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The 20th century has provided one of the relatively rare breaks in world history. Previous similar periods, such as in the 5th or 15th centuries, have met the criteria that occur in the 20th century. First is a basic geographical re-balancing among major civilizations. In the 20th century the shift is a relative decline of the West due to two great world wars and the development of other societies.

Western population declined while growth soared in other regions. By 1980 just about all of the great Western colonial empires had disappeared; so had Western weapons dominance. In world trade and manufacture the West had been joined by important rivals.

A 2nd criteria involves increasing the intensity and extent of contact among civilizations. Innovations in all aspects of technology and culture now spread faster than ever before. There is no single world culture but great similarities are shared. The 3rd criteria is the presence of new and roughly parallel patterns among major civilizations.

The English language has evolved over the centuries from various influences: from the Celts ( who were the original Britons ), the Germanic Tribes, Anglo Saxons and Scandinavians which invaded during the 3rd Century onwards. Our language is still evolving and as an example the English spoken by Australians is very similar to London Cockney. The Australians even have their own version of Cockney Rhyming slang.

It is amazing that from a small country in size but not in outlook we have given the world so much like Shakespeare and great Leaders like Churchill, Nelson, Wellington, Marlborough who helped defeat various dictators like Cromwell, Napoleon, Stalin, Hitler. If the dictators had been successful, they would have changed the world and all our freedoms for ever.

This has given me the idea that it would be of interest to the reader on how many countries in the world use English as their official language.

A to Z of English Speaking Countries Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Barbados Beliza Botswana Brunei Cameroon Canada Dominica Ethiopia Fiji Gambia Ghana Grenada Guyana India Ireland Israel Jamaica Kenya Kiribati Lesotho Liberia Malawi Malta Marshall Islands Mauritius Micronesia Namibia Nauru New Zealand Nigeria Pakistan Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines Rwanda Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Lucia Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Samoa Seychelles Sierra Leone Singapore Solomon Islands South Africa Swaziland Tanzania Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United Kingdom United States Vanuatu Zambia Zimbabwe (Originally called Rhodesia)

magna carta

Magna Carta As might be expected, the text of Magna Carta of 1215 bears many traces of haste, and is clearly the product of much bargaining and many hands. Most of its clauses deal with specific, and often long-standing, grievances rather than with general principles of law.

Some of the grievances are self-explanatory: others can be understood only in the context of the feudal society in which they arose. Of a few clauses, the precise meaning is still a matter of argument. Radar – England Radar Development work in 1937 led to "beamed radar" for airborne sets and for Coastal Defense (CD) radar that operated on 1.5 m wavelength. The CD system was also called the Chain Home Low (CHL). The CHL used a rotating antenna, which rotated at 1-2.3 rpm and had a range of 160 km with an azimuth accuracy of 1.5 degrees.

The Navy used a similar set to the CHL. Called the type 281; it was tested on the HMS Dido in October of 1940 and the HMS Prince of Wales in January of 1941. Over 59 sets were produced during the war. This set could operated on a wavelength of 50 cm and it could locate ships up to a distance of 20 km.

Without Radar during the Battle of Britain GB would have lost the battle and been invaded shortly afterwards. World's First Computer England 1943 Colossus was built for the code-breakers at Bletchley Park by Tommy Flowers and his team of post office engineers in 1943.

Using standard post office equipment, Tommy Flowers developed a machine that could work at 5000 characters a second, four times faster than anything built before. He went on to develop Colossus Mark 2, which could work at five time faster than the original Colossus. The computer was as big as a room - 5 metres long, 3 metres deep and 2.5 metres high - and weighed over a ton.

Colossus worked by 'reading', through a photoelectric system, a teleprinter tape containing the letters of the coded message. It read 5,000 letters a second. All possible combinations of the coded message were checked with the cypher key generated by Colossus.

A teleprinter typed out the results of Colossus's search, revealing the settings which had been used by the Germans to send their messages. Ten Colossus Mark 2s were eventually built. A complete Mark 2 Colossus machine has recently been rebuilt and is on display at Bletchley Park. The information revealed by the code-breakers at Bletchley Park was called ULTRA. ULTRA was so secret that only those who needed to know about it - like the British Prime Minister, Winston Churchill - were told of its existence. The use of this first computer helped in the organising of the D-DAy Landings. If we hadn't had Colossus's then the war could have lasted longer or been lost.

