest bathing suit". Réard "split the
'atom'" even smaller, but could not find a model who would dare to wear his design. He ended up hiring Micheline
Bernardini, a nude dancer from the Casino de Paris as his model.
Catholic countries like Spain, Portugal and
Italy banned the bikini. Decency leagues pressured Hollywood to keep bikinis from being featured in Hollywood movies. One
writer described it as a "two piece bathing suit which reveals everything about a girl except for her mother's maiden
name." Movie star Esther Williams once said: "A bikini is a thoughtless act." Brigitte Bardot helped popularize
the bikini in Europe in the 1950s, but the United States took longer to adopt it. Modern Girl magazine wrote in 1957, "It
is hardly necessary to waste words over the so-called bikini since it is inconceivable that any girl with tact and decency
would ever wear such a thing."
changed dramatically towards the end of the decade as men's hats went out of style, replaced by the bandanna if anything
at all. As men let their hair grow long, the Afro became the hairstyle of choice for African Americans, while mop-top hairstyles
were most popular for white and Hispanic men, beginning as a short version around 1963 through 1964, developing into a longer
style worn during 1965-66, eventually evolving into an unkempt hippie version worn during the 1967-69 period, which gradually
faded in popularity as the 1960s became the 1970s. Women's hair styles ranged from beehive hairdos in the early part of
the decade to very short styles popularized by Twiggy just five years later. Between these extremes, the chin-length contour
cut was also popular. The pillbox hat was fashionable due almost entirely to the influence of Jacqueline Kennedy who was a
style-setter throughout the decade. Also, the 60s gave birth to the skinny jean, (slim-fit pants), worn by Audrey Hepburn;
which are still popular with young women today.
A little black dress is an evening
or cocktail dress, cut simply and often with a short skirt, originally made popular in the 1920s by the fashion designer
Coco Chanel. Intended by Chanel to be long-lasting, versatile, affordable, accessible to the widest market possible and in
a neutral color, its continued ubiquity is such that many refer to it by its abbreviation, LBD.
The "little black dress" is considered
essential to a complete wardrobe by many women and fashion observers, who believe it a "rule of fashion" that
every woman should own a simple, elegant black dress that can be dressed up or down depending on the occasion: for example,
worn with a jacket and pumps for daytime business wear or with more ornate jewelry and accessories for evening. Because
it is meant to be a staple of the wardrobe for a number of years, the style of the little black dress ideally should be as
simple as possible: a short black dress that is too clearly part of a trend would not qualify because it would soon appear
known for her romantic involvement with Rolling Stones band members Brian Jones, whom she met in 1965, and Keith Richards,
for whom she left Jones in 1967. There were rumours that she also had a brief affair with Mick Jagger during the filming of
Performance, a movie in which she acted and co-wrote the script. Pallenberg strongly denied the affair in March 2007 when
Performance was released on DVD. Pallenberg and Richards had three children, a son born in 1969 named Marlon, a daughter,
Angela (nee Dandelion) born in 1972 and another boy, Tara, who was born in 1976, but died of health complications soon after
Pallenberg's influence over the development and presentation of the Rolling Stones from the late sixties
throughout the seventies was significant and has been documented in many publications on the band during this period and afterwards.
relatively slowly in the period c.1500 to 1700, and the finest clothing was a valuable commodity, finding its way into inventories
and wills, being remade and, not infrequently, stolen. The limited terminology of dress began to expand from the late seventeenth
century onwards, with a proliferation of new terms indicating an increased rate of change in fashionable dress. This acceleration
was underpinned by a more sophisticated process of manufacture and further improved skills but, of course, the speed of change
also maintained the status quo. To be dressed in the height of fashion meant being rich or heavily in debt.
