They often say crime does not pay and indeed there are numerous examples of this. There are also examples of careers in crime, which do pay, well at least for a while.

For instance there is the bank robber who lives quite well for a little while with literally money to burn and then after his short career gets to retire with full benefits and live in a gated community; Prison. Well not exactly the career, pension or retirement at the golf course you had in mind is it?

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Cold-blooded murder, gang wars, and explosions - was it a Hollywood production? No, it was the streets of Chicago during the 1920's. The public's fascination with real crime and gangsters was a guilty pleasure that helped generate huge profits for Hollywood. What was happening on the streets during the 20's would fuel the popularity of the crime and gangster movie genre in the 1930's and 1940's. So much so, that a new classification of movie emerged - film noir.

The history of the crime and gangster movie has its roots in the silent films of the early part of the 20th century. However, it wasn't until the late 1920's through the 30's that these films became a bit more lifelike to movie goers. The high-profile existence of actual gangsters, their crimes, and the amount of publicity they received caused this movie genre to flourish.

These included notorious names such as Al Capone and John Dillinger. Gangsters became as widely identifiable to the general public as presidents. On the movie screen, these characters were often portrayed as being money hungry, violent and inclined to shoot first and ask questions later.

Film-goers loved it! With that in mind, here are some of the most interesting, exciting, and enjoyable early crime and gangster movies: The silent film Underworld came out In 1927, starred George Bancroft as 'Bull Weed' along with Clive Brook as 'Rolls Royce'. There is a unique twist to this story, as it is told completely from the gangsters point of view.

A crime kingpin, his 'moll' (Evelyn Brent), a befriended derelict, and a vicious rival (Fred Kohler); what could go wrong? Originally predicted to be a flop, this film became very successful as a result of strong word-of-mouth, and even won a Best Writing Oscar for Ben Hecht. Over 80 years later, this picture is considered by many to be the first modern American gangster movie.

The Public Enemy, released in 1931, tells the story of two brothers growing up during the prohibition-era. Tom (James Cagney) is a small-time hood with a lot of the wrong kind of ambition, while Mike (Donald Cook) works hard, goes to school, and enlists in the Marines during World War I. With his brother serving his country, Tom and his life-long friend Matt (Edward Woods) rise through the ranks of the Chicago underworld.

Mike returns from the military to find his brother reaping the rewards of a lucrative bootlegging business while he has suffered only the pain of war. Mike tries to get Tom to change his life which only pushes the brothers farther apart. When Tom's friend Matt is killed, he embarks on a path of revenge that can only lead to one end. This film proved to be James Cagney's breakout role.

In 1931, Little Caesar hit the big-screen. Aspiring small town criminals Caesar Enrico Bandello (Edward G. Robinson) and Joe Massara (Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.) head for the city of Chicago in search of their fortune. Crime offers opportunity for those who will stop at nothing.

Through the use of his gun, Rico is able to work his way up to the head of the gang, earning himself the nickname - "Little Caesar". Meanwhile, Joe has taken another path. Choosing to be a dancer, and meeting a girl named Olga (Glenda Farrell), As a result, the relationship between the brothers becomes tense and distant. Rico tries to get Joe to forget about Olga and come back and join him. When Joe refuses, Rico informs him that he has signed a death warrant for himself and Olga. Worried that Joe, or Olga may betray him, Rico sets out to kill them both.

However, for the first time, he is unable to pull the trigger. This could prove to be a big mistake -"Is this the end of Rico"? This is considered by the American Film Institute to be one of the Ten Best Gangster Movies of all-time. One of the most popular of the early crime and gangster films is 1932's Scarface. The movie is loosely based on the life of famed gangster Al Capone.

In fact, Capone liked the picture so much he had his own copy. Extremely violent and power hungry gangster Antonio 'Tony' Camonte (Paul Muni) aims to take over the rackets after former head Big Louis Costillo is murdered.

The police suspect Tony was the killer, having been hired to do the job by Johnny Lovo (Osgood Perkins), but are unable to make a case against him because the body was never found. Tony's ruthless ambition is fast becoming a threat to Lovo and the other crime bosses.

With continued pressure from the police along with the suspicion and danger presented by Lovo and friends, a violent showdown can't be far off. Enjoy the terrific portrayals of mobsters Guino Rinaldo and Gaffney by George Raft and Boris Karloff. Scarface was directed by Howard Hawks, and produced by Howard Hughes.

The film was considered so violent and glorifying of the gangster lifestyle that, although it was completed in 1931, was not released until the next year. 1932's Scarface is on the American Film Institutes list of the Ten Best Gangster Movies of all-time.

Today's movie audience's are most familiar with the contemporized 1983 Brian De Palma remake of Scarface starring Al Pacino that has become a cult classic. Warner Bros. produced a string of successful crime and gangster movies during the thirty's, and 1939's The Roaring Twenties just may be the best of the Warner productions.

The story begins just after the end of World War I. Having met in a large artillery shell hole and become friends during the war, returning veterans Eddie Bartlett (James Cagney), George Hally (Humphrey Bogart), and Lloyd Hart (Jeffery Lynn) re-enter society.

Eddie, unable to get his old job back as a mechanic, joins neighbourhood friend Danny as a cab driver, George, a former bar keeper, becomes a bootlegger, and Lloyd looks for work as a lawyer. Eddie and Danny use their cab business to build a fleet of cabs all bootlegging liquor, and hire Lloyd to be their lawyer.

Eddie and George's illegal paths cross during a liquor hijacking and they form an ill-fated partnership. Their empire is thriving; that is until wars over territory, double-crossing treachery, love, and the great stock market crash threaten to bring everyone down.

This was perhaps the final gangster film of its kind before the genre regenerated itself as film noir. One of the great "Hollywood gangsters" in motion picture history, James Cagney, did not play another gangster role for ten years until the classic White Heat. Even though movies about crime and gangsters continue to be made, it will always be difficult, if not impossible, to duplicate the true to life crime and gangster productions of the mid-20th century.

Jack the Ripper victem

Jack the Ripper is an alias given to an unidentified serial killer (or killers) active in the largely impoverished Whitechapel area and adjacent districts of London, England in the late 19th century. The name is taken from a letter sent to the Central News Agency by someone claiming to be the murderer. The victims were women allegedly earning income as prostitutes. The murders were perpetrated in public or semi-public places at night or towards the early morning.

The victim's throat was cut, after which the body was mutilated. Theories suggest the victims were first strangled in order to silence them and to explain the lack of reported blood at the crime scenes. The removal of internal organs from three of the victims led some officials at the time of the murders to propose that the killer possessed anatomical or surgical knowledge.

Newspapers, whose circulation had been growing during this era, bestowed widespread and enduring notoriety on the killer owing to the savagery of the attacks and the failure of the police in their attempts to capture the murderer, sometimes missing him at the crime scenes by mere minutes.

Dick turpin

(Dick) Turpin Richard (Dick) Turpin (born September 21, 1705 in Hempstead, Essex died April 7, 1739 in York) was a legendary English rogue and the most famous historical highwayman. In life Richard Turpin was a violent man who committed offences such as deer stealing, burglary, highway robbery and probably murder before being executed in York.

After his death, as "Dick" Turpin, he became the subject of legend, and was romanticised as the dashing and heroic highwayman in English ballads and popular theatre of the 18th and 19th century and later in film and television of the 20th century. There is considerable divergence between the history and legend of Turpin.


Now a days it seems that flipping or "turning rat" is all the rage among mobsters for shorter sentences and one way tickets into the witness protection program. The one time honoured mafia code of silence known as "Omerta" is a thing of the past. But the fact of the matter is the old school mobsters who bemoan the loss of omerta never had to face the lengthy prison sentences like the mobsters of today. With changes in federal sentencing laws, repeat offenders prosecutions, and the RICO act prison terms for convicted mobsters has become much more lengthy.

For years across the country the Mafia was like the fourth branch of government and its rackets protected and many of its acts ignored. Even when a mobster was eventually indicted the judicial system was notoriously lenient against them.

In the 19702s a study was conducted by the New York State Joint Legislative Committee on Crime which looked into cases involving organized crime figures through the 19602s and produced some shocking results. The Committee found that the acquittal and dismissal rates against racketeers was five times that of other defendants and in New York over 44% of indictments against organized crime members were dismissed by the Supreme Court.

And even when mobsters were convicted in many instances the defendants were let off with suspended sentences. So maybe it is a lot easier for the old school mobsters to claim to be "men of honor" when their honor was seldom challenged. But now that the feds have begun the fight against organized crime and mobsters facing more time in prison maybe even the old time mobsters would turn rat. Because long gone are the days of worse case scenario of a mobsters getting at three to five year stretch that he could wear as a badge of honor once released among his fellow mobsters.

So like everything else things change and that is also true in the world of the Mafia. Now examples of mobsters flipping are becoming more and more abundant and the trend doesn't seem to be coming to an end anytime soon. Like the case last year when two members of the Genovese crime family flipped and testified against then acting boss Arthur Nigro for the 2003 mob hit on New England capo Adolfo Bruno.

The Genovese family had long been admired among organized crime families for the lack of turncoats and ability to stay under the radar but even they were not immune to the times changing. Just recently Gambino crime family turncoat Michael "Mikey Scars" DiLeonardo who was known was "king of the rats" was let out of prison after he testified multiple times against his fellow mobsters.

The loss of omerta has brought with it a downward spiral of the Mafia across the country with even the mighty five families of New York seeing its power dwindle. The once powerful American Mafia has seen its ranks falter from within giving the feds the edge it needed. Many believe the Mafia's glory days are a thing of the past and although it has not been dismantled completely it will never be the same.


Lynching is a mob act of vigilantism to illegally execute an accused person by a mob. The term allegedly originated as a reference to a Virginia Justice of the Peace (1736-96). These acts often occurred in front of thousands of spectators, who would gather "souvenirs" afterward.

Lynching is another sad fact of American history and has been immortalized in song ("Strange Fruit", recorded by Billie Holliday, in pictures (the poignant, "The Black Book"), in a scholarly tome (Ralph Ginzburg's, "100 Years Of Lynchings"), and in fiction (In Richard Wright's "Big Boy Leaves Home", 1938, Big Boy and his friend Bobo accidentally shoot and kill a white man. The black community fearful of a mass killing spree by whites hide the boys, hoping to help them escape later. However, Bobo is caught and lynched as a frightened Big Boy looks on). .

Lynching was originally a system of punishment used by whites against African-american slaves. It seldom mattered whether the charges were true or not, since it usually camde down to the word of whites against the accused black person.

"The accusations against persons lynched, according to the Tuskegee Institute records for the years 1882 to 1951, were: in 41 per cent for felonious assault, 19.2 per cent for rape, 6.1 per cent for attempted rape, 4.9 per cent for robbery and theft, 1.8 per cent for insult to white persons, and 22.7 per cent for miscellaneous offenses or no offense at a 11.5 In the last category are all sorts of trivial "offenses" such as "disputing with a white man," attempting to register to vote, "unpopularity", self-defense, testifying against a white man, "asking a white woman in marriage", and "peeping in a window." (Gibson). However, whites who protested against this were also in danger of being lynched.

Gibson writes, "In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the lynching of Black people in the Southern and border states became an institutionalized method used by whites to terrorize Blacks and maintain white supremacy. In the South, during the period 1880 to 1940,

there was deep-seated and all-pervading hatred and fear of the Negro which led white mobs to turn to "lynch law" as a means of social control. Lynchings--open public murders of individuals suspected of crime conceived and carried out more or less spontaneously by a mob--seem to have been an American invention. In Lynch-Law, the first scholarly investigation of lynching, written in 1905, author James E. Cutler stated that 'lynching is a criminal practice which is peculiar to the United States'."

John F. Callahan states that, "Lynching did not come out of nowhere. Its actual and symbolic grounding in history and literature goes back to slavery and slavery's defining persons of African descent as property. During slavery there were numerous public punishments of slaves, none of which were preceded by trials or any other semblance of civil or judicial processes.

Justice depended solely upon the slaveholder. Executions, whippings, brandings, and other forms of severe punishment, including sometimes the public separation of families, were meted out by authority or at the command of the master or his representative."