Richard Trevithick

The Railways – England As an Englishman born and bred and a fan of history of steam Locomotives I thought it may be of interest to write an article about the history of the earliest steam locomotive. The first full scale working railway steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick in the United Kingdom on 21st February 1804 when the world's first railway journey took place as Trevithick's unnamed steam locomotive hauled a train along the tramway of the Penydarren ironworks, near Merthyr Tydfil in south Wales. This is different from the first Steam Engine which was first invented in 1653 by Edward Somerset (1601 – 1667) was an English nobleman.

On Christmas Eve 1801 in West Cornwall, England an engineer called Richard Trevithick took his new steam car, ( or the "Puffing Devil" as it became known) out for its first test run. After a number of years research, Trevithick had developed a high-pressure engine powered by steam. His vehicle was no more than a boiler on 4-wheels but it took Trevithick and a number of his friends half a mile up a hill.

The vehicle's principle feature was a cylindrical horizontal boiler and a single horizontal cylinder let into it. The piston propelled back and forth in the cylinder by pressure from the steam. This was linked by piston rod and connecting rod to a crankshaft bearing a large flywheel. The vehicle was used for several journeys until it turned over on the unsuitable trails that were used for pack horses in Cornwall at that time.

After having been righted, Trevithick and crew drove it back to Camborne and retired to a hostelry. The water level dropped in the boiler and the fusible plug melted, sending a jet of steam into the furnace where it blew embers all around, setting fire to the surroundings and the wooden parts of the engine. In 1802 a steam-powered coach designed by British engineer Richard Trevithick journeyed more than 160 km from Cornwall to London. The "Puffing Dragon" was the world's first passenger car.

Despite the disaster of losing his first vehicle, undeterred, Trevithick built a 3-wheeled steam carriage but this time complete with seats and a real carriage like appearance. In 1803, he drove it through London's Oxford Street on demonstration runs and reached speeds of 8-9 mph (13 - 14 km/h). Despite the runs, nobody was interested and so when he ran out of funds, he sold the power unit to a local Miller. Trevithick's vehicle was the first self-propelled carriage in the capital and in essence the first London bus.

Regular intercity bus services by steam-powered buses were also pioneered in England in the 1830s by Walter Hancock and by associates of Sir Goldsworthy Gurney among others, running reliable services over road conditions which were too hazardous for horse-drawn transportation. Steam carriages were much less likely to overturn, did not "run away with" the customer as horses sometimes did.

They travelled faster than horse-drawn carriages (24 mph over four miles and an average of 12 mph over longer distances). They could run at a half to a third of the cost of horse-drawn carriages. Their brakes did not lock and drag like horse-drawn transport (a phenomenon that increased damage to roads). According to engineers, steam carriages caused one-third the damage to the road surface as that caused by the action of horses' feet. Indeed, the wide tires of the steam carriages (designed for better traction) caused virtually no damage to the streets, whereas the narrow wheels of the horse-drawn carriages (designed to reduce the effort required of horses) tended to cause rutting.

However, the heavy road tolls imposed by the Turnpike Acts discouraged steam road vehicles and left the way clear for the horse bus companies, and from 1861 onwards, harsh legislation virtually eliminated mechanically-propelled vehicles altogether from the roads of Great Britain for 30 years, the Locomotive Act of that year imposing restrictive speed limits on "road locomotives" of 5 mph in towns and cities, and 10 mph in the country.

In 1865 the Locomotives Act of that year (the famous Red Flag Act) further reduced the speed limits to 4 mph in the country and just 2 mph in towns and cities, additionally requiring a man bearing a red flag to precede every vehicle. At the same time, the act gave local authorities the power to specify the hours during which any such vehicle might use the roads. The sole exceptions were street trams which from 1879 onwards were authorised under licence from the Board of Trade.