Mary Quant OBE
FCSD (born 11 February 1934 in Kent, England) is an English fashion designer, one of the many designers who took credit for
inventing the miniskirt and hot pants. Born to Welsh parents, Quant studied illustration at Goldsmiths College before taking
a job with a couture milliner. She is also famed for her work on pop art in fashion.Skirts had been getting shorter since
about 1958 a development Quant considered to be practical and liberating, allowing women the ability to run for a bus. The
miniskirt, for which she is arguably most famous, became one of the defining fashions of the 1960s. The miniskirt was developed
separately by André Courrèges, and there is disagreement as to who came up with the idea first. Mary Quant named
the miniskirt after her favourite make of car, the Mini. In addition to the miniskirt, Mary Quant is often credited
with inventing the colored and patterned tights that tended to accompany the garment, although these are also attributed to
(popularly known as Twiggy, born 19 September 1949) is an English supermodel, actress, and singer, now also known by her married
name of Twiggy Lawson. A 1960s pop icon known for her large eyes, long eyelashes, and thin build, she is regarded as one of
the most famous models of all time.
In the 1950s,
Lucille Ball was the first woman to show her pregnancy on TV. The I Love Lucy show brought new attention to maternity wear.
Most of the maternity dresses were two pieces with loose tops and narrow skirts. Stretch panels accommodated for the woman's
growing figure. The baby boom of the 1940s to the 1950s also caused focus on maternity wear. Even international designers
such as Miguel Dorian, Givenchy, and Norman Hartnell created maternity wear clothing lines. Despite the new emphasis on maternity
wear in the 1950s maternity wear fashions were still being photographed on non-pregnant women for advertisements.
On September 29th, 1959, the maternity panty was patented which provided expansion in the vertical direction of the abdomen.
The front panel of this maternity undergarment was composed of a high degree of elasticity so in extreme stretched conditions,
the woman could still feel comfortable.
is a term that can refer to hairstyles that emphasize large volume or largely styled hair. Big hair was popular in the late
1970s, as popularized by Dolly Parton and Farrah Fawcett, a development from earlier bouffant styles. The term is also used
in the punk, goth and alternative cultures and is particularly associated with alternative fashion of the 1980s, or inspired
by the period. In either usage, big hair in modern times generally suggests an eye-catching, untidy, tangled, voluminous hairstyle,
worn by conformist women in the 1970s and non-conformists of all sexes into the early and mid-1990s.
In London, home
of the groovy, girls with means could go to Bazaar, the shop started by the brilliant and creatively innovative Mary Quant
(in 1955, unbelievably). Although Quant exploded 1960s fashion, and worked like a maniac not only to create it but to brand
it, showcase it, mass-market it, advertise it, spearhead it internationally and expand it beyond clothing into own-brand make-up,
shoes and lingerie, she didn't just pop up from nowhere with a thigh-high miniskirt and a PVC raincoat.
clothes she made for Bazaar were youthful and daringly unconventional, but built on a framework of English fashion history.
They weren't cheap, either. She used traditional fabrics - wool flannel, men's suiting, school children's ribbed
jerseys - but subversively. The wildly cut-away pinafore dress.
brill-cream) is a brand name of a men's hair grooming product. It was created in 1928 by County Chemicals at the Chemico
Works in Bradford Street, Birmingham, England. County Chemicals is also noted for 'Chemico' a very popular abrasive
kitchen cleaner. Brylcreem's purpose is to keep combed hair in place while giving it a deep shine or gloss. It is
essentially an emulsion of water and mineral oil stabilised with beeswax. Other ingredients are fragrance, calcium hydroxide,
BHT, dimethyl oxazolidine, magnesium sulfate, and stearic acid. Brylcreem is sold in a tube in the US, and both tube
and pot in Europe and Canada. The two formulations are slightly different. It is marketed in the US by Combe Incorporated;
in Europe, by the Sara Lee Corporation. The shiny "wet" look it gave to the hair was de rigueur for men's hair
styles for many years in the 20th century. Other substances, including macassar oil and petroleum jelly, had been in use for
this purpose earlier and made popular by such figures as Rudolph Valentino of silent film fame. Brylcreem's use declined
during the 1960s as men's hair fashions changed to favor the "dry look" over the "wet look". However,
it has seen a comeback since the late 1990s. It is remarketed in Europe under a Ministry of Hair banner alongside companion
gel and wax products in squeeze bottles, rarely sold directly alongside the traditional Brylcreem.