Though the Chicago Times and New York Times derided the practice of lynching, Other newspapers abetted these efforts, often creating the rationale for the attack. R.W. Logan writes, "It is next to impossible to locate a newspaper article that does not identify the victim as a Negro or that refrains from suggesting that the accused was guilty of the crime and therefore deserving of punishment. For example, The New Orleans Picayune described an African-American who was lynched in Hammond, Louisiana for robbery as a "big, burly negro" and a "Black wretch"

On November 7th, 1837, Elijah Parish Lovejoy, the white editor of the Alton Observer, was killed by a white mob after he had published articles criticizing lynching and advocating the abolition of slavery. On 9th March, 1892, three African American businessmen were lynched in Memphis. When Ida Wells Barnett (a black woman) wrote an article condemning the lynchers, a white mob destroyed her printing press. They declared that they intended to lynch her but fortunately she was visiting Philadelphia at the time.

It is estimated that between 1880 and 1920, an average of two African Americans a week were lynched in the United States. Dr. Arthur Raper was commissioned in 1930 to produce a report on lynching. He discovered that "3,724 people were lynched in the United States from 1889 through to 1930. Over four-fifths of these were Negroes, less than one-sixth of whom were accused of rape.

Practically all of the lynchers were native whites. The fact that a number of the victims were tortured, mutilated, dragged, or burned suggests the presence of sadistic tendencies among the lynchers. Of the tens of thousands of lynchers and onlookers, only 49 were indicted and only 4 have been sentenced."

After the First World War ten black soldiers, several still in their army uniforms, were amongst those lynched. Between 1919 and 1922, a further 239 blacks were lynched by white mobs and many more were killed by individual acts of violence and unrecorded lynchings. During the 100 year period from 1865 to 1965 over 2400 African Americans were lynched in the United States. 1892 had a record 230 deaths (161 black, 69 white).

According to social economist Gunnar Myrdal: "The Southern states account for nine-tenths of the lynchings. More than two-thirds of the remaining one-tenth occurred in the six states which immediately border the South: Maryland, West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Kansas." (Gunnar Myrdal, "An American Dilemma," 1944, pp. 560-561).

In 1901George Henry White, the last former slave to serve in Congress, proposed a bill in that would outlaw lynching, making it a federal crime. He argued that any person participating actively in or acting as an accessory in a lynching should be convicted of treason. White pointed out that lynching was being used by white mobs in the Deep South to terrorize African Americans. The bill was defeated.

In 1935 President Franklin Roosevelt declined to support the Costigan-Wagner bill, designed to punish sheriffs who failed to protect their prisoners from lynch mobs. He believed he would lose the votes of southern whites and therefore, not be re-elected.

In July of that year six deputies were escorting Ruben Stacy to Dade County jail in Miami when he was snatched away by a white mob and hanged outside the home of a white woman named Marion Jones, whom had made a complaint against him. The New York Times reported that a later investigation revealed Stacy "Went to the house to ask for food; (and) the woman became frightened and screamed when she saw Stacy's face."

Other lynchings of note: Scottsboro (1931), James Byrd (1997), Will Brown (Omaha, NE, 1919)

The Old Bailey

The Old Bailey is one of the most famous institutions relating to law and crime in the UK and perhaps beyond. The building and courtrooms of the Old Bailey have been the stage for many of the country's highest profile criminal cases down the centuries and so the name, as well as the building with its domed roof and gold statue of Lady Justice, have become symbolic of the judicial system and the courts of London and the UK.

The name the 'Old Bailey' is used to refer to what is more accurately the Central Criminal Court for England and Wales (Scotland & Northern Ireland have their own) and the buildings that make up the court complex. The courts are to be found on the edge of the City of London on the corner of the Old Bailey road and Newgate Street.

In its role as a crown court, the Old Bailey has and does witness the most significant and serious criminal cases from around the capital as well as a few, when their specific circumstances warrant it, from elsewhere across England and Wales. As a result it has the highest profile of any criminal court in the country and so it is referred to extensively in popular British culture. The iconic Lady Justice statue atop the domed roof symbolises British justice whilst the functional entrance to the courts in south of Old Bailey has become very familiar to us all from countless news reports down the years.

Early History
The common-use name for the courts is actually taken from the name of the street on which it is found. The name of the street in turn refers to the fact that it was historically the site of the western segment of the old wall, or bailey, surrounding the city of London. The wall originally dated from the Roman occupation and a small portion of it can still be seen in the basement of the Old Bailey court buildings.

The site immediately to the north of the Old Bailey was the location of a gate within these walls which could also trace its origins back to the Roman era and which sat across the old Silchester to Londinium Roman road. The imposing gate buildings, which became known as Newgate, were appropriated to house criminals entering or leaving the city and in 1188 the first incarnation of the infamous Newgate prison was constructed at the gate on the orders of Henry II.

The Old Bailey courthouses evolved as an addition to the Newgate prison whilst the prison complex was developed and improved in the 16th century using funding from the late Sir Richard Whittington (the inspiration behind Dick Whittington). The first record of the actual law court dates back to 1585 although that, along with the rest of the prison complex were destroyed in the 1666 Great Fire of London and whilst the prison was rebuilt in 1672, the courts were not restablished for a further two years.

The Great Train Robbery

The Great Train Robbery is the name given to a £2.6 million train robbery committed on 8 August 1963 at Bridego Railway Bridge, Ledburn near Mentmore in Buckinghamshire, England. The bulk of the stolen money was not recovered. This was probably the largest robbery by value, in British history, until the Securitas depot robbery of 2006 in Kent.

The Glasgow to London travelling post office (TPO) train was stopped by a red light at Sears Crossing. The signals had been tampered with, unknown to the driver, with a glove placed over the green light and a six-volt battery temporarily powering the red one.

The co-driver David Whitby went to call the signalman only to find the telephone cables had been cut. Upon returning to the train, he was thrown down the embankment of the railway track. One problem the robbers encountered was that the diesel train was different from the local trains, making it difficult to operate.

One of the robbers had spent months befriending railway staff and familiarising himself with the layout and operation but it was decided instead to use an experienced train driver, Stan Agate, to drive the train from the stopping point at the signals to the bridge after uncoupling the unnecessary carriages.

Unfortunately, Stan Agate (who was never traced or linked with the robbery) was unable to operate the train and it was quickly decided that the original driver, Jack Mills, would move the train down the track. The high-value carriage was decoupled from the others and driven a further half a mile to Bridego Bridge where the robbers' Land Rovers lay in wait. Stan Agate's participation in the robbery was Ronnie Biggs' only task and when it became obvious that they were useless they were banished to the awaiting ex-army truck to help load the mail bags.

A 15-member gang, led by Bruce Reynolds and including Biggs, Charlie Wilson, Jimmy Hussey, Roy James, Jimmy White, Tommy Wisbey, Gordon Goody and Buster Edwards, one of whom was an ex-British Army paratrooper, boarded the train and began to unload the money sacks into waiting vehicles on the road below the bridge.

Although no guns were used, the train driver was hit on the head with an iron bar, causing a black eye and facial bruising. The assailant was one of two members of the gang who was never identified. Frank Williams (at the time a Detective Inspector) claims to have traced the man, but he could not be charged because of lack of evidence. Mills recovered but had constant trauma headaches the rest of his life. He died in 1970 from leukaemia.

Ronnie Biggs

Ronald Arthur Biggs better known as Ronnie Biggs (born August 8, 1929) is an English prisoner who is known for escaping from prison after his minor role in the Great Train Robbery of 1963 and for being on the run for many years. He eventually settled in Brazil but voluntarily returned to England in 2001.Biggs was born in Lambeth, England.

In 1947 Biggs at age 18 joined the British RAF but was dishonorably discharged in 1949 for desertion and served two years. In 1960 he married Charmian Brent, with whom he had three sons (one deceased). Biggs is most famous for the Great Train Robbery of 1963.

Together with other gang members, he stole £2.6 million from a mail train. After being convicted and jailed, he escaped from HM Prison Wandsworth in 1965 by scaling the wall with a rope ladder. He fled to Paris, where he acquired new identity papers and underwent plastic surgery. In 1970, he quietly moved to Adelaide, South Australia.

He worked in Set Construction at Channel 10 when a reporter recognised him. He then fled to Blackburn North, in Melbourne, Australia, staying for some time before fleeing to Brazil in the same year. His wife and sons stayed behind in Australia. In 1974, he was found by the British police in Rio de Janeiro, but could not be extradited because the United Kingdom did not benefit from reciprocity of extradition to Brazil, a condition for the Brazilian process of extradition.

Additionally, Biggs' then girlfriend (Raimunda de Castro, a nightclub dancer and prostitute) was pregnant; Brazilian law would not allow the parent of a Brazilian child to be extradited. As a result, Biggs was able to live openly in Brazil, completely untouchable by the British authorities. While his status as a felon prevented Biggs from working, there was nothing to stop him profiting from Scotland Yard's misfortune.

As a result, "Ronnie Biggs" mugs, coffee cups and t-shirts suddenly started to appear in tourist traps throughout Rio. He spent the next three decades of his life as a fugitive and became something of a celebrity, despite having been a rather minor figure in the actual robbery. Supposedly, Biggs returned to England several times during the making of a documentary about the Great Train Robbery, always in disguise.

He also recorded vocals on two songs for The Great Rock 'n' Roll Swindle, Julien Temple's film about the Sex Pistols. The basic tracks for "No One is Innocent" (aka "The Biggest Blow (A Punk Prayer)") and "Belsen Was a Gas" were recorded with guitarist Steve Jones and drummer Paul Cook at a studio in Brazil shortly after the Sex Pistols' final performance, with overdubs being added in an English studio at a later date.

"No One is Innocent" was released as a single in the UK and reached #6 on the British singles charts, with the sleeve showing Martin Bormann playing bass with the group (in actuality this was American actor James Jeter). In 1981, Biggs was kidnapped by a gang of adventurers who smuggled him to Barbados, hoping to collect some reward from the British police.

The coup was discovered, though, and Biggs made use of legal loopholes to have himself sent back to Brazil. In February 2006, Channel 4 aired a documentary featuring dramatisations of the attempted kidnap and interviews with John Miller, an ex-British Army personnel who carried it out.

The team was headed by security consultant Patrick King. In the documentary, King claims that the kidnapping may have in fact been a deniable operation. Biggs' son by de Castro, Michael Biggs, eventually became a member of the successful band Turma do Balão Mágico, bringing a new source of income to his father. In a short time, however, the band faded into obscurity and dissolved, leaving father and son in relatively dire straits again.

In 1991, Biggs sang vocals for the song "Carnival In Rio (Punk Was)" by German punk band Die Toten Hosen. In 2001 Biggs announced to The Sun that he would be willing to return to the UK. Biggs was fully aware that he would be detained upon arrival in England. Even so, he returned voluntarily on May 7, 2001, and was immediately arrested and re-imprisoned.

His trip back to England on a private jet was paid by The Sun, which reportedly paid Michael Biggs £20,000 plus other expenses in return for exclusive rights on the news story. Ronald Biggs had 28 years of his sentence left to serve. Since his return he has undergone a number of health scares, including two heart attacks, and has failed to get his sentence overturned or reduced.

His son said in a press release that contrary to some press reports, Biggs has not returned to the UK simply to receive health care. Health care was available in Brazil and he had many friends and supporters who would certainly have contributed to any such expenses. Biggs' stated desire was to "walk into a Margate pub as an Englishman and buy a pint of bitter". On November 14, 2001, Biggs petitioned Governor Hynd of HMP Belmarsh for early release on compassionate grounds based on his poor health.

He had been treated four times at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Woolwich in less than six months. His health was deteriorating rapidly and he asked to be released into the care of his son for his remaining days. The application was denied. On August 10, 2005, it was reported that Biggs had contracted MRSA.

His lawyers, seeking for his release on grounds of compassion, said that their client's death was likely to be imminent. On October 26, 2005, the Home Secretary Charles Clarke declined his appeal stating that his illness is not deemed terminal. Home Office compassion policy is to release prisoners with three months left to live. Biggs continues to need a tube for feeding and has difficulty speaking.