First manned flight

First Manned Flight – England -1849 Britains history is made up of many famous engineers all through their history. This has made me decide to write about one of the the most famous English Engineers called the "Father of Aviation" Sir George Cayley who flew the first manned flight in Brompton, England in 1849. Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 – 15 December 1857) was a prolific English Engineer, one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Many consider him the first true scientific aerial investigator and first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight.

In 1799 he set forth concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. Often known as "the father of Aerodynamics", he was a pioneer of aeronautical engineering. Is called the "Father of Aviation" and designer of the first successful glider to carry a human being aloft, he discovered and identified the four aerodynamic forces of flight — weight, lift, drag and thrust — which are in effect on any flight vehicle. Modern aeroplane design is based on those discoveries including cambered wings.

He is credited with the first major breakthrough in heavier-than-air flight and he worked over half a century before the development of powered flight. He designed the first actual model of an aeroplane and also diagrammed the elements of vertical flight. By 1804 Sir George Cayley had built his first model gliders which appeared similar to modern aircraft: a pair of large monoplane wings towards the front, with a smaller tailplane at the back comprising horizontal stabilisers and a vertical wing.

In 1809 Sir George Cayley was quoted as saying, "I feel perfectly confident that we shall be able to transport ourselves and families, and their goods and chattels, more securely by air than by water, and with a velocity of from 20 to 100 miles per hour." By 1810 Sir George Cayley had published his now-classic three-part treatise "On Aerial Navigation" which stated that lift, propulsion and control were the three requisite elements to successful flight, apparently the first person to so realize and so state.

By 1816 Sir George Cayley had turned his attention to lighter-than-air machines and designed a streamlined airship with a semi-rigid structure. He also suggested using separate gas bags to limit an airship's lifting gas loss due to damage. In 1837 Cayley designed a streamlined airship to be powered by a steam engine. 1832 to 1835 Sir George Cayley had served for the whig party as member of parliament for Scarborough, and helped found the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now University of Westminster), serving as its chairman for many years. He was a founding member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and was a distant cousin of the mathematician Arthur Cayley.

Around 1843 Sir George Cayley was the first to suggest the idea for a convertiplane, an idea which was published in a paper written that same year. During some point prior to 1849 Sir George Cayley designed and built a biplane powered with "flappers" in which an unknown ten-year-old boy flew. During 1853 Sir George Cayley with the continued assistance of his grandson George John Cayley and his resident engineer Thomas Vick, he developed a larger scale glider (also probably fitted with "flappers") which flew across Brompton Dale.

Later during 1853 the first adult aviator has been claimed to be either Cayley's coachman. One source (Gibbs-Smith) has suggested that it was John Appleby, a Cayley employee — however there is no definitive evidence to fully identify the pilot. The Plane Cayley built was a triplane glider (a glider with three horizontal wing structures) that carried his coachman 900 feet (275 meters) across Brompton Dale in the north of England before crashing. It was the first recorded flight by an adult in an aircraft. An obscure entry in volume IX of the 8th Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1855 is the most contemporaneous account with any authority regarding the event.

A 2007 biography of Cayley (Richard Dee's The Man Who Discovered Flight: George Cayley and the First Airplane) claims the first pilot was Cayley's grandson George John Cayley (1826-1878). Dee's book also reports the re-discovery of a series doodles from Cayley's school exercise book which suggest that Cayley's first designs concerning a lift-generating inclined plane may have been made as early as 1793.

A replica of the 1853 machine was flown at the original site in Brompton Dale in 1974 and in the mid 1980s by Derek Piggott. The glider is currently on display at the Yorkshire Air Museum. Another replica flew there in 2003, first piloted by Allan McWhirter and later by Richard Branson.

In 1857 Sir George Cayley died in Scarborough. There is a memorial to his life at Hull University at the Scarborough Campus. First Powered Car – England 1801 As an Englishman born and bred and a fan of history of steam buses I thought it may be of interest to write an article about the English history of the earliest steam Cars and Busses. On Christmas Eve 1801 in West Cornwall (UK) an engineer called Richard Trevithick took his new steam car, ( or the "Puffing Devil" as it became known) out for its first test run. After a number of years research, Trevithick had developed a high-pressure engine powered by steam.