As with many concepts and movements,
there are other things that spring from this belief and the hippie movement also has its own fashion trends and
a sort of stereotyped clothing and apparel. Now when we look at the fashion aspect of the hippie movement, things
like colourful tie dye t-shirts and patchwork bell-bottom jeans and even Boho tribal styled skirts come to mind.
The hippie trends and fashions of the 60s has survived and made it to the twenty first century.The hippie movement
along with its beliefs and fashion trends has survived up until today making it nearly fifty years old.
Fashion-trends are cyclic in nature, the history of
women's fashion has witnessed many trends coming in and fading away eventually. But there are some trends which not only
survived beyond a certain time frame but reinvented themselves thereby becoming immortal.These classics are not mere designs
but visions drafted with utmost purity and clarity in terms of design processes. The little black dress is a semi-formal
evening wear outfit with simple cuts and short length originally made popular in the 1920s by veteran designer called Coco-Chanel.
Projected by Chanel to be a long-lasting, versatile, affordable, and accessible to the widest market possible and in a neutral
colour. Wearing the colour black and mourning used to be occasions going hand in hand, black a neutral among other colours
was always offered a step treatment, a subject of detest, something which everyone would like to avoid coming across. With
painters painting black as evil, authors writing about the negativity associated with, it was nothing more then a symbol of
fatality and casualty. For example the painting called Portrait of Madame X, by John Singer Sargent. First the world
war-1 and next the deadly Spanish flu knocking the doors, many lifes were lost in Europe, as a result women appearing in black
in public became a common site. To add to that since during the Victorian and the Edwardian ages, a widow was expected to
wear several stages of mourning dress for at least two years. Deep or full mourning would require them to conceal themselves
in complete black clothing with no decoration being encouraged at all for the first year. Even the fabric chosen used to be
coarser and of most inferior quality possible. During the next year however they could afford wearing silk in black.
You cannot have a discussion about
1960's fashion without mentioning one name: Mary Quant. This innovative designer has been credited with helping to bring
the miniskirt, hot pants, and patterned tights into the mainstream. Her influence was far reaching, and her "mod"
look is still being worn by some of the most fashion conscious women walking the streets today.
Mary Quant was born February 11, 1934 in Blackheath. She originally
studied illustration in college, and was drawn to fashion when she began work as a couture milliner. In 1955, Mary Quant and
her husband opened their first clothing store, Bazaar. She made a name for herself selling funky dresses, and colourful tights.
She soon became disenchanted with what was being offered by her manufacturers, so she hired a dressmaker, and began designing
clothing in her London apartment.
Her original line offered Mary Quant little critical
or financial success. This was until 1963, when the American based department store J.C. Penney offered her the opportunity
to design a line in an attempt to revitalize their image. Her popularity sky rocketed in mid 60's with her introduction
of the micro mini and plastic raincoats. This boom lasted throughout the rest of the decade, when her hot pants flew off
the shelves, and onto the hips of young women across England and the United States.
Mary Quant helped bring about a revolution in woman's clothing not seen since
the era of the flappers during the 1920's. Fashion became about youth and vitality, not what was being presented in the
stuffy couture houses of Paris and Milan. Women of all ages and social standing could walk down the streets of London, New
York, or Cleveland, wearing designer pieces that were considered the height of fashion. Her unique influence was even seen
in the world of music. Singer Donovan Leitch mentioned the name Mary Quant in his 1967 song "Sunny South Kensington".
In the 1970's, Mary Quant's main focus
shifted from fashion to household goods, make up, home furnishings, and even her own brand of wine. Her role had become
one of consultant during the past three decades, and in 2000, she resigned from her cosmetic's company Mary Quant, Ltd.
Celebrity fashion. Why are we so fascinated by the subject?
Whether we admit it or not, there's no denying the fact that we like to see how famous people dress. As the summer movie
season gets in to full gear, it's as great a time as any to look at one of most-requested topics I get: celebrity fashion.