On July 4, 2007, Biggs was moved from Belmarsh prison to Norwich prison on "compassionate grounds". In December 2007, Biggs issued a further appeal, from Norwich prison, asking to be released from jail to die with his family: "I am an old man and often wonder if I truly deserve the extent of my punishment. I have accepted it and only want freedom to die with my family and not in jail. I hope Mr Straw decides to allow me to do that. I have been in jail for a long time and I want to die a free man.

I am sorry for what happened. It has not been an easy ride over the years. Even in Brazil I was a prisoner of my own making. Ronnie Biggs will be freed from prison in time for his 80th birthday, it emerged last night. The case for the Great Train Robber's early release from Norwich jail is to be assessed at a parole board hearing in July. But prison and probation sources have told the Mail that the hearing will be a formality - and he will be freed before his birthday in August.


Jack Slipper (April 20, 1924 August 24, 2005) was a Detective Chief Superintendent in the Metropolitan Police in London. He was known as "Slipper of the Yard" (referring to Scotland Yard). He was mainly known for his role in investigating the Great train robbery in 1963. He became so involved with its aftermath that he continued to hunt down many of the escaped robbers in retirement.

He believed that Ronnie Biggs should not be released after returning to the UK in 2001 and he regularly appeared in the media to comment on any news item connected to the robbery. He was also involved in several other cases, including the Massacre of Braybrook Street. Jack Slipper set up the Robbery Squad, which later merged into the Flying Squad.

He was also responsible for Britain's first "Supergrass" trial in 1973, in which bank robber Bertie Smalls testified against his former associates in exchange for his own freedom. In the 1980s - 90s Slipper worked in security for IBM UK, working out of their Greenford, Middlesex offices. He frequented the Black Horse public house, Harrow Road, Wembley. Slipper was born in London and joined the Metropolitan Police in 1950. Prior to this he worked as an electrician's apprentice until 1941, when he enlisted in the Royal Air Force. He died aged 81 after a long illness.

crack cocaine

Crime has been a defining characteristic of modern America. It has claimed many thousands of lives and cost billions of dollars. When crime rates began to rise in the 1960s, the “crime issue” occupied a prominent place in the U.S. National agenda, influencing electoral outcomes and spurring debates about the role of race, culture, morality, personal accountability, judicial discretion, and economic inequality.

When crime rates were on the rise, discussions about crime often became ideological and polarized. Everyone agreed there was too much crime, yet there was little agreement about what should be done about it. Despite a lack of consensus on how to address crime problems, by the end of the 20th century, crime rates had fallen to their lowest levels in a generation.

Violent crime rates, which rose dramatically in the mid-1980s with the introduction of crack cocaine into U.S. Inner cities, have declined every year since 1993. Property crime rates fell to half the level of a quarter century ago. Violence in families, specifically assaults between intimate partners, had been declining for several years. The steepest drop in violence occurred among young offenders.

Street crime

As the 1990s drew to a close, new questions dominated the public debate on crime, questions unimaginable 10 years earlier: Why had crime rates fallen so precipitously? Why did crime rates drop more sharply in some cities than in others?

Many have taken credit for this decline in crime, among them police officials, advocates of increased incarceration, prevention specialists, and community activists. Others have pointed to a relatively strong economy during the 1990s and broad demographic trends. Few of these experts agreed on next steps in the national effort to increase community safety.

More recently, these debates have intensified as new crime data show that the dramatic decline in violent crime in the nation’s largest cities is levelling off, and some cities are posting new and disturbing increases in rates of violence. With the country now in a recession, law enforcement resources redeployed to reflect a national commitment to combat terrorism, and prison populations stabilizing, many of the large-scale social forces that may have contributed to the crime decline are uncertain allies as communities struggle to keep crime rates low.

It appears that the nation is at a critical juncture in its efforts to bring crime rates down. This report is intended to shed light on the next generation of crime policy discussions by exploring the lessons to be learned from the declining crime rates of our recent past. It is our belief that, even if the decline reverses, as it indeed may, the breadth and consistency of the changes during the 1990s provide an important opportunity to learn from this social phenomenon.

This report presents a discussion of the long-term trends in crime rates as a reminder that there is no single narrative that describes the nation’s experience with crime. The report also presents the views of prominent researchers and practitioners convened by the Urban Institute to reflect on the remarkable fact that crime rates have fallen to new lows.

This report is not intended to provide definitive answers to the questions raised by the recent crime decline—that would require more research, new data, and a sustained effort to reconcile every competing claim. We have a more modest goal—to share these insights from research and practice with those who hope to create safer communities in America.

Gun crime

Examining changes in the levels of violent crime committed by juveniles (under age 18) and young adults (age 18 to 24) reveals important trends masked by the overall changes in violent crime. Because criminal behavior has always been more prevalent among young people, it is important to distinguish juvenile crime and youth crime from crime by adults. Juveniles and young adults combined made up 38 percent of the increase in violent crime arrests between 1985 and 1995, but they accounted for 51 percent of the subsequent drop in violent crime between 1995 and 1999.

Despite the dramatic declines of the mid- 1990s, violent crime arrests among young people did not decline much beyond where they were in the mid-1980s. As Figure 6 shows, from 1976 until 1985, there was a fairly constant pattern in arrest rates.

Young adults between the ages of 18 and 24 had the highest arrest rates, at about 580 per 100,000 population, followed by adults 25 to 34 years old (350 per 100,000) and juveniles (300 per 100,000). But, beginning in 1985, those patterns lost their hold. Violent crime arrest rates increased by 50 percent for offenders age 18 to 24—from 570 per 100,000 in 1985 to the peak of 852 per 100,000 in 1995. Arrest rates of adults age 25 to 34 also increased by half to a high of 576 per 100,000 in 1995.

There was a 70 percent increase in arrests of juveniles, peaking at 512 arrests per 100,000 in 1994. Arrest rates for all three groups have dropped since 1995, with juveniles registering the steepest decline. The increase in gun crimes among juveniles and young adults is the leading factor in the pronounced rise in arrests beginning in 1985. From 1976 to 1985, the arrest rates of juveniles for homicide with a gun and without a gun were nearly identical.

During that 10-year period arrest rates averaged about five to six per 100,000 juveniles for homicides committed with and without a gun. The 18 to 24 age group had a slightly higher arrest rate, at an average of 13 arrests per 100,000 for homicides with a gun and 10 arrests per 100,000 for homicides without a gun.

Between 1985 and 1993, the rate of arrests for homicides with a gun more than quadrupled for juveniles, to nearly 24 arrests per 100,000 population. During that same period, arrests for gun-related homicides nearly tripled among young adults age 18 to 24, to about 32 arrests per 100,000 population. Since 1993, gun-related homicide arrests have been dropping steadily, with the most dramatic declines seen among juveniles.

The abduction case of Charley Ross

Cases in Europe are often characterized with tales of torture and sometimes macabre murders of victims. On the other hand, kidnappings in America are mostly driven with a motive of ransom. Elsewhere, socio-political interests, along with money can lead to heinous crimes such as kidnapping. Let us see some of the famous kidnappings in the history that brought radical changes to the functioning of law enforcement systems.

Charley Ross (1874) The abduction case of Charley Ross for ransom was the first of its kind. On July 1, 1874, Charley (age 4) was playing with his older brother Walter (age 5), in the front yard of their Philadelphia home when they were lured into a carriage by two men.

The men promised candies and fireworks to the boys, if they rode with them. Later, the men left Walter at a firecracker shop and rode away with Charley. Ransom notes demanding 20,000 dollars arrived shortly by post at Ross' home from various locations. Eventually, Walter was found and returned to his parents, however, Charley could not be traced thereafter.

Two suspects Bill Mosher and Joe Douglas (which were later identified by Walter as abductors) were killed in a gunfire during another burglary incident, which deterred further attempts to trace Charley's whereabouts. The Ross family involved various private as well as federal agencies to search the missing boy and also allowed an extensive media coverage for public interest. However, despite these gallant efforts, what happened to Charley Ross is still a mystery.

 Dunbar (Charles)

Charles' family, from left to right: Percy, Colin, mother Dunbar (Margaret), William, Margaret (Peg), George, father Dunbar (Charles)

Bobby Dunbar (1912) The curious case of Bobby Dunbar's disappearance and alleged reappearance is quite an interesting one. In August 1912, Bobby Dunbar disappeared during a fishing trip with his family in Swayze Lake. After 8 months, a boy of similar description as Dunbar was found with a man named William Cantwell Walters. Walters claimed that the boy was a son of one Julia Anderson who worked for Walters family and had willingly granted custody of her son Bruce to Walters.

The influence of wealthy Dunbar family and the lack of evidence in support of Walter's claims led to his arrest. Besides, the failure of Julia Anderson to recognize her son positively during the first line of identification made the case stronger for Dunbars. However, the first interaction between the boy supposed as Bobby Dunbar and his family is also controversial, with reports suggesting that Bobby failed to recognize his mother and younger brother Alonzo.

Nonetheless, the court granted Bobby's custody to Dunbars and convicted Walters. Bobby was reunited with his family with much fanfare and resumed his life as Bobby Dunbar. However, Anderson and Walters along with witnesses from Poplarville, Mississippi (where Walters lived with Bruce) continued their struggle to establish the true identity of the boy that was being raised as Bobby Dunbar.

After several years, an investigation by a Dunbar family member revealed that DNAs of Bobby's son Bob Jr. and Alonzo's son do not match like they should in blood relatives. Amidst these controversies, the fate of real Bobby Dunbar could never be traced.

Lindbergh's Baby

Lindbergh's Baby (1932) This is the most famous kidnapping case due to its wide media coverage and involvement of several federal and private detective agencies. Charles Augustus Lindbergh Jr., son of famous aviator Charles Lindbergh went missing from his second floor nursery at his home in Hopewell, New Jersey in March 1932. A ransom note of about $50,000 was found near the nursery window, from where abductors had entered the room.

More ransom notes started arriving at Lindbergh's household demanding $75,000, when abductors learned that police and FBI were involved in the investigation. Attempts were made to communicate with the kidnappers through local newspapers and a retired school principal named Dr. John F. Condon volunteered to negotiate with the kidnappers.

Condon delivered the ransom money in form of gold certificates to the abductors after ensuring that they indeed had Lindbergh's baby. In turn, kidnappers directed him to an abandoned boat where they had supposedly kept the baby. However, no such boat could be found and the whereabouts of baby could not be traced.

Two months after the abduction, partially decomposed body of baby was found about five miles away from Lindbergh's home. The cause of death was ascertained as heavy blow on head and the boy had been dead for about 2 months.

Further investigations and description of a certain 'John' by Condon led to the arrest and conviction of Bruno Richard Hauptmann. He was sentenced a death penalty for extortion and first degree murder. Lindbergh's baby kidnapping case forced the Federal Government to elevate the nature of crime of kidnapping from local to Federal crime.

Graeme Thorne kidnapping

Graeme Thorne (1960) Graeme Thorne kidnapping and murder case in Sydney, Australia was a classic example of how co-ordinated police investigation and impeccable forensic research can lead to resolution of the most complicated of murder mysteries. The fortune worth 100,000 pounds won by Bazil Thorne in Opera House Lottery was responsible for kidnapping of his eight year old son Graeme.

The kidnappers got an access to his house and telephone number through newspapers which published the names and addresses of the winners. Graeme was kidnapped while he was waiting to be picked up for school by a family friend.

Two hours after Graeme went missing, Mrs. Thorne received a phone call from the kidnappers for ransom money. Thorne family had already alerted the police force by that time. Subsequent phone calls from kidnappers, without any instructions on where and how to deposit the ransom money led to an extensive combing operation in and around Sydney. Graeme's body was discovered five weeks after his missing report in partially decomposed state, covered in a blue tartan rug.

The forensic analysis of flora and traces of mortar found on his body and the pet dander on blue rug led cops to a man named Stephen Bradley. Bradley's description matched with that of a stranger who had interacted with Mrs. Thorne shortly after she had won the lottery and also with the man who was sighted in the neighborhood on the morning of Graeme's kidnapping.

Bradley confessed to the heinous crime after heavy grilling and was sentenced to life imprisonment. Graeme Thorne murder case led to the introduction of privacy option for lottery winners as well as reforms in the then abduction laws in Australia.