His vehicle was no more than a boiler on 4-wheels but it took Trevithick and a number of his friends half a mile up a hill. The vehicle's principle feature was a cylindrical horizontal boiler and a single horizontal cylinder let into it. The piston propelled back and forth in the cylinder by pressure from the steam. This was linked by piston rod and connecting rod to a crankshaft bearing a large flywheel.

The vehicle was used for several journeys until it turned over on the unsuitable trails that were used for pack horses in Cornwall at that time. After having been righted, Trevithick and crew drove it back to Camborne and retired to a hostelry. The water level dropped in the boiler and the fusible plug melted, sending a jet of steam into the furnace where it blew embers all around, setting fire to the surroundings and the wooden parts of the engine.

Over the years, women's fashion has since been dictated by history, location and politics. A woman is expected to dress according to her status and what society deems acceptable. Looking back at history, women's role is told through the trends in clothing styles as depicted in hemlines, layers, footwear, and the overall fashion scene. The succeeding paragraphs will give you a short lesson in the history of women's fashion beginning with the 1900s.

In the 1900s, a woman's legs and feet were very rarely seen, and that is only when she's sitting. This meant that footwear wasn't given much attention. The popular clothing and shoes during this era were most dark colored with small buckles and silk bows as highlights. The popular footwear was shoes with pointed toes and moderate high heels. Instead of a bell, the skirts took a form similar to a cone when the Civil War ended. Clothing was typically starched heavily and the "shirt waist" similar to men shirts became the next fashion trend. By the 1920s, legs were given more attention, as characterized by the kind of clothes they were wearing during this era. Hemlines became shorter and women began to favour flesh colored stockings that went with their shoes. The costly silk stocking was used for evening wear, whereas ribbed and patterned styles (diamond-cut) became the fashion rage.

"Flapper" fashion was the trend of the Roaring 20s characterized by floating fabrics, girdles and handkerchief hemlines. The more "lady-like" type of women's clothing reappeared in the 1930s. The clothes had a feminine appearance; daytime look was crisp and clean, whereas glamorous was the general fashion statement at night. There were more choices when it comes to footwear as new styles of shoes were introduced, including sandals that were strappy and open-toed.

Some additions to the fashion scene of the decade were short-fitted suits and jackets, nylon was also introduced along with the sensational "little black dress." During the 1940s, the Second World War diminished the availability of leather shoes as well as the supply of some textiles and the situation made an impact on the fashion scene. Shoes with wooden soles became popular along with wedge heels. Hordes of clothing items were distributed and bought via a "coupon" system. Lace, ribbons, mending wool, suspenders and clogs were a few of the remaining non-rationed items.

Women started painting their footwear with bright colors and decorated the sides of their soles using small shells, studs, etc., to perk up their style. In the 1950s, women's fashion styles became more glamorous. Women's fashion was characterized with full, swoop-lined empire dresses, fancy suits and full skirts with petticoats. By this time, women were already wearing stiletto heel and elegant Italian shoes. Women were also seen wearing seamless stockings as well as beehive hairstyles.

Check out more online and shop now. The 1960s ushered in a more democratic attitude worldwide, even in the world of fashion. Skirts started growing much shorter until the "mini" appeared. By this time; women's pantyhose started replacing stockings. Flat boots and very short dresses became the trademark of this era. The 60s was also characterized by psychedelic textile prints, denim pants as well as the pill box hat.

vintage adds Mac sweets

Among the many social changes wrought by modern communications, perhaps none is so striking as our new found ability to learn about and react to violence. In an earlier age, cities, countries, and even civilizations could be swallowed up in bloodshed without other parts of the world even knowing about it.Today, tragedies in the farthest corner of the globe are comprehensively reported and widely discussed.
The system of attention and concern begins with the news media, which instantly bring us details of worldwide strife, but it doesn’t end there.

The world now has a vast network of scholars, academic centers, and think tanks specializing in war, genocide, and repression. In addition, many government agencies and international bodies keep records on terrorism, refugees, and military forces. Information on violence is made available to everyone through an extensive publishing system that generates vast quantities of books, reports, and Web pages.
The Library of Congress catalogue, for example, already contains fifty-one entries on the Rwanda genocide, an episode that occurred just six years ago in an obscure corner of the world. Another illustration of the intensity of modern record keeping is a recent book on the “troubles” of Northern Ireland that lists the names and circumstances of death of all 3,637 victims of the political infighting since 1970.