Moving pictures first made their appearance in the 1890's. While Thomas Edison is generally credited with inventing
the medium, several men were instrumental in giving birth to this process, including the brothers Lumire, who invented the
first portable movie camera, and George Eastman, who created film for motion pictures. The first movies lasted only minutes
and had no sound. Nonetheless, they created a sensation. By 1910, the Eastman Company had perfected the technology of fashioning
and developing vast lengths of film. Within a matter of years, going to the movies on Saturday was a part of our culture. 1916 marked the emergence of costume design in cinema. Up until that time, film actors usually supplied their own clothes,
if the story was contemporary, or directors rented outfits from costume companies, if the film was a period piece.
But Parisian-born director Louis J. Gasnier had a particular "look" in mind when he was working on a movie with
serial queen Pearl White. He summoned a tailor and had him assemble an outfit for the actress consisting of a black suit,
white blouse, loose tie, and velour beret. The result? Secretaries of the day made this ensemble standard business dress-which
it still is, in varying degrees. It was the first emergence of Hollywood celebrity fashion.
Gilbert Adrian. Orry
Kelly. Edith Head. If you were alive in the 40's, 50's and 60's, you probably recognize those names. If you weren't,
you've no doubt see their work. For each made an indelible impression on celebrity fashion history. Gilbert Adrian,
known simply as Adrian, began designing clothes for Broadway and had worked his way to MGM in Hollywood by the grand old age
of 20. His ideas were fresh, innovative, and very dramatic, and helped establish MGM as the "glamour" studio, where
audiences could watch and dream about a jet-set life.
His first muse was Greta Garbo, whose "Mata Hari"
costumes caused a sensation in 1931. He later poured Jean Harlow into those slinky gowns that became her signature, and gave
Joan Crawford the shoulder pads that started a revolution. For "Letty Lynton" (1942), he put Joan in a ruffled white
organdy gown to highlight her broad shoulders, conceal her hips, and make her look taller. The result? Macy's in New York
sold 500,000 copies of the gown! Adrian opened his own atelier in Los Angeles later that same year, and won the Coty
award for fashion just two years later. He retired to Brazil in 1952 to paint landscapes.
Orry Kelly was perhaps
the least likely person one would expect to design costumes. Rough-looking and overweight with a penchant for booze and foul
language, he nonetheless helped established Warner Brothers as the "average man's" studio. He felt that the
characters should dictate the clothes-and not the other way around. You can see his work in The Maltese Falcon (1941), Casablanca
(1942) and Auntie Mame (1958).
Linda Morand. "Tribute
to the Beautiful Models of the Sixties"She was one of the top models of the Sixties. Now she is a noted fashion historian
and beauty expert. Lots of retro pictures of Mod fashions and beauty. These models were my friends, my peers, my inspiration
and my associates in that grand adventure, modeling in the Sixties. Even the models who had dozens of covers
and were the toast of two continents have been mostly forgotten and unheard of by current generations.I want to see
their work enjoyed and honoured as it once was and assure that historical accuracy is maintained. Nowadays if
you are not found on the Internet you are not really that relevant.
Dorothy Virginia Margaret Juba
(December 11, 1927 – May 3, 1990), later known as Dorothy Horan, best known as Dovima, was one of the supermodels of
the 1950s. Born in New York City, Dovima
was discovered by an editor at Vogue on the sidewalk of New York, and had a photo shoot with Irving Penn the following day.
She worked closely with Richard Avedon, whose photograph of her in a floor-length black evening gown with circus elephants—"Dovima
with the Elephants"—taken at the Cirque d'hiver, Paris, in August 1955, has become an icon. The dress was the
first evening dress designed for Christian Dior by his new assistant, Yves Saint-Laurent. A supermodel before the term became widely known, Dovima was reputed to be the highest-paid
model of her time. She had a cameo role as an empty-headed fashion model with a Jackson Heights whine in Funny Face (Paramount,
1957). She died of liver cancer on May
3, 1990 (aged 62). After her death, Richard Avedon said, "She was the last of the great elegant, aristocratic beauties...
the most remarkable and unconventional beauty of her time."
the girls went there was silence. Elly was completely blue: blue make-up, blue clothes, blue cap and blue curls. Eva was all
green, Del all violet. Some girls were all in black... in their full regalia looking as if they had just left a Fellini
set.' Barbara Hulanicki, describing the impact of the Biba look in 'From A to Biba'.