Kyoko Chan Cox (1971) Kyoko, the only daughter of Japanese musician, activist and writer Yoko Ono was kidnapped by her own father Anthony Cox, Ono's second husband. Cox fled with Kyoko and his second wife, fearing Ono would take away the custody of his child. Cox took refuge in Houston, Texas, became an evangelical Christian and joined Church of Living World.

There, he became a member of an occult sect and hid his daughter from the world. He gave her a new identity and hoped that members of his sect would help him protect his daughter from Ono and cops. Soon after, Cox left the sect and feared again for the safety of his daughter who was studying in California at that time. He went on the run again with his family.

Meanwhile, Ono tried to reach her daughter through her songs as well as help from secret services. It was not until 23 years after her kidnapping that Kyoko was reunited with her mother, when she herself got married and decided to start a family of her own.

Jaycee Lee Dugard

Jaycee Lee Dugard (1991) Jaycee Lee Dugard was abducted from South Lake Tahoe while she was waiting for a school bus near her home on June 10, 1991. Dugard went missing for 18 years and reappeared in 2009 under mysterious circumstances. Dugard's abduction in a gray sedan was witnessed by her stepfather Carl Probyn and a couple others.

Although, her stepfather vainly chased the sedan on a motorbike, Jaycee's abductor's could not be traced thereafter. Police services carried a thorough check of the surrounding area with the help of locals as well as several private agencies. Jaycee's mother conducted a widespread campaign with the help of media and locals to locate her daughter.

While police followed a few clues, none of them actually led to Jaycee or her captors. Jaycee was declared missing and her case file remained closed for 18 years. On August 25, 2009, a convicted sex offender Phillip Craig Garrido was found strolling suspiciously along with two young girls on the campus of UC Berkeley.

The unusual behavior of the girls and their unknown relation with Garrido invoke suspicion of investigation officers which led to further probe of the matter. Garrido's wife Nancy along with a young woman named Allissa (who Garrido claimed to be his niece along with two young girls) were summoned to verify Garrido's statement.

When all the members of Garrido family were investigated separately, Garrido maintained that the two young girls and Allissa were his nieces while Allissa said that she was hiding in Garrido house from an abusive husband and the two young girls were her daughters while the girls kept on addressing Garrido as 'daddy'.

The confusing and incongruous statements by Garridos led to further investigations and grilling of Garrido when he confessed to having raped Allissa and fathered her two daughters. In an astonishing discovery it was revealed that Allissa was the same Jaycee Dugard who went missing from South lake Tahoe in 1991.

However, as Jaycee had developed a Stockholm syndrome (in which hostages feel empathy and affection for their captors) she refused to cooperate with the officials initially. The 29 year old Allissa was then positively identified as Jaycee Dugard and reunited with her family after 18 years.

Madeleine McCann

Madeleine McCann (2007) PS: This story is not in Pastreunited's time line we feel due to the publicity this story made in he media is worthy of inclusion. The disappearance of 3 year old Madeleine McCann on May 3, 2007 is remarkable due to the involvement of law enforcement forces from several countries and world wide press coverage.

Madeleine, a British national, went missing from her hotel room while on a family holiday in the Algarve region in Portugal. Madeleine and her twin siblings were left unsupervised in their hotel room while their parents were having dinner with their seven friends in a hotel bar which was only 130 yards away. Madeleine's parents and their friends took turns to check on children in their ground floor room.

Madeleine's last sighting was about 21.15 when her dad Gerry checked on the children. However, when her mother came in the room at 22.00 she found Madeleine's bed empty and an open bedroom window. Immediately, a search of premises was conducted by police officials and several people including Madeleine's parents, their friends and hotel staff were questioned.

One of the friends of the couple Jane Tanner, had reportedly seen a man carrying a child, going down the road at about 21.20. However, she failed to make the connection that the child could be Madeleine.

Portugal police (Polícia Judiciária) detained several people including Madeleine's parents and their friends and arrested several others in connection with the kidnapping. However, Madeleine's parents were eventually given a clean chit and allowed to fly back to UK.

Over the course of time, several secret service agencies from Portugal, UK and France were deployed to follow several investigation leads. However, none of them could successfully trace Madeleine's whereabouts in spite of several reports of her possible sightings in the following months.

While Madeleine's parents were heavily criticized for their negligence, their remorse couldn't bring their daughter back. To this date, the fate of Madeleine McCann remains unknown. Apart from the ones mentioned above, there are several other kidnapping cases in the history that are remarkable in some way or the other.

Some of these cases were resolved with great skill and valor by the law enforcement agencies, thereby uniting the hostages with their families, while a few others are still pending, with no lead whatsoever. Families of such victims still wait for their loved ones to return and hope to reunite with them someday.

Apart from the ones mentioned above, there are several other kidnapping cases in the history that are remarkable in some way or the other.

Some of these cases were resolved with great skill and valor by the law enforcement agencies, thereby uniting the hostages with their families, while a few others are still pending, with no lead whatsoever. Families of such victims still wait for their loved ones to return and hope to reunite with them someday.

Scene of the crime investigation

Scene of the crime investigation is the assembly point of logic, law and science. Processing scene of the crime is a tiresome and long procedure which entails documentation purposely of the situations in the scene and gathering of physical evidences that will probably shed light on what occurred and will point who did the crime.

At any scene of the crime, a crime investigator may gather a piece of dried blood in a windowpane, by not allowing his arm touch the glass if ever there are some unseen fingerprints there, pick up hair from the jacket of the victim with the use of tweezers but not disturbing the clothes enough in shaking off some white powder (which might be cocaine or not) in the crumple of the sleeves and make use of sled hammer in breaking through the wall which looks as if it is the source of an awful smell.

The physical proof itself is just a component of the investigation. The final objective is the strong belief of the person responsible for the crime committed. Therefore, while the crime investigator scratches off dried piece of blood without staining some prints, picks up many hairs by not disturbing some traces of proof and smashing through a partition in the room, he thinks about all needed procedure to preserve all evidences in their present forms.

The crime laboratory will does something about the evidences to restructure the crime or recognize the perpetrator or criminal and the lawful matters involved in ensuring that the evidences are permissible in the court.

The scene of the crime investigation starts when the crime investigation unit accepts a call coming from police authorities or detectives on the crime scene. On reaching the crime scene, the investigator makes sure that the place is secure.

Then he/she does a primary walk-through in order to get the entire feel of the scene of the crime, see for himself/herself if anybody has moved or touched anything his/her arrival and then he/she makes initial theory out of the visual assessment. Then he/she notes down some potential evidences. At this instance, he/she do not touch anything.

The crime investigator documents carefully the scene of the crime by taking pictures and make sketches during the second or succeeding walk-through. Occasionally, the documentation period composes a film walk-through also. The investigator documents crime scene entirely and records anything he/she determined as evidence. Up to this moment, the investigator does not touch anything.

After documentation, the investigator systematically and very carefully walks through the crime scene and collects all important evidences, tagging them, logging and packaging them so that they will remain intact in going to the crime laboratory. The crime laboratory then processes all the evidences collected by the crime investigator of the scene. After the laboratory results are ready, they precede to head detective of the case.

Each scene of the crime investigation unit holds the sections among work in the field and laboratory work in different ways. Crime scene analysis or scene of the crime investigation goes on into the crime scene and whatever goes on into the section of the laboratory is known as forensic science.

Since not all crime investigators are forensic scientists, they should possess an excellent understanding about forensic science to be familiar with the particular value of several types of evidences while working in the fields. Scene of the crime investigation is a very big undertaking so it is necessary that the crime investigator must possess the qualifications required for the position.

Al Capone

Al Capone, one of the most notorious gangsters in America, was born in New York in 1899. He started his career in Brooklyn before moving to Chicago and had already been on the Bureau of Investigation's ""Most Wanted"" list by the end of the 1920s.

Al Capone was indicted and convicted for income tax evasion in 1931, and found guilty on five counts. In 1932, he was initially sent to an Atlanta prison, and then finally transferred to Alcatraz in August of 1934.

For many, the figure of gang lord Al Capone is a large part of the allure. During the prohibition years of the 1920s, when the consumption of alcohol was banned in the United States, Capone effectively ran Chicago as his own town and went on to become the most notorious American criminal of the twentieth century.

Over the course of the decade, Capone ran his empire from the Lexington Hotel at 22nd and Michigan Avenues in Chicago and profited from the extensive bootlegging racket that permeated the city. The illicit trade in alcohol, and the huge number of speakeasies (establishments used for the covert selling and drinking of alcohol) that sprang up around the city, played an enormous part in the success of Al Capone's nefarious gangs.

What's more, the iconic St Valentine's Day Massacre in 1929 - now seen as one of Chicago's most defining moments of the 1920s - has also ingrained itself in the American psyche. This famous incident in Chicago's history saw the shooting of seven people - six of which were gangsters - in the climax of a hefty rivalry between the city's two main gangs: Al Capone's South Side gang and Bugs Moran's North Side cronies. Ultimately, Al Capone's arrest in 1931 for tax evasion led to his downfall, and this is seen by many as an ironic - and somewhat deflating - end to this nefarious gang leader.

Essentially, the all-pervasive element of Chicago's gang warfare during the prohibition years is what makes it so appealing to history buffs - the amazing fact that one man could have had such complete criminal control over one city, and yet be brought down by such a mundane offence.

Of course, the eventual repeal of the prohibition act in 1933 was seen by many as a signal that the first great domestic experiment of the twentieth century had failed; a factor that further pushed Al Capone and his bootlegging gangs into legendary status.

Today, many visitors to Chicago are keen to survey the city's gangland past and discover where old speakeasies were located, and this is relatively easy to do. Simply find a hotel in Chicago to use as your base and explore the old site of the Lexington Hotel, along with Capone's range of infamous haunts. And while this may appear to be a somewhat macabre vacation theme, it's nonetheless one that will provide a thrill for anyone who finds a bit of gory American history entertaining.


George "Machine Gun" Kelly Barnes, infamous for crimes, which included bootlegging, armed robbery and kidnapping had already been in the gangster business by 1927. In 1933, Kelly received life sentence for the kidnapping of Charles F. Urschel, a wealthy businessman and his friend Walter R. Jarrett. He was first incarcerated in Leavenworth, Kansas and was later transferred to Alcatraz in 1934 due to his constant escape threats.

Henry "Henri" Young started his career as a bank robber and committed murder in 1933, was found guilty and served time in different state prisons. In 1935 he was sent to the U.S. Penitentiary on McNeil Island in Washington State and was transferred to Alcatraz in the same year. In 1942, he was convicted of involuntary manslaughter after he stabbed a fellow inmate to death. His life-story was made famous by the Warner Brothers movie, "Murder in the First".

Robert Stroud, the "birdman of Alcatraz, was first convicted of manslaughter in 1909, after he brutally shot and murdered a bartender. Stroud was transferred from McNeil Island, Washington to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas where he began to develop a keen interest in birds.

He was allowed to breed them and maintain a lab. He was transferred to Alcatraz in 1942 to spend the rest of his days. The story of his life was made famous by the movie, "the birdman of Alcatraz", starring Burt Lancaster.

The army began sending military prisoners to the fort on Alcatraz Island in 1860 and for many years after the Civil War the island was used more and more for detaining prisoners. In 1907 Alcatraz was formally designated as a military prison and by 1912 a large concrete cell block was constructed which is still there today.

While under military control Alcatraz functioned mainly as a medium security prison. Over the years it became too expensive to operate and the War Department decided to close the prison in 1934 at which time the army transferred Alcatraz to the civilian Bureau of Prisons. In the 1920's and 30's prohibition and the Great Depression were responsible for a steep increase in criminal activity. Alcatraz was where the most hardened criminals ended up.

No convicts were ever sentenced to Alcatraz, all of the inmates sent there were transferred there from other federal prisons. Alcatraz was now a maximum security prison with minimum privileges. Prisoners at Alcatraz had only four rights. Food, clothing, shelter, and medical care. Everything else was considered a privilege and had to be earned.

Castellammarese clan

A war between two rival factions of organized crime in America developed between the Masseria clan led by Joe "The Boss" Masseria and the Castellammarese clan led by Sal Maranzano. This was known as the "Castellammarese War". Maranzano would triumph with the help of mobsters Carlo Gambino , Charles "Lucky" Luciano , Albert Anastasia, Joe Adonis, Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegel and Vito Genovese.