Today, tragedies in the farthest corner of the globe are comprehensively reported and widely discussed. The system of attention and concern begins with the news media, which instantly bring us details of worldwide strife, but it doesn’t end there. The world now has a vast network of scholars, academic centers, and think tanks specializing in war, genocide, and repression.

In addition, many government agencies and international bodies keep records on terrorism, refugees, and military forces. Information on violence is made available to everyone through an extensive publishing system that generates vast quantities of books, reports, and Web pages.

The Library of Congress Catalogue, for example, already contains fifty-one entries on the Rwanda genocide, an episode that occurred just six years ago in an obscure corner of the world. Another illustration of the intensity of modern record keeping is a recent book on the “troubles” of Northern Ireland that lists the names and circumstances of death of all 3,637 victims of the political infighting since 1970.
The Berlin wall

The Berlin Wall was erected in the dead of night and for 28 years kept East Germans from fleeing to the West. Its destruction, which was nearly as instantaneous as its creation, was celebrated around the world. At the end of World War II, the Allied powers divided conquered Germany into four zones, each occupied by either the United States, Great Britain, France, or the Soviet Union (as agreed at the Potsdam Conference). The same was done with Germany's capital city, Berlin.

As the relationship between the Soviet Union and the other three Allied powers quickly disintegrated, the cooperative atmosphere of the occupation of Germany turned competitive and aggressive. Although an eventual reunification of Germany had been intended, the new relationship between the Allied powers turned Germany into West versus East, democracy versus Communism.
 In 1949, this new organization of Germany became official when the three zones occupied by the United States, Great Britain, and France combined to form West Germany (the Federal Republic of Germany). The zone occupied by the Soviet Union quickly followed by forming East Germany (the German Democratic Republic).

This same division into West and East occurred in Berlin. Since the city of Berlin had been situated entirely within the Soviet zone of occupation, West Berlin became an island of democracy within Communist East Germany. Within a short period of time after the war, living conditions in West Germany and East Germany became distinctly different. With the help and support of its occupying powers, West Germany set up a capitalist society and experienced such a rapid growth of their economy that it became known as the "economic miracle." With hard work, individuals living in West Germany were able to live well, buy gadgets and appliances, and to travel as they wished.

Berlin wall

Nearly the opposite was true in East Germany. Since the Soviet Union had viewed their zone as a spoil of war, the Soviets pilfered factory equipment and other valuable assets from their zone and shipped them back to the Soviet Union. When East Germany became its own country, it was under the direct influence of the Soviet Union and thus a Communist society was established. In East Germany, the economy dragged and individual freedoms were severely restricted.

By the late 1950s, many people living in East Germany wanted out. No longer able to stand the repressive living conditions of East Germany, they would pack up their bags and head to West Berlin. Although some of them would be stopped on their way, hundreds of thousands of others made it across the border.
 Once across, these refugees were housed in warehouses and then flown to West Germany. Many of those who escaped were young, trained professionals. By the early 1960s, East Germany was rapidly losing both its labour force and its population.

Having already lost 2.5 million people by 1961, East Germany desperately needed to stop this mass exodus. The obvious leak was the easy access East Germans had to West Berlin. With the support of the Soviet Union, there had been several attempts to simply take over West Berlin in order to eliminate this exit point.

Although the Soviet Union even threatened the United States with the use of nuclear weapons over this issue, the United States and other Western countries were committed to defending West Berlin. Desperate to keep its citizens, East Germany decided to build a wall to prevent them from crossing the border.

The white youth of today have begun to react to the fact that the American Way of Life is a fossil of history. What do they care if their old bald headed and crew-cut elders don't dig their caveman mops? They couldn't care less about the old, stiff assed honkies who don't like their new dances: Frog, Monkey, Jerk, Swim, Watusi. All they know is that it feels good to swing to way-out body-rhythms instead of dragging across the dance floor like zombies to the dead beat of mind-smothered Mickey Mouse music.

Amelia Earhart

Amelia Earhart endures in the American consciousness as one of the world's most celebrated aviators. Amelia remains a symbol of the power and perseverance of American women, and the adventurous spirit so essential to the American persona.