The beehive is
a woman's hairstyle that resembles a beehive. It is also known as the B-52, for its similarity to the bulbous nose of
the B-52 Stratofortress bomber. It originated in the USA in 1958 as one of a variety of elaborately teased and lacquered versions
of "big hair" that developed from earlier pageboy and bouffant styles. The peak of its popularity was in the 1960s,
and it was especially popular in the United States and other Western countries. By the late 1960s and the early 1970s, the
beehive had become unfashionable. However, the beehive remains an enduring symbol of 1960s kitsch.
In stark contrast
to their mature, ultra-feminine mothers, the women of the 1960s adopted a girlish, childlike style, with short skirts and
straightened curves, reminiscent of the look of the 1920s. At the start of the decade skirts were knee-length, but steadily
became shorter and shorter until the mini-skirt emerged in 1965. By the end of the decade they had shot well above the stocking
top, making the transition to tights inevitable. Many of the radical changes in fashion developed in the streets of London,
with such gifted designers as Mary Quant (known for launching the mini skirt) and Barbara Hulanicki (the founder of the legendary
boutique Biba). Paris also had its share of new and revolutionary designers, including Pierre Cardin (known for his visionary
and skillfully-cut designs), André Courrèges (known for his futuristic outfits and for launching the mini skirt
along with Mary Quant), Yves Saint Laurent (known for his revolutionary yet elegant fashions), and Emanuel Ungaro (known for
his imaginative use of color and bold baroque contrasts). In the United States, Rudi Gernreich (known for his avant-garde
and futuristic designs) and James Galanos (known for his luxurious read-to-wear) were also reaching a young audience. The
main outlets for these new young fashion designers were small boutiques, selling outfits that were not exactly 'one-offs',
but were made in small quantities in a limited range of sizes and colors. However, not all designers took well to the new
style and mood. In 1965, Coco Chanel mounted a rearguard action against the exposure of the knee and Balenciaga resolutely
continued to produce feminine and conservative designs. The basic shape and style of the time was simple, neat, clean
cut, and young. Synthetic fabrics were very widely-used during the Sixties. They took dyes easily and well, giving rise to
colors that were both clear and bright, very much mirroring the mood of the period. Hats suffered a great decline and by the
end of the decade they were relegated to special occasions only. Lower kitten heels were a pretty substitute to stilettos.
Pointed toes gave way to chisel shaped toes in 1961 and to an almond toe in 1963. Flat boots also became popular with very
short dresses in 1965 and eventually they rose up the leg and reached the knee.
is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories created within the cultural and social influences
of a specific time. Fashion design differs from costume design due to its core product having a built in obsolescence
usually of one to two seasons. A season is defined as either autumn/winter or spring/summer. Fashion design is generally considered
to have started in the 19th century with Charles Frederick Worth who was the first person to sew their label into the garments
that they created. While all articles of clothing from any time period are studied by academics as costume design, only clothing
created after 1858 could be considered as fashion design. Fashion designers design clothing and accessories also for women.
Some high-fashion designers are self-employed and design for individual clients. Other high-fashion designers cater to specialty
stores or high-fashion department stores. These designers create original garments, as well as those that follow established
fashion trends. Most fashion designers, however, work for apparel manufacturers, creating designs of mens, womens, and childrens
fashions for the mass market. Designer brands which have a 'name' as their brand such as Calvin Klein or Ralph Lauren
are likely to be designed by a team of individual designers under the direction of a designer director.