In 1920 with the murder of Joseph Masseria the war ended uniting the two separate organized crime factions back into one organization now dubbed "Cosa Nostra (thing of ours)" by Salvatore Maranzano. Maranzano named his position "Capo di tutti capi" or "boss of bosses". Maranzano established the code of conduct for the organization along with the formation of the "families" divisions and structure. Maranzano then appointed the heads of the official "5 Families" of New York.

Most were already in command of there respective gangs but this made it official under "Cosa Nostra". 1) Masseria's gang would be given to Luciano, with Vito Genovese as his underboss (and would later become the Genovese Family) 2) The Mineo gang would now be headed by Frank Scalise (and would later be known as the Gambino Family) 3) Maranzano would continue to head his gang (which would become the Bonanno Family) 4) Gaetano Gagliano would take over Tom Reina's gang, and Tommy Lucchese would be his underboss (this would become the Lucchese Family) 5) Joe Profaci would keep his gang, since he stayed neutral during the war (this would later become the Colombo Family)

Maranzano also appointed Al Capone as boss of the Chicago faction, later to be known as "the Outfit". He also appointed Francisco Milano boss of the Cleveland Family and Stefano Magaddino boss of the Buffalo Family. Maranzano's rein would be short as he was killed within six months of becoming "boss of bosses" by Charles "Lucky" Luciano. Luciano was gaining in power and Maranzano plotted to kill the young upstart but Luciano was tipped off and struck first ordering the murder of Maranzano.


Charles "Lucky" Luciano would go on to form the Mafia "Commission". The Commission would become the controlling government of the mafia , each family boss would have a seat on the commission and a vote in setting mafia policy and settling disputes between families. The original Commission included bosses from six of the seven original families formed by Maranzano including all 5 New York Families.

Meyer Lansky (July 4, 1902 January 15, 1983) was a gangster who, with Charles "Lucky" Luciano, was instrumental in the development of The Commission (and possibly the "National Crime Syndicate") in the United States. Lansky developed a gambling empire which ranged from Saratoga, Miami, Las Vegas and was officially in charge of gambling concessions in Cuba.

He was appointed by Fulgencio Batista y Zaldar. Although a member of the Jewish Mafia, Lansky undoubtedly played a central role in the Italian Mafia's organization and consolidation of the criminal underworld (although the full extent of this role has come under some debate). Immigration and childhood Meyer Lansky was born Majer Suchowli?ski into a Jewish family in Grodno (now part of Belarus) to Max Suchowli?ski and his wife Yetta.

In 1911 the family emigrated to the United States and settled on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, New York. While Lansky was in school, he allegedly met young Charles "Lucky" Luciano, who tried to shake him down (extort money).

When Lansky refused to pay, Luciano was impressed with the younger boy's bravery and the two became friends for life. Lansky met Bugsy Siegel when he was a teenager. They also became lifelong friends, and together with Luciano, formed a lasting partnership. Lansky was instrumental in Luciano's rise to power by organizing the 1931 murder of Mafia powerhouse Salvatore Maranzano.

As a youngster, Siegel saved Lansky's life several times, a fact which Lansky always appreciated. The two adroitly managed the Bug and Meyer Mob despite its reputation as one of the most violent Prohibition gangs. Lansky was the brother of Jacob "Jake" Lansky, who in 1959 was the manager of the Nacional Hotel in Havana, Cuba. Gambling operations By 1936, Lansky had established gambling operations in Florida, New Orleans, and Cuba. In that same year, his partner Luciano was sent to prison.

As Alfred McCoy records: "During the 1930s, Meyer Lansky 'discovered' the Caribbean for Northeastern United States syndicate bosses and invested their illegal profits in an assortment of lucrative gambling ventures.... He was also reportedly responsible for organized crime's decision to declare Miami a 'free city' (i.e., not subject to the usual rules of territorial monopoly).

Lansky later convinced the Mafia to place Bugsy Siegel in charge of Las Vegas, and became a major investor in Siegel's Flamingo Hotel. After Al Capone's 1931 conviction for tax evasion and prostitution, Lansky saw that he too was vulnerable to a similar prosecution.

To protect himself, he transferred the illegal earnings from his growing casino empire to a Swiss numbered bank account, whose anonymity was assured by the 1934 Swiss Banking Act. According to Lucy Komisar, Lansky eventually even bought an offshore bank in Switzerland, which he used to launder money through a network of shell and holding companies.

War work In the 1930s, Meyer Lansky and his gang claims to have stepped outside their usual criminal activities to break up rallies held by Nazi sympathizers. Lansky recalled a particular rally in Yorkville, a German neighborhood in Manhattan, that he claimed he and 14 other associates disrupted: The stage was decorated with a swastika and a picture of Adolf Hitler. The speakers started ranting.

There were only fifteen of us, but we went into action. We threw some of them out the windows. Most of the Nazis panicked and ran out. We chased them and beat them up. We wanted to show them that Jews would not always sit back and accept insults.

However there is no evidence of these activities other than the assertions of Lansky himself, made at a time when he was attempting to rehabilitate his image. During World War II, Lansky was also instrumental in helping the Office of Naval Intelligence's Operation Underworld, in which the US government recruited criminals to watch out for German infiltrators and submarine-borne saboteurs.

According to Lucky Luciano's authorized biography, during this time, Lansky helped arrange a deal with the US Government via a high-ranking U.S. Navy official. This deal would secure the release of Lucky Luciano from prison; in exchange the Italian mafia would provide security for the war ships that were being built along the docks in New York Harbor.

Ed Gein

Ed Gein is also known as The Butcher of Plainfield, The Plainfield Butcher, The Mad Butcher, The Plainfield Ghoul. A serial killer who served as the inspiration to numerous films, among them Psycho, The Silence of the Lambs, Maniac, Three on a Meathook, Deranged, Ed Gein, The Movie, and the Texas Chainsaw Massacre. He was born on August 27, 1906 in La Crosse, Wisconsin and lived with his domineering and fanatically religious mother, Augusta, and his older brother, Henry, on a 195-acres family homestead outside Plainfield, Wisconsin.

His father, George, a no-good alcoholic, and much despised by Augusta, died in 1940, aged 67. His brother abruptly followed suit in 1944, aged 43 (he died in a mysterious and suspicious brush fire). Ed's mother passed away a year later, on December 29, 1945, aged 67.

Ed remained all alone and subsisted on Federal farm subsidies and his occasional bouts as the community's itinerant handyman and babysitter. After his mother died, Ed sealed the upper floor as a shrine, and lived in a single room by the kitchen. He accumulated a library of anatomy books, porn magazines, horror and adventure novels, historical accounts of the Nazi medical experiments in Auschwitz and elsewhere, and medical encyclopedias.

At night, he performed rudimentary surgeries on exhumed and decomposing female bodies about whose death he learned from the obituaries in the local paper. His semi-retarded friend Gus helped him dig up the graves, including, reportedly, the body of Ed's own mother.

Even at this early necrophiliac phase, Gein kept the victims' internal organs and draped himself with the flayed skins or fitted them onto a tailor's mummy. Around the house, he wore women's panties stuffed with excised vaginas. Contrary to rumour, he did not have sex with the bodies. They smelled too bad, he explained.

Criminology is the social-scientific study of crime as an individual and social phenomenon. Criminological research areas include the incidence and forms of crime as well as its causes and consequences. They also include social and governmental regulations and reactions to crime.

Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in the behavioural sciences, drawing especially on the research of sociologists and psychologists, as well as on writings in law. An important way to analyze data is to look at quantitative methods in criminology. In 1885, Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo coined the term "criminology" (in Italian, criminology). The French anthropologist Paul Topinard used it for the first time in French (criminology) around the same time.

 Night Stalker

Between June 1984 and August 1985, a Southern California serial killer dubbed the Night Stalker broke into victims' houses as they slept and attacked, murdering 13 and assaulting numerous others. With citizens on high alert, an observant teenager noticed a suspicious vehicle driving through his neighborhood on the night of August 24, 1985.

He wrote down the license plate and notified police. It just so happened that the Night Stalker's latest attack took place that night in that area, so police tracked down the car. It had been abandoned, but police found a key piece of evidence inside: a fingerprint.

Using new computer system, investigators quickly matched the print to 25-year-old Richard Ramirez and plastered his image in the media. Within a week, Ramirez was recognized and captured by local citizens. He was sentenced to death and currently sits in prison on death row.

Sharon Tate

On the night of August 8, 1969, Charles "Tex" Watson, Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkel, and Linda Kasabian were sent by Charlie to the old home of Terry Melcher at 10050 Cielo Drive. Their instructions were to kill everyone at the house and make it appear like Hinman's murder, with words and symbols written in blood on the walls.

The four did as they were told and brutally killed Steven Parent, Jay Sebring, Wojciech Frykowski, Abigail Folger, Sharon Tate and Sharon Tate's unborn child.The next day Manson, Tex Watson, Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkel, Steve Grogan, Leslie Van Houten, and Linda Kasabian went to the home of Leno and Rosemary Labianca. Manson and Watson tied up the couple and Manson left.

He told Van Houten and Krenwinkel to go in and kill the LaBiancas. The three separated the couple and murdered them, then had dinner and a shower and hitchhiked back to Spahn Ranch. Manson, Atkins, Grogan and Kasabian drove around looking for others to kill, but failed.

The F B I The relationship between fear of crime and Media is unclear. To put the dilemma in simple terms: do people fear crime because a lot of crime is being shown on television or does television just provide footage about crimes because people fear crime and want to see what's going on? The complex nature of crime could allow the media to exploit social naivety, covering crime not only selective, but also distorting the everyday world of crime.

Some say the media contribute to the climate of fear that is created, because the actual frequency of victimisation is a tiny fraction of potential crime. With crime accounting for up to 25 per cent of news coverage, the quality and angle of the coverage becomes an issue. The media displays violent crime disproportionately, whilst neglecting minor crimes. The profile of offenders in the media is distorted, causing misunderstanding of criminal offending.

The Crime Museum

The Crime Museum The Prisoners Property Act of 1869 gave authority for police to retain certain items of prisoners' property for instructional purposes, but it was the opening of the Central Prisoners Property Store on 25th April 1874 that provided the opportunity to start a collection. The store was housed in No. 1 Great Scotland Yard, which was at the rear of the Commissioner's Office at No. 4, Whitehall Place.

The idea of a crime museum was conceived by an Inspector Neame who had already collected together a number of items, with the intention of giving police officers practical instruction on how to detect and prevent burglary, and it is certain that by the latter part of 1874, although it was not described as such, a museum of sorts was in existence. It was later that year that the official authority was given for a proper crime museum to be opened.

Hervey Cleckley

A serial killer is a person who murders three or more people with a 'cooling off' period between each murder and whose motivation for killing is largely based on psychological gratification. One hypothesis is that all serial killers suffer from some form of Antisocial Personality Disorder.

They are usually not psychotic, and thus may appear to be quite normal and often even charming, a state of adaptation which Hervey Cleckley calls the "mask of sanity." There is sometimes a sexual element to the murders.

The murders may have been completed/attempted in a similar fashion and the victims may have had something in common, for example occupation, race, or sex. The term serial killer is said to have been coined by Michigan State University alumnus and FBI agent Robert Ressler in the 1970s. Serial killer entered the popular vernacular in large part due to the widely publicized crimes of Ted Bundy and David Berkowitz in the middle years of that decade.

Bonnie Parker

America has long had a fascination with bank heists and the lawless individuals who carry out these brazen crimes. Whether motivated by the element of danger, the rush of adrenaline, or our unexplainable desire to root for the bad guy, we've managed to turn Wild West and Depression-era bank robbers into folk heroes.

This has been perpetuated by Hollywood through films like The Italian Job, Reservoir Dogs, and Heat, which romanticize the audacious lifestyle of bank robbers In this article, we'll take a look at four of the most well-known bank robbers, examining how they got their start in crime, discussing their most famous robberies, and revealing how they eventually met their demise. Patty Hearst After being kidnapped and held for ransom by the Symbionese Liberation Army, Patty Hearst famously joined the SLA and took part in the robbery of Hibernia Bank in San Francisco.