Born in Atchison, Kansas on July 24, 1897, the daughter of a railroad attorney, she spent her childhood in various towns, including Atchison and Kansas City, Kansas and Des Moines, Iowa. At age 19, Amelia attended Ogontz School near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Two years later, after visiting her sister, Muriel, in Toronto, Canada, Amelia felt compelled to leave school.
Taking a course in Red Cross First Aid, Amelia enlisting as a nurse's aide at Spadina Military Hospital in Toronto, Canada, tending to wounded soldiers during World War I. The following year, Amelia enrolled as a premedical student at Columbia University in New York. Shortly thereafter, Amelia's parents insisted she move to California where they were living.

Learning to fly in California, she took up aviation as a hobby, taking odd jobs to pay for her flying lessons. In 1922, with the financial help of her sister, Muriel, and her mother, Amy Otis Earhart, she purchased her first airplane, a Kinner Airster. Following her parent's divorce, Amelia moved back east where she was employed as a social worker in Denison House, in Boston, Massachusetts. It was there she was selected to be the first female passenger on a transatlantic flight, in 1928, by her future husband, the publisher, George Palmer Putnam.

George had already published several writings by Charles Lindbergh, and he saw Amelia's flight as a bestselling story for his publishing house. With pilot Wilmer Stultz and mechanic Lou Gordon, Amelia flew from Newfoundland to Wales aboard the trimotor plane Friendship . Amelia's daring and courage were acclaimed around the world. Upon the flight's completion, Amelia wrote the book 20 Hours - 40 Minutes .
In 1931, Amelia married George, but continued her aviation career under her maiden name. Amelia and George formed a successful partnership.

George organized Amelia's flights and public appearances, and arranged for her to endorse a line of flight luggage and sports clothes. George also published two of her books, The Fun of It , and Last Flight . After a series of record-making flights, she became the first woman to make a solo transatlantic flight in 1932. That same year, Amelia developed flying clothes for the Ninety-Nines.

Her first creation was a flying suit with loose trousers, a zipper top and big pockets. Vogue advertised it with a two-page photo spread. Then, she began designing her own line of clothes "for the woman who lives actively."
She dressed according to the occasion whether it was flying or an elegant affair. She was most conscious of the image she projected. Several New York garment manufacturers made an exclusive Amelia Earhart line of clothes which were marketed in 30 cities, with one exclusive store in each city, such as Macy's in New York and Marshall Field's in Chicago.

Amelia made great strides in opening the new field of aviation to women. In 1935, Amelia became the first person to fly from Hawaii to the American mainland. By doing so, Amelia became not only the first person to solo anywhere in the Pacific, but also the first person to solo both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Also in 1935, Amelia joined the faculty of Purdue University as a female career consultant. It was the purchase of a Lockheed Electra, through Purdue University, that enabled Amelia to fulfill her dream -- circumnavigating the globe by air.

In June 1937, Amelia embarked upon the first around-the-world flight at the equator. On July 2, after completing nearly two-thirds of her historic flight -- over 22,000 miles -- Amelia vanished along with her navigator Frederick Noonan. They took off from Lae, New Guinea, bound for tiny Howland Island in the vast Pacific Ocean. The distance from Lae to Howland was about equal to a transcontinental flight across the U.S. A great naval, air and land search failed to locate Amelia, Noonan, or the aircraft, and it was assumed they were lost at sea.

 To this day, their fate is the subject of unending speculation. Some theorized the pair ran out of fuel looking for Howland Island, and had to ditch in the Pacific. Others thought they may have crash landed on another small island. Some speculated they were captured by the Japanese, accused of espionage, then held as bargaining chips in the event war erupted between the U.S. and Japan.


I confidently predict the collapse of capitalism and the beginning of history. Something will go wrong in the machinery that converts money into money, the banking system will collapse totally, and we will be left having to barter to stay alive. Those who can dig in their garden will have a better chance than the rest. I'll be all right; I've got a few veg.