Linda Morand (May 26, 1946-) was a very successful fashion model, cover-girl and haute couture mannequin during the 1960s and 1970s. Known
as Superchick Linda Morand was a modern fashion pioneer, a beacon of revolutionary style, avant-garde beauty trends and a
major face in the Mod Sixties. She appeared in national ads, TV commercials and national catalogs. She was discovered by Eileen
Ford in 1966 and appeared in Vogue, Glamour, Mademoiselle, Teen, Elle and many more international magazines. As was one of
Vidal Sassoons house models, Christophe created her signature style, a closely cropped asymmetric cut which hugged her head,
elegantly set atop her long slim neck. Her favorite designer was Betsey Johnson, whose clothes
she wore for many fashion layouts. She also modeled for Lilly Pulitzer. With cut glass cheekbones, a wide-eyed gamine look
and a "show stopping smile", she was a favorite of Mademoiselle magazine editors and photographers George Barkentin,
David McCabe and Gosta Petersen.
In 1967, the
Human Be-In in San Francisco popularized hippie culture, leading to the legendary Summer of Love on the West Coast of the
United States, and the 1969 Woodstock Festival on the East Coast. In Mexico, the jipitecas formed La Onda Chicana and gathered
at "Avándaro", while in New Zealand, nomadic housetruckers practiced alternative lifestyles and promoted
sustainable energy at Nambassa. In the United Kingdom, mobile "peace convoys" of New age travellers made summer
pilgrimages to free music festivals at Stonehenge.
hippie subculture was originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the early 1960s and spread around
the world. The word hippie derives from hipster, and was initially used to describe beatniks who had moved into San Francisco's
Haight-Ashbury district. These people inherited the countercultural values of the Beat generation, created their own communities,
listened to psychedelic rock, embraced the sexual revolution, and used drugs like cannabis and LSD to explore alternative
states of consciousness.
is general agreement amongst costume historians that the origins of what we understand as fashion are to be found in the late
fourteenth century. The flowing, full-length lines which had characterized the dress of both sexes since late antiquity were
gradually abandoned. Men's dress changed faster than women's, with the adoption of short tunics and closely-fitted
garments. This coincided with the newly formed guilds of tailors developing skills in cutting and fitting fabric to the figure,
thus allowing a much wider repertoire of stylistic effects to be achieved, with fabric and padding emphasizing or exaggerating
the contours of the body. Better trading links with the Near and Middle East had introduced wider ranges of fabric, new techniques
for their manufacture, and fresh ideas about colour and decoration. Inevitably, fashion, even in this early phase, was the
preroagative of the wealthy who could afford the rich silks and fine linens which supplemented the staple Western European
woollen fabrics. Over the next two centuries the emergence of a wealthy merchant class with international interests in trade
and banking widened demand for luxurious possessions. Sumptuary laws were introduced, prohibiting the wearing of certain fabrics
and colours, and meting out punishment to those who dared to presume that mere wealth could ensure equality of choice with
the ruling class. This reinforcement of the notion that fashion was the prerogative of the few recurred throughout the succeeding
Go-go boots changed the history of shoes fashion. Until the 60’s,
boots were not usual in women as they were considered to be masculine. You could only see a woman wearing boots when they
were horse riding and on the street when it was very rainy. After the introduction of the skirt, go-go boots became an icon
of 1960 clothing, which was also intended to accentuate women’s legs. These boots were generally knee-high and had
flat or low heels. Today, this kind of boots is a hit, and a very sexy item that goes with everything. Bikini The bikini is probably the most important invention of the 60’s. It is
the sexiest item of clothing that has been created in history. Although it has existed for years, it was in the 60’s
that the bikini came into fashion. This item of 1960 clothing has changed the world in many aspects of life and fashion.