The SLA got away with $10,000, but Hearst was arrested in 1975 and sentenced to 35 years in prison for her involvement in the robbery. Hearst's trial gained a lot of public attention when her attorney decided to use the argument of Stockholm syndrome in defense of Hearst's actions.

Hearst ended up serving only 22 months of her sentence and eventually received a full pardon from President Clinton in 2001. Butch Cassidy Along with his partner, the Sundance Kid (aka Harry Alonzo Longabaugh), Butch Cassidy terrorized banks and trains throughout the American West in the late 1800s. Cassidy, whose given name was Robert Leroy Parker, committed his first bank robbery in 1889, making off with around $21,000 from the San Miguel Valley Bank in Telluride, Colorado.

This heist set Cassidy down a career path as a bank robber during which he was a member of the Wild Bunch, an infamous group who victimized banks and trains throughout Idaho, Utah, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Nevada. After fleeing to Argentina in 1901 with the Sundance Kid and Etta Place, Cassidy pulled off his largest robbery yet, stealing nearly $100,000 from the Banco de Tarapacá y Argentino.

After moving around and committing crimes throughout South America for a few years, Cassidy was eventually killed in a gunfight with Bolivian law enforcement in 1908. John Dillinger John Herbert Dillinger was labeled as ‘Public Enemy No.1' by J. Edgar Hoover and the FBI for his crime spree during the early 1930s. Dillinger's rap sheet includes multiple prison escapes and the pilfering of money safes at nearly 24 banks and four police stations.

In 1934, after managing to evade authorities and rack up several thousand dollars in stolen money and goods from his criminal activities, Dillinger was shot and killed while attending a film at the Biograph Theatre in Chicago. Bonnie and Clyde Clyde Barrow and Bonnie Parker are perhaps the most famous crime couple in U.S. history, with their story being the subject of a 1967 feature film and a 2013 TV mini-series. The duo operated during the same time as John Dillinger, making the years between 1930 and 1935 especially dangerous to be a bank employee or law enforcement officer.

From the moment they met each other in 1930, Bonnie and Clyde were nearly inseparable. Starting with their first bank robbery in 1932, Bonnie and Clyde, along with multiple accomplices, would go on to rob half-a-dozen banks and kill a total of nine lawmen. The media-fueled crime spree of Bonnie and Clyde came to a bloody end in 1934 when their stolen Ford V8 was pumped full of bullets by a posse of Texas police officers led by Frank Hamer.

Myra Hindley

During the 1960s, Ian and his girlfriend, Myra Hindley, sexually abused and murdered young children and teens then buried their bodies along the Saddleworth Moor, in what became known as the Moor Murders. Ian Brady's Youth: At an early age Ian Brady was enthralled by the human atrocities that took place in Nazi Germany. His interest in sadism intensified by reading books on torture and sadomasochism, particularly the writings of Friedrich Nietzche and Marquis de Sade.

A Troubled Teen: Brady demonstrated an above average intelligence but his laziness shadowed his academic success. He was placed on probation for a series of small crimes and sent to a borstall, a school for troubled teens. Brady, no longer interested in making a legitimate living, used the time of his incarceration to educate himself about crime.

Ian Bradley and Myra Hindley Meet: After leaving the borstall he had various jobs, one being at Millwards Merchandising. It was there that he met Myra Hindley and together they began the horrific torture, rape, and murder of young girls and boys.

Fred West

Fred West Between 1967 and 1987, he and his wife Rosemary tortured, raped and murdered at least 12 young women, many at the couple's homes. The majority of the murders occurred between May 1973 and September 1979 at the couple's home in Gloucester. Rose also murdered Fred's daughter Charmaine while he was serving a prison sentence for theft.

Most of the victims were lodgers who lived relatively transient lives and whose disappearance would not attract great police attention, apart from the murder of Lucy Partington, which did.Fred West was born in Bickerton Cottage, Much Marcle, Herefordshire, to Walter Stephen West and Daisy Hannah Hill, a poor family of farm workers.

He was the first of their seven children (Walter had been married before, in 1937 at the age of 23 to Gertrude Maddocks, who died after apparently being stung by a bee in 1939). It is believed that incest was an accepted part of the West household, and that Walter taught him bestiality from an early age. Fred recalled, in police interviews, that his father had said on many occasions "Do what you want, just don't get caught doing it". It has been rumoured that Fred's mother slept with her son on his 13th birthday, and as a result, he lost his virginity to her.

The FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list arose from a conversation held in late 1949, during a game of Hearts between J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation, and William Kinsey Hutchinson, International News Service (the predecessor of the United Press International) Editor-in-Chief, who were discussing ways to promote capture of the FBI's "toughest guys."

This discussion turned into a published article, which received so much positive publicity that on March 14, 1950, the FBI officially announced the list to increase law enforcement's ability to capture dangerous fugitives.

The list itself has no particular ranking. This may be because the FBI does not want to promote competition between criminals to gain the Number 1 spot. However, the FBI has in the past identified individuals by the sequence number in which each individual has appeared on the list.

The Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway

The Sarin gas attack on the Tokyo subway refers to the 1995 incident when members of AUM Shinrikyo released sarin gas on several lines of the Tokyo Subway in an act of domestic terrorism. 12 people died and some 6000 were injured as a result of the attack.

Aum Shinrikyo was a Japanese millenarian cult (they have since renamed their organization as Aleph) centered on the charismatic leader Asahara Shoko, whose teachings combined elements of Buddhism and Hinduism as well as millenarian Christianity, including yoga, meditation, and breathing exercises. Central to the group's teachings is that the apocalypse is near.

The name "AUM Shinrikyo" derives from the Buddhist mantra "om," followed by the Japanese word meaning "supreme truth". The Japanese police have said that the nerve gas attack was the cult's way of hastening the apocalypse.

AUM attracted people from all walks of life. The group employed mind control techniques on its followers, including the use of drugs and of sleep- and food-deprivation. Members lived in communes, cut off relations with outsiders, including their families, and gave all their savings to the cult.

Johnny Torrio

Alphonse Gabriel "Scarface Al" Capone was born on January 17, 1899 in Brooklyn NY, the son of Italian immigrants. He was a gang member in his youth and moved to Chicago in 1920 to avoid prosecution for two murders of which he was suspected. He went to work for Chicago crime boss Johnny Torrio, whose bootlegging business was rising due to the beginning of Prohibition. When Chicago elected a reform mayor in 1923 that put pressure on gangs operating in Chicago, Capone moved his organization to nearby Cicero.

Within a year Capone completely dominated Cicero after waging a turf war with the rival O'Donnell gang in which over 200 people were murdered and many others sent to the top 10 hospitals in Illinois. In 1925 Torrio, after an assassination attempt, gave his gang to Capone and returned to his native Italy, and Capone's Chicago Outfit became the main criminal organization in Chicago.

Capone's gang earned over ten million dollars per year selling bootlegged liquor which was obtained from Canada, from East Coast rum runners, and also from local moonshine stills. With the money earned from bootlegging Capone was able to buy control of the Chicago political and police establishments - including bribing Chicago's mayor William Hale Thompson - which allowed him to operate his speakeasies and casinos free of legal harassment. Capone's major enemies were rival gang leaders such as Bugs Moran, Dion O'Banion, and Earl "Hymie" Weiss.

These opponents attempted to assassinate Capone many times - he was shot in a restaurant, his car was machine gunned various times, and a gang attack was made on his headquarters. Over time - and with such dramatic acts of vengeance as the infamous St. Valentine's Day massacre of the Moran gang - Capone eliminated most of his opposition and acquired most of the power in Chicago.

His great wealth enabled Capone to live a luxurious existence of expensive clothing, gourmet food, jewelry, and women. He also branched out into other criminal enterprises including gambling and prostitution. Capone himself liked to screen new prostitutes, which resulted in his contracting syphilis (which hospitals in Chicago area couldn't cure, and from which he eventually died).

Capone became a celebrity and freely granted press interviews, and cultivated the image of a community benefactor. He began a free school milk program to help fight rickets in Chicago's school children, and during the Great Depression he opened up soup kitchens for the homeless and poor.

He enjoyed rodeos and circuses, and he bought up large blocks of tickets to these events and gave them away free in poor neighborhoods. Capone also loved opera as well as New Orleans jazz, and his speakeasies showcased rising talents such as Louis Armstrong. His Cotton Club nightclub featured new stars such as Bing Crosby and Charley Parker.

Capone's image in Chicago was that of a loveable outlaw who defied the despised Prohibition, and who was a benefactor to the poor and a patron of charities such as Chicago occupational health services. His notoriety and flagrant violation of federal law eventually brought the U.S. treasury department down on him, and in 1931 Capone was tried in a federal court and sentenced to eleven years in prison, most of which he spent at Alcatraz. He tried to be a model prisoner, and as a result was unpopular with the other inmates. In prison he had lost weight, and his mental and physical health had deteriorated, so he was no longer able to run his criminal organization.

He was released in 1939 sick and showing the signs of syphilitic dementia, but he eschewed the top 10 hospitals in Illinois and other hospitals in Chicago area to enter a hospital in Palm Island, Florida for treatment. He suffered an apoplectic stroke on January 21, 1947, and without the help of Chicago occupational health services he died of cardiac arrest four days later.

The Mafia

The origins of the mafia phenomenon dating back to the Middle Ages, when Sicily was under foreign domination and obedience wealthy families obtained through formal social control of land. The Mafia, organizationally, did not have a hierarchy, but was composed of autonomous groups who called themselves "men of honor." In those years, the landed aristocracy allied with social leaders and created a conservative power structure and stable, a strategy that allowed it to retain its dominance in Sicily thereafter.

Guided by a code of conduct called Omerta, the Mafia has quickly become an organization completely outside the law. The mob forced the code to be against justice, and also avoid any contact with her.In the early twentieth century, some members of this organization migrated to North America, specifically to the United States, thus spreading internationally clandestine criminal organizations.

Over time, the U.S. became the center of all crimes of the Mafia, since this country was restricting gambling and alcohol, which led to a large smuggling.The history of the Mafia has served to understand the source, structure, functioning and control mechanisms of criminal organizations, which has been a useful tool to study how they operate smugglers, murderers and drug cartels in the world more dangerous. From 1920 began the golden age for international gangsters.

Sicilian criminals soon found followers worldwide, prompting the organization of organized crime groups in China, Russia, Cuba and the United States. The latter country was the favorite of these criminals, because it could easily be corrupted, to perform any illegal act at the time.

Al Capone

Here are the most renowned gangsters: Al Capone (1899-1947). He is also known as Scarface. It was the most important representation as to the history of the Mafia is concerned. It was noted for having the dirtiest business in the city of Chicago and for hosting the worst wars between the gangs of mobsters. By 1925, Al Capone became the owner of the Chicago underworld and his fortune amounted to one hundred million dollars.

He was persecuted by the law for years, but his ability to corrupt evaded any justice. Without clutch, after many years of persecution, Al Capone was caught for tax evasion and sentenced to eleven years in prison. He was transferred to Alcatraz federal prison and was granted after eight years parole.

Johnny Torrio (1882-1957). Famous for his illegal business conduct in a violent manner, this criminal was a mentor to Al Capone and a leader within the hierarchy of the gangster. In 1924 he had been shot while fighting another band. Dutch Schultz (1902-1935). It was called the Beer Capo, for conducting all negotiations of this drink smuggled into New York City. He was killed by the justice of this city for being a threat to the district attorneys.

John Lennon was shot four times in the back by Mark Chapman

John Lennon was shot four times in the back by Mark Chapman who had asked the former Beatle for his autograph only hours before he laid in wait and killed him. Chapman pleaded guilty to gunning down Mr Lennon and is currently serving life in Attica prison near New York.

In October 2004 he failed for the third time to secure his release. He said he had heard voices in his head telling him to kill the world-famous musician. Twenty years after his death millions of fans paid tribute to Mr Lennon in his home town of Liverpool and in New York.

In August of 1971 John Lennon, and his wife Yoko Ono, moved to New York, where they collaboratively released, Happy Xmas (War is Over). John projected his feminist side, creating songs with Ono about women's rights and race issues. Lennon followed this album with several other songs about equal rights and peace, as well as several television performances to make his music and message understood.