 I wouldn't wish the eighties on anyone, it was the time when all that was rotten bubbled to the surface. If you were not at the receiving end of this mayhem you could be unaware of it. It was possible to live through the decade preoccupied by the mortgage and the pence you saved on your income tax. It was also possible for those of us who saw what was happening to turn our eyes in a different direction; but what, in another decade, had been a trip to the clap clinic was now a trip to the mortuary.

I wouldn't wish the eighties on anyone, it was the time when all that was rotten bubbled to the surface. If you were not at the receiving end of this mayhem you could be unaware of it. It was possible to live through the decade preoccupied by the mortgage and the pence you saved on your income tax. It was also possible for those of us who saw what was happening to turn our eyes in a different direction; but what, in another decade, had been a trip to the clap clinic was now a trip to the mortuary.I confidently predict the collapse of capitalism and the beginning of history.

Something will go wrong in the machinery that converts money into money, the banking system will collapse totally, and we will be left having to barter to stay alive. Those who can dig in their garden will have a better chance than the rest. I'll be all right; I've got a few veg..

We were that generation called silent, but we were silent neither, as some thought, because we shared the period's official optimism nor, as others thought, because we feared its official repression. We were silent because the exhilaration of social action seemed to many of us just one more way of escaping the personal, of masking for a while that dread of the meaningless which was man's fate.

World War I - 1914 1918

The massive arms race of the 19th century finally culminated in a war which involved every powerful nation in the world: World War I - 1914 1918 (1914 1918). This war drastically changed the way war was fought, as new inventions such as machine guns, tanks, chemical weapons, and grenades created stalemates on the battlefield and millions of troops were killed with little progress made on either side.

After more than four years of horrifying trench warfare in western Europe, and 20 million dead, those powers who had formed the Triple Entente (France, Britain, and Russia, later replaced by the United States and joined by Italy) emerged victorious over the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire). In addition to annexing much of the colonial possessions of the vanquished states, the Triple Entente exacted punitive restitution payments from their former foes, plunging Germany in particular into economic depression.

The Russian Empire was plunged into revolution during the conflict and transitioned into the first ever communist state, and the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were dismantled at the war's conclusion. World War I - 1914 1918 brought about the end of the royal and imperial ages of Europe and established the United States as a major world military power.

Broadway 1940

Broadway, as the name implies, is a wide avenue in New York City. While New York has several other Broadways, in the context of the city it usually refers to the Manhattan street. It is the oldest north-south main thoroughfare in the city, dating to the first New Amsterdam settlement. The name Broadway is an English translation of the Dutch name, Breede weg. A stretch of Broadway is famous as the pinnacle of the American theater industry.

Broadway originated as a Native American trail, called the Wickquasgeck Trail, which was carved into the brush land of Manhattan. This trail originally snaked through swamps and rocks along the length of Manhattan Island. Upon the arrival of the Dutch, the trail soon became the main road through the island from New Amsterdam at the southern tip.

 The Dutch explorer and entrepreneur David de Vries gives the first mention of it in his journal for the year 1642 ("the Wickquasgeck Road over which the Indians passed daily").
The Dutch named the road "Heerestraat". In the 18th century Broadway ended at the town commons north of Wall Street, where Eastern Post Road continued through the East Side and Bloomingdale Road the west side of the island. In the late 19th century the widened and paved part of Bloomingdale Road north of Columbus Circle was called "The Boulevard" but at the end of the century the whole old road (the Bloomingdale Road and what was previously called Broadway) was renamed to Broadway.

There are many places where you can go to have a great time but none of these will provide you hours of magic like Broadway. Now even though we have all at one time or another seen musical shows and plays on Broadway there must have been a time when Broadway was just a dream. To really know the Broadway history you may have to look in various places.

You can however be assured that you will find rich facts which will make visiting this period in time quite fascinating. You will find out the time when Broadway was first created and the various plays which have been shown. You can find out the ways in which Broadway has managed to withstand the advances of technology.

While you are looking through Broadway history you might also want to see the various plays which have help to keep the history of this place alive. Now even though this part of the Broadway history can be quite fascinating you should look at the different aspects of producing a show.

This will illustrate just how well a place like Broadway has the capability of keeping audiences coming. One of the facts that you will find in the Broadway history files is the fact that Broadway has been around to help people understand and get involved in various national crisis issues.