Since its inception, the way we see the world is different: people have opened up and started to feel free to wear comfortable
clothing without being judged. In earlier times, a bikini would have been a symbol of obscenity, but it becoming fashionable
brought about a change in fashion standards and daring clothes were no more considered to be obscene. In fact, 1960 clothing
is characterized by its daring look. The Hippie Era Bell-bottom Pants Bell-bottom pants got groovy during the 60’s. They were worn by both men and women and were a symbol of the
hippie movement. This piece of 1960 clothing has remained popular in time and is still in vogue today. At present, however,
they have undergone some modifications: for example, the width of the hem has been reduced. Peasant
Blouses Peasant blouses came into fashion with the hippie movement. They are a piece of 1960 clothing very
characteristic of the era that is still used today, especially in warm weather. At present, they are associated with summer
and beach, and with a peaceful character. Tie-Dyed Clothing Tie-dyed clothing is a symbol of the
hippie era. Today, this style is still in vogue and it's not necessarily connected with hippie ideas. There are many more pieces of clothing that are characteristic of the 60’s. Although today we consider these
designs very usual, they were all highly revolutionary at that time. They have changed the course of fashion and are today
an influence in our modern styles.
So, it may be that everything in fashion comes around
full circle in thirty years or so. Who would have thought that when hippies and flower children were experimenting with their
clothing they were actually making fashion history. In retrospect it only makes sense, because there really was a lot of thought
that went into what they were doing with their clothes when they were doing it.
There are two ways to make the
60s a part of your look and they are to buy what you are going to wear and the other is to do it yourself or have your “old
lady” do the needle work which is what a lot of hippies did. Some of what they did, such as the custom work on faded
denim jeans is rather labor intensive, so if it is bought and it is good work it is going to cost you.
that was done to jeans during the hippie era that is quick and easy to do, that most people have forgotten, is to take the
stitching out of the seam at the bottom of the leg on a pair of Levis. It has to be done after the pants have been worn and
washed several times to get the full effect.
Fashion in 1962 was notable for
the wide untie of colour, silhouette, and fabric presented by American designers. For every type, from the avantgarde to the
ultra-fashionable, a new free movement and femininity were expressed.
Consciousness of the figure was noticeable; clothes were molded and frankly clinging. Spring ushered in a little-girl
look that was daringly provocative. Waists were tiny, sleeves long and tight, hiplines curved, and necklines plunging. Waistlines,
the main theme in all collections, were high and gentle, sashed lightly, or cinched with wide hilts jackets were short and
clipped, while skirts whirled beneath in full circles, extravagantly gathered or gored to near circles, minimizing the center
the figure. Deep cowl necklines, ruffled edges, fringes, and welt seamings were also featured.1962 Fashion.
By fall, three silhouettes emerged: a skinned-down, sleek,
and tailored look; a bloused and mapped look; and a new natural outline, achieved by a bias cut. Bloused or unbelted, the
bias cut looked soft and ample, often constructed in an "A" line. Skirts were of every shape---slim, gathered, panaled,
pleated, gored, flared, draped, circular, ad yoked---and were even worn over other skirts. :rarest was on the silhouette,
with little trim ex-apt fur, self-detail, and braid. Lines were clean, although cut was sometimes complex. The dolman sleeve
of spring was replaced by tailored or peaked set-in sleeves. Coats and jackets had tight, rather squared backs, with a fitted
line at e front.
Dress with slashed
neckline and folded skirt, from a design by St. Laurent, and "A"-line coat with large cape collar, adapted from
Simonetta-Fabiani, are American copies of European fashions. A gold-embroidered skirt created by Anne Fogarty, with a double-knit
molded leotard top, illustrates the trend to separates for at-home evening wear.Colour. Like silhouette, colour was
feminine and mellow. Sugary pinks, salad greens, yellows, and candy colours were popular. For daytime wear, mellow neutrals
were worn with flashes of blue, from marine to ice. Red, white, and blue punctuated combinations for morning, afternoon, and
evening wear. Prints appeared predominantly in bold black and white and in tones of green. Silk prints appeared throughout
the year, in "pretty'' rather than bizarre designs. Resist prints were :Also popular. Black, particularly in
silk, returned as the loading basic. Fall prints were rich, vivid, and strange; Picasso blurs and greens, rids and oranges,
odd browns, and black and white appeared in every fabric and most types of costume. Cashmere wool colors were bright, and
spring and summer colors tinted winter-weight town-and-country clothes, Prominent were such out-of-season colors as pale green,
sky blur, white, oyster, cream, dandelion yellow, and peppermint pink.