John Lennon had two children: Sean and Julian. Although Sean and Lennon's relationship was strained due to his fallouts with Ono, Lennon devoted much time with him after his retirement from the music business. Julian was much more into music, and got along better with his father.

Julian was even asked to play drums on "Ya Ya", a song from Lennon's 1974 album Walls and Bridges. In the late 1970's John Lennon and Yoko Ono took a hiatus from the world, living an extremely introverted lifestyle in Dakota, New York. On December 8, 1980 Lennon was shot by Mark Chapman, after autographing a copy of Double Fantasy. Ono made a statement at the time of Lennon's death, "There is no funeral for John. John Loved and prayed for the human race.

Please pray the same for him." Following the murder, "Imagine" topped the charts for an estimated eight weeks. Lennon and Ono's art installations were viewed more than ever, and his comic strip and caricatures were publicly released.

Also, after Lennon's death, Skywriting by Word of Mouth and Japan Through John Lennon's Eyes: A Personal Sketchbook, were also released. Some could say that Lennon's popularity rose to highest levels after his traumatic passing. Today, aside from John Lennon's music, over ten artistic monuments around the world have been created for the beloved artist.

The Atlanta Child Murders

The Atlanta Child Murders In a two year period between 1979 and 1981, 29 people -- almost all children -- were strangled by a serial killer. Police staked out a local river where other bodies had been dumped and arrested Wayne Williams as he was driving away from the sound of a splash in an area where a body was recovered a couple of days later.

Police didn't witness him drop the body, so their case was based largely on forensic evidence gathered from fibers found on the victims. In all, there were nearly 30 types of fiber linked to items from Williams' house, his vehicles and even his dog. In 1982, he was convicted of killing two adult victims and sentenced to life in prison, although the Atlanta police announced that Williams was responsible for at least 22 of the child murders.

Robert ‘Ted’ Bundy

Robert ‘Ted’ Bundy (November 24, 1946 – January 24, 1989) is one of the most infamous serial killers in U.S. history. Bundy raped and murdered scores of young women across the United States between 1974 and 1978. After more than a decade of vigorous denials, Bundy eventually confessed to 30 murders, although the actual total of victims remains unknown.

Typically, Bundy would rape then murder his victims by bludgeoning, and sometimes by strangulation. He also engaged in necrophilia. He would approach a potential victim in a public place, even in daylight or in a crowd, as when he abducted Ott and Naslund at Lake Sammamish or when he kidnapped Leach from her school. Bundy had various ways of gaining a victim’s trust.

Sometimes, he would feign injury, wearing his arm in a sling or wearing a fake cast, as in the murders of Hawkins, Rancourt, Ott, Naslund, and Cunningham. At other times Bundy would impersonate an authority figure; he pretended to be a policeman when approaching Carol DaRonch. The day before he killed Kimberly Leach, Bundy approached another young Florida girl pretending to be “Richard Burton, Fire Department,” but left hurriedly after her older brother arrived.

Serial killers

Serial killers always make interesting research. Their crimes, methods, and bizarre thought behaviours never cease to amaze us. Sadly, the most interesting ones often involve the cases that continue to baffle authorities. The name of this case is derived from the Green River, a river that begins in Washington State and empties into the Puget Sound in Seattle. Nearby the river is the Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, built in 1942. As with any international airport, the area around it quickly grew as businesses sprouted to cater to the many travelers who crossed through its gates.

One major throughway near the airport is Aurora Avenue. Just off the Pacific Coast Highway, Aurora Avenue is known casually as the Sea-Tac Strip. This hustle and bustle Strip is a haven of dingy clubs, seedy motels, and of course, many prostitutes. On any given night, hundreds of prostitutes could be seen hanging around the street corners propositioning passengers as they drove by. When a customer was found and a transaction initiated, they could simply take their tricks to one of the nearby motels or one of the many vacant buildings or empty side streets.

These empty buildings and dingy streets are not the result of an area gone into decay but rather the result of the airport’s desire for expansion. The airport purchased much of the land around the airport and then terminated utilities leading to the buildings. The result? Lots of vacant abandoned buildings and empty streets that make ideal locations for the prostitutes to conduct their business. During the early 80’s this ghost town of deserted houses, businesses, and shops became the scene of one of the most baffling serial killing cases this country has ever witnessed.


Reginald "Reggie" Kray (24 October 1933 1 October 2000) and Ronald "Ronnie" Kray (October 24, 1933 17 March 1995) were identical twin brothers, and the foremost organised crime leaders dominating London's East End during the 1950s and 1960s. Ronald, commonly referred to as Ron or Ronnie, was bisexual in a period when it was illegal in the UK, and suffered from paranoid schizophrenia. The Krays were involved in armed robberies, arson, protection rackets, violent assaults including torture and the murders of Jack "The Hat" McVitie and George Cornell.

As West End nightclub owners they mixed with well-known names such as Diana Dors, Frank Sinatra, Judy Garland as well as politicians. This gave them a perceived respectability and in the 1960s became celebrities in their own right being photographed by the likes of David Bailey and appearing in interviews on television. They were eventually arrested on May 9, 1968 and convicted in 1969 by the efforts of a dedicated squad of detectives led by Detective Superintendent Leonard ("Nipper") Read, and were both sentenced to life imprisonment.

The elderly have a dominant role in fear of crime research and societal understanding of the fear of crime. Once the dispassionate domain of academics and government researchers, the fear of crime has become a currency of political competition and a cultural preoccupation.Before the 60s in a time before adequate crime victim surveys, it was assumed that the elderly were the category of people at the highest risk of victimization.

The myth of great elderly victimization included elderly suffering greater financial and physical harm as a result of victimization, a greater amount psychological trauma as a result of crime and the highest fear of crime in comparison to other members of the community. However with the publication of survey data results in the 1980s, higher crime rates and more severe consequences for elders were no longer valid assumptions.

Although the evidence details the myths surrounding elderly victimization, the elderly still have a fear of crime problem. Studies have continually found that persons over the age of 65 have the lowest victimization rates of any age group, yet they have the greatest fear of crime, in addition the elderly are likely to encounter crime that is motivated by economic gain such as burglary and theft, and least likely to suffer violent crimes.

Serial killers suffer from Antisocial Personality Disorder and appear normal or charming, sometimes referred to as the "mask of sanity." Sometimes there is a sexual element to the murders and they may have a commonality such as gender, occupation, appearances, race, etc. The term serial killer was coined in the 1970s due to cases such as Ted Bundy and David Berkowitz. According to an FBI Behavioural Unit study 85% of the world's serial killers are in America.

At any given time 20 - 50 unidentified active serial killers are at work continually changing their targets and methods. Prostitutes, runaways, and others who lead transient and anonymous lives are usually not reported missing promptly and receive little police or media attention. Experts speculate on what happens to unsolved cases of murderers. Some may commit suicide, die, be incarcerated, in mental institutions, relocate, or stopped killing; a few turn themselves in.

Female serial killers have always been something of an anomaly in criminology and a puzzle for law enforcement. As Eric Hickey (1991) describes them, "These are the quiet killers, every bit as lethal as male serial murderers, but we are seldom aware of one in our midst because of the low visibility of their killing". One of the first writers on female criminality, Otto Pollak, also said that most female crime is hidden. Kelleher & Kelleher (1998) argue that female serial killers are more successful, careful, precise, methodical, and quiet in committing their crimes.

They examined 100 cases since 1900 and found an average duration of 8 years before being caught double that of the male serial killer. Alarid, Marquart, Burton, Cullen et. al. (1996) conducted interviews with convicted female offenders and found 86% of them assumed a secondary follower role during criminal events by either working with a male or female accomplice. On the other hand, feminists and people of conscience maintain that the academic literature on female crime is fraught with misconception and that popular mythology detracts from the real reality of women as victims of crime.

The Bow Street Runners

The Bow Street Runners have been called London's first professional police force. They were founded in 1749 by the author Henry Fielding and originally numbered just eight. Similar to the unofficial 'thief-takers' (men who would solve petty crime for a fee), they represented a formalisation and regularisation of existing policing methods.

What made them different from the thieftakers was their formal attachment to the Bow Street magistrates' office, and that they were paid by the magistrate with funds from central government. They worked out of Fielding's office and court at No.4 Bow Street, and did not patrol but served writs and arrested offenders on the authority of the magistrates, travelling nationwide to apprehend criminals.

When Henry Fielding retired as 'court' or Chief Magistrate in 1754 he was succeeded by his brother John Fielding, who had previously been his assistant for four years. Known as the "Blind Beak of Bow Street", John Fielding refined the patrol into the first truly effective police force for the capital, later adding officers mounted on horseback.

Although the force was only funded intermittently in the years that followed, it did serve as the guiding principle for the way policing was to develop over the next eighty years: Bow Street was a manifestation of the move towards increasing professionalism and state control of street life, beginning in London.

John Herbert Dillinger

John Herbert Dillinger (June 22, 1903 July 22, 1934) was an American bank robber, considered by some to be a dangerous criminal, while others idolized him as a latter-day Robin Hood. He gained this reputation (and the nickname "Jackrabbit") for his graceful movements during bank heists, such as leaping over the counter (a movement he supposedly copied from the movies) and narrow getaways from police.

His exploits, along with those of other criminals of the 1930s Depression era, such as Bonnie and Clyde and Ma Barker, dominated the attentions of the American press and its readers during what is sometimes referred to as the public enemy era, between 1931 and 1935, a period which led to the further development of the modern and more sophisticated FBI.Dillinger embraced the criminal lifestyle behind bars, learning the ropes from seasoned bank robbers like Harry Pierpont of Muncie, Indiana and Russell "Boobie" Clark of Terre Haute.

The men planned heists that they would commit soon after they were released. Once Dillinger was released from Indiana State Prison at Michigan City, he helped conceive a plan for the escape of Pierpont, Clark and several others, most of whom worked in the prison laundry.

The group known as the "first Dillinger gang" included Pierpont, Clark, Charles Makley, Edward W. Shouse, Jr., of Terre Haute, Harry Copeland, "Oklahoma Jack" Clark, Walter Dietrich and John "Red" Hamilton. Homer Van Meter and Lester Gillis (a.k.a. Baby Face Nelson) were among those who joined the "second Dillinger gang" after he escaped from the county jail at Crown Point, Indiana.

Among Dillinger's more celebrated exploits was his pretending to be a sales rep for a company that sold bank alarm systems. He reportedly sauntered into a number of Indiana and Ohio banks and used this ruse to assess security systems and bank vaults of prospective targets.

Another time, the gang pretended to be part of a film company that was scouting locations for a "bank robbery" scene. Bystanders stood and smiled as a real robbery ensued and Dillinger and friends rode off with the loot. Stories such as this (doubtlessly embellished with each telling) only served to increase Dillinger's burgeoning legend which the depression era tabloid press fanned with abandon.

Dillinger was believed to have been associated with gangs who robbed dozen banks of a total of more than $300,000, an enormous sum in the Depression era, totaling nearly five million dollars inflation adjusted.

Geographer Borden Dent, in his article Brief History of Crime Mapping, traces the origin of the mapping of crime to France, where in 1829 Adriano Balbi and André Michel Guerry created maps that showed the relationship between violent and property crimes and educational levels. Within a few decades this approach visually displaying differences in crime across geographic units had spread to England and Ireland. In 1849, Joseph Fletcher created maps that showed the rate of male incarceration for serious property and violent crimes across counties in England and Wales, and in 1861, Henry Mayhew presented a number of maps displaying the English and Welsh county rates for a variety of crimes: rape, assault, bigamy, and abduction, among others.

These early maps are examples of choropleth maps that is, maps that display quantities of things in areas. More specifically, in choropleth maps geographical areas are divided into multisided figures called polygons, which are then shaded depending on the value of the variable being displayed. Balbi and Guerrys maps, for example, were shaded with crayon to show different levels in education.

More modern choropleth maps are familiar to anyone who followed the most recent election returns: a map of the United States with each state shaded red or blue depending on the party of the senatorial victor is a very basic choropleth map.