While the media dominates the mainstream of today’s entertainment there is still a place for Broadway entertainment. The many wonderful plays and musical shows that you will see are a testament to the popularity of Broadway. One tiny note which should be mentioned is that despite its popularity Broadway has never been able to regain the popularity that it enjoyed in the The 1920s. Even so you can still see many great plays which have been produced by a number of talented people. These people are ones like Oscar Hammerstein, George Gershwin, Richard Rodgers, and Cole Porter to name a few.

1920 Electric hand iron

1920 Electric hand iron goes on sale in London. The tommy-gun is patented by John T Thompson. First ice cream on a stick is sold by Harry Burt at his Good Humour Bar. Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach devises "inkblot test." Caesar salad was invented in Tijuana, Mexico in the 1920s by Caesar Gardini. 1921 Johnson & Johnson launches the band-aid bandage. Avus Autobahn in Berlin is the first motorway. Californian medical student John Larson invents the polygraph (lie detector).

Philo Farnsworth realized an idea for TV.1922 Husband-and-wife team De witt Wallace and Lila Acheson launch Reader's Digest. British Egyptologist Howard Carter discovers the tomb of Tutankamun, pharaoh 1316-1322BC. The snowmobile is built by 15-year old Joseph Bombardier in Quebec. The police car, called a bandit-chaser, is launched in Denver, Colorado, using a Cadilac engine.

1923 Swiss John Harwood invents the self-winding watch. Jacob Schick patents the electric shaver. 16mm home movie camera is launched by Kodak. Frank Epperson invents the popsicle when he leaves his lemonade mix on a windowsill overnight.1924 First round-the-world flight. First Winter Olympics at Chamonix, Switzerland. Columbia Pictures and MGM founded. Spindryer launched by Kleenex. Caesar Cardini, owner of "Caesar's Palace" in New York invents Caesar salad

Enlist poster 1940s

After World War II, most of the European-colonized world in Africa and Asia gained independence in a process of decolonization. (Most Latin American countries had gained their independence in the 19th century.) This, and the drain of the two world wars, caused Europe, which had been the pre-eminent continent for centuries, to lose much of its power.

On the other hand, the world wars drew the United States into taking a position of major influence over world affairs. American culture spread around the world with the advent of Hollywood, Broadway, rock and roll, pop music, fast food, big-box stores, and the hip-hop lifestyle. After the Soviet Union collapsed under internal pressure in 1991, a ripple effect led to the dismantling of communist states across eastern Europe and their rocky transitions into market economies.

By the end of the century, the United States was the undisputed economic, military, and cultural powerhouse of the world. It was allied with a still-powerful Europe, meaning that the West dominated the world at the end of the century as it had at its beginning.

The U.S. population reaches 105.7 million. Urban residents total 54 million, up from 1.4 million in 1840, and for the first time exceed rural residents (51.5 million), but one in every three Americans still lives on a farm, a proportion that will drop in the next 50 years to one in 22.

The world population reaches 1.86 billion. A new French legal ruling classes contraception with abortion and makes anything having to do with birth control illegal. The action is designed to compensate for the population loss experienced in the Great War. Severe fines and prison sentences are ordered for anyone who administers or receives an abortion, but the law will be widely flouted.

The number of illegal abortions will climb to an estimated 500,000 per year within 50 years, with bungled abortions causing an estimated 500 deaths per year. "Any Protestant woman in her senses would object to marrying a Roman Catholic," writes Marie Stopes October 18 in a letter to an Irish Catholic.

"They prohibit the use of proper hygienic Birth Control methods preferring that a woman's health should be entirely ruined and that she should bring forth feeble, dying, or imbecile infants rather than that proper hygienic methods should be used." "We have evidence that in recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the USSR," President Truman announces September 23.

A specially modified U.S. B-29 flying off Siberia's Kamchatka Peninsula has picked up traces of microscopic particles that contained disintegrating nuclei, and scientists have determined that the invisible grains of matter caught in the plane's sniffer were part of a highly radioactive, eastward-drifting cloud produced by a device exploded August 29 in a desert about 100 miles south of Semipalatinsk. Physicist Igor