Fabrics. ---American designers used fabric in new, exciting, and extravagant ways. Materials ranged from flat formal
surfaces to lush piled yarns in a wild array of colors and patterns. Coats and suits for spring featured nubby textures, along
with a variety of smooth-faced wools. Silk and wool Alaskine, usually a dressy fabric, was a daytime favorite. Four-ply black
silk became as basic as black crepe or sheer wool for round-the-clock wear. The use of two patterns in one ensemble was featured
in many collections; plaids were shown with prints and polka dots with stripes. The same pattern was often superimposed on
printed silk chiffon over printed silk.
wool, and synthetic knits, both domestic and imported, were available in every fashion category and price range. Synthetic
stretch fabrics portended a new era in knit dresses and sportswear. Fall flannels and printed wools entered a growing circle
of evening fabrics, designed in short and long lengths in evening and cocktail dresses, coats, and suits. A bulky look, light
as air, flourished the year round, in mohairs, tweeds, brushed wools, boucles, and puffy silk matelasse. Wide-ribbed silk
ottomans, ribbonzine lace, fringed silk faille, ribbon knits, rich embroideries, and many other fabrics created surface values
that became more important than texture. Velvet made a strong comeback in fall. Thick, lacy mohair appeared in bare top dresses.
Brocades, satins, and metallic knit clothes, luminous rather than shiny, were often dramatically combined with tweed or flannel.
Plaids, checks, paisleys, and myriad gigantic flowers created the most patterned fall and winter fashions in years.
Sportswear---In 1962, sportswear attained new
influence and diversity. A new fashion category was at-home clothes, from lounging garments to extravagant boutique separates.
The two-piece look of skirt and top flourished in both casual clothes and evening wear. Even sweaters were appropriate for
evening dress when combined with long, luxurious skirts. Shirts were designed in lush, evening fabrics, as were slacks. Suede
was used in every kind of coordinate, and stretch slacks and tops made their appearance in moderate priced markets. The short-short
decreased in popularity, as the Jamaica length became popular. The bikini bathing suit was more popular than ever before,
as was the one-piece bathing suit.
Accessories. In 1962, accessories were as colorful
as other apparel. This was especially true of shoes. The trend started in spring with a complete range of rainbow colours
in patent, kid, suede, and fabric. Fall shoes featured lizard and snake skins in every colour, including gold and silver.
Heels were generally low and stacked, although the tiny slim heel of the previous year was still seen. There was a bare look
in many shoes, with sides and backs exposed, and there was a new rounded shape to the toe. Boots, from knee to ankle length,
made fashion news. Most were lined for warmth, and many were fitted and heeled like a shoe. In bright red, shiny black, or
white, and in fur, zebra, pony, and lizard, they were as colourful as shoes.
Gloves tended most often to be in six- or eight-button lengths. Bags were
diminutive, as compared with previous seasons, and more compact and trim. Colourful snake and lizard bags were designed to
match shoes. Tapestry prints and bright coloured kid were available at every price.
In jewelry, too, color was
promoted. Beads hung around the neck in exciting color combinations and huge stones or long, narrow strands fell from the
ears. The tasseled sautoir, with matching earrings, became fashionable, along with bangles, in many colors for summer and
in gold and silver for fall and winter.
Hats were larger, and hair was piled higher. Big brimmed leghorns, bouffant
berets, wide-brimmed rollers, and tall, deep cloches were important throughout the year. Men's Fashion.---The trim, easy
two-button suit was the important item in men's fashions for 1962. The look established by President Kennedy was as immediately
popular as the Ivy League three-button suit was 10 years earlier. The two-button suit allowed more shoulder, more lapel, and
more chest room, and exposed more shirt and tie. There was also a small, growing interest in the one-button suit jacket.
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