Sociologists, particularly those associated with the University of Chicago, began using mapping in the first few decades of the 1900s. Among the earliest were Progressive Movement social work educators Sophonsiba Breckenridge and Edith Abbott, who, in 1912, mapped where delinquent children had lived in Chicago over the period 1899 to 1903.

This map, with each dot standing for one home, is an example of a point map that is, a map in which points representing particular geographical locations, be they addresses or XY coordinates, are the main data element. Perhaps the best known maps in criminology were created by the Chicago School sociologists Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay, who constructed a choropleth map using aggregations of addresses of close to 3,000 male delinquents in Chicago for the period 1927 to 1933. The map featured polygon shading to indicate rates of delinquency.

Like Breckenridge and Abbott, Shaw and McKay also constructed point maps of the locations of the homes of about 10,000 male delinquents who had come before the juvenile court of Cook County in the years 1934 to 1940. Shaw and McKay noted that the spatial distribution of juvenile delinquents homes remained fairly constant over these differing time spans, despite the fact that there was a high degree of residential mobility in various areas of Chicago.

Their work, with that of others, gave rise to the social ecology approach to studying crime. This approach assumes that crime is to a large extent caused by community- and neighbourhood-level variables, such as land use, infant mortality rates, mental disorders, tuberculosis, and the percentages of minorities and families on social assistance.

It is worth noting that all the maps described above were made without the benefit of computers. The underlying base maps that is, the maps showing streets, roads, and other major features such as water and railroads had been drawn by hand. Each point was located manually, and polygons were shaded using ink, pencil, or crayon.

Creation of a single map could take many, many hours of tedious labour. In one sense, crime mapping was an idea that arose before its time, before the requisite technology was available. It illustrates what Sean Gilfillan in The Sociology of Invention defined as the uselessness of premature invention an invention which for any reason did come before its time remains useless and undeveloped until its proper day dawns.

The proper day for crime mapping did not come until developments in computer technology made it feasible to run mapping programs on relatively inexpensive desktop computers. Even with the advent of computers, generating a crime map was no small feat, as geographer and criminologist Keith Harries has noted in Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice. Mapping with gigantic mainframe computers was still extremely labor-intensive. First, there was the work involved in describing the boundaries of the map with numbered coordinates on punched cards.

Then came the labor of keypunching the cards, followed by a similar process of coding and keypunching to put the data on the map. Such labour intensiveness meant that few police departments could afford to produce computerized crime maps. It wasn't possible for most agencies to afford crime mapping until desktop computers became widely available in the mid-1980s to early 1990s and microprocessor speed increased.

Death penalty remains one of the controversial issues not only in the United States but in the whole world as well. Death penalty has articulated itself as a debate characterized by rhetoric of pro death penalty ideals and con death penalty assertions. It should be noted that the debate on death penalty is not new in the world considering that death penalty has been used as a method of punishing criminals since time immemorial, although it may have gained momentum in the 20th century with enactment of human rights charter. For example, records on death penalty shows that the first man to receive this capital punishment was Daniel Frank, in the 15th century.

However, it is important to note that justification of death penalty varies from one society to the other and in contemporary world where everyone thinks the world is more liberalized than ever, death penalty is likely to receive support and criticism from different quarters in the society. Debate on death penalty is mainly constructed in realm of the causes and the effects it has on the society.

Those in support of death penalty mainly considers the causes while those in opposed to death penalty mostly consider the effects it has on the society, although both side borrows from causes and effects in articulating their claims. Unless amicable solution is reached on alternate punishment that equals capital crimes, the debate on death penalty will not be erased from public debate agenda in the near future.

Causes of death panalty The main cause of death penalty has to do with making retribution. In whichever way death penalty is considered, it is evident that the main reason why the society has perpetrated with this controversial form of punishment is individuals who have committed capital crime have to receive similar punishment that equals their crime .

Tracing historical development of death penalty, it can be realized that with time, it became a common form of punishment that ensured that those who had committed crimes that were not forgivable by the society received equal form of punishment.

Death penalty is deeply rooted in justice as articulated by natural law but it also goes against the same law. According to natural rights theory, every person has the right to live and should not be denied this right either by government or any other manmade law (Muhlhausen 23). However, death penalty is used as a form of punishing those who have committed crimes against natural law like first degree murder.

Death penalty is also against the same law because it involves taking away the life of the person which is against natural rights (Johnson 90). There is variation in administration of death penalty in the world depending on the degree of integration of human rights in the society. For example in China, anyone who is convicted of drug trafficking will receive death penalty while in United States, only those who are convicted of first degree murder receive death penalty.

In addition, people who are convicted of business related crimes or other crimes that are likely to have effects on the larger society are likely to be convicted of death penalty in China. Therefore, the root causes of death penalty arise from retribution. One of the main arguments against death penalty based on the root causes has been wrong conviction. There are thousands of people in the world who have wrongly faced the hangman noose though they were wrongly convicted .

Therefore, although the root cause of death penalty is to punish individuals who have committed capital offences, this may not always be the case considering the number of people who are wrongly convicted. Effects of death penalty The desired effect of death penalty on individuals and the society at large is deterrence, although more often than not, this is not achieved (Muhlhausen 63). In pursuit of retribution and restitution, the criminal justice system uses death penalty to deter individuals from committing similar capital offences.

The desired effect is that when people see individuals receive death penalty for capital offence, they are likely to be deterred from committing the same crime. There is no major difference between the desired effects in other forms of punishment and death penalty because they all desire to deter the society from committing similar crimes.

Although this desired effect is positive, death penalty usually has negative effects on the society. If death penalty really deterred people from committing capital offences, then we should not have a row of convicts waiting to face the hangman's noose (Smith 77).

One of the major effects of death penalty is on the society. According to sociology theories, every individual plays an important role in the society, being a child, a father, or a mother and as a member of the society. When this individual is taken away from the society, it means one part of the society is usually taken away (Andrews 27). Death penalty causes a lot of disruption in the society. Losing one member of the society means that the roles that he or she used to play will have to be taken by other people and this leads to disorientation of individual roles in the society.

For example, when a married man is hanged, his family is left without a bread winner. This role has to be taken up by another person be it the mother, close relative, or the society at large. While this aspect may look at economic aspect alone, it is also important to consider the emotional effect this will have on children and their mother.

The emotional support they used to get from their father will not be easily taken by another member of the society (Melissa). Therefore, one effect of death penalty is that it leads to disorientation of societal roles and causes a lot of disruption in the society. The burden and pain of death penalty is borne by those who are left behind .

Children left without a mother or a father have to chart their own way in life while wives left without husbands or husbands left without wives have to bear the duty of raising the family alone. Alternatives to death penalty In light of the above causes and effects, it becomes evident there is need for alternatives to death penalty. Statistical review on death penalty clearly shows that it is not a solution to capital offence.

If death penalty really deterred individuals from committing capital offences, then it would have already significantly reduced the number of capital offenses. Although it is not wise to erase death penalty from the statutes, it would be only practical if alternative forms of punishment are developed as the society thinks of abolishing death penalty.

There are different alternatives that can be implemented in place of death penalty including community policing, rehabilitation, and life imprisonment. One of the alternatives to death penalty that is practiced in the world is life imprisonment.

In most countries where death penalty has been abolished, life imprisonment is preferred. It should also be noted that there are many countries that have not abolished death penalty but they have a record of more than 30 years without executing any death penalty convict (Robinson).

This means that most of those who continue to be convicted of death penalty in these countries receive life imprisonment. Life imprisonment comes without any possibility of a parole or restitution. This means that once the person has been convicted of death penalty, they will spend the rest of their life in prison.

In most survey on alternative to death penalty, life imprisonment is favored by 77% because people are assured that they person will not come back to the society (Center for Survey Research). Rehabilitation has been advanced as one of the most possible solution to the problem of death penalty.

As opposed to retribution, rehabilitation adopts the principle of restitution and it is geared towards restoring individuals back to the society as reformed people. Like any other crime, death penalty is committed for a reason. It is not possible that a person will one day take a gun and start shooting people without reason. Therefore, one of the most practical alterative to death penalty would be to rehabilitate this person and bring them back to the society as reformed individuals. Restitution has been considered one of the most important alternatives to death penalty (Melissa).

It is important to note that restitution should take place for a given number of years until when the person can be considered fit enough to be integrated back to the society. Most studies have suggested a restitution period of 30 years which means the person will serve in prison for a number 30 years without provision of parole (Robinson).

Research shows that on average, it takes between 10-20 years before a death sentence is carried out on a convict. This means that by the time death sentence is implement, we are executing a completely different person from the time he or she was first convicted. This proposal has been suggested as an improvement to life imprisonment, which is the alternative preferred by most countries that have abolished death penalty.

Restitution is proposed as the best measures because it would not make convicts serve a life imprison but they will be given a chance of being integrated back to the society once they have been considered reformed enough to go back to the society (Center for Survey Research).

As an alternative, restitution will not cost much les compared to capital punishment but it provides them with a chance to improve on their social relations. Restitution means that while the convict is incarcerated in jail, he or she will also be put to work and all the money he or she makes is given to his family.

This has been advanced as one of the most positive alternative because the person will continue helping those who depend on him or her while still being reformed. In addition, most of those who have been released after rehabilitation goes back and play an important role in the society.

They are involved in community outreach programs education the youths against violence. One disadvantage with this alternative is that most people who are released after the restitution period is over may actually go back to crime if they are not well monitored.

These individuals are also likely to face a hard time integrating with other members of the society who still perceive them as capital offenders. Therefore, this alternative should also involved education the society to accept the person back to the society as a reformed individual. The other alternative to death penalty is taking primary level of prevention.

This would be through different measures that are geared toward preventing actual occurrence of capital crime (Andrews 81). First, it would require the root cause of capital offences to be addressed. This means that issue of poverty, education, and others that have been attributed to increased cases of capital offenses must be addressed. Second, it would involve improving policing issues (Robinson).

Community policing has been suggested as one of the most important alternative to death penalty because it would prevent occurrence of the crime even before it happens. Community policing would assist the authority to move fast and prevent death penalty even before it has occurred.

When investigators are examining and studying crime from a scientific perspective, this is referred to as criminology. This includes the parallels between crime and different forms of phenomenon such as the development of particular types of laws. Criminology also works to identify how to address the criminal behaviour of criminals and how to eventually control the criminal element. Drawing on psychological and sociological research, criminologists are able to look at the different ways in which a criminal’s environment will affect them.

It can also help when it comes to profiling criminals in order to understand them and have a better chance of catching a criminal that is on the loose. By using criminology, individuals are able to not only profile a potential perpetrator, but they are also able to take a more intellectual look at how crime is perpetuated in our world and what steps can be taken in order to limit crime.

There are different schools of thought when it comes to how individuals approach the concept of criminology. Some of the most popular schools include those that are known as the Classical school, the Positivist school and the Chicago school.

These schools were developed over a period of time, ranging from the middle of the 19th century and continuing well into the 20th century with the Chicago school of thought. One of the main factors that differentiate the schools of thought would be how the criminologists view environment in the life of the criminal.

Some believe that the criminals have to take responsibility for their actions regardless of what is happening in the environment at the time, in line with the Classical movement, while others believe that criminals may be predisposed to crime, as is proposed by the Positivists.

The Chicago school of thought poses the possibility that criminals are able to learn deviant behaviours from others and that when social organizations, such as schools and neighbourhoods, are not organized they will not be able to control the criminal element that occurs.

By identifying how an individual feels that crime is either created or continued, it can provide the basis for the school of thought that the individual falls under when it comes to criminology. Criminology experts look at crime in a variety of different manners.

By defining the distinctions between the different types of crimes, it is easier to come up with theories as to how and why the crime took place. One type of crime would be those that go against core values. These seemingly natural laws are ones that are common among many different cultures, separated by time and space. Natural laws are those that are considered to be able to protect individuals and their property from abuse by others.

Some of the more controversial laws include statutes which are put into place by legal institutions. The relationship between state and citizen is explored in these laws, which is what causes the conflict in some instances.

As a result of looking at the different construction foundations behind laws, it is possible to understand the many different ways in which crimes are categorized. Organized crime, state crime, blue or white collar crimes and organized crime are some of the most popular types of crime that exist.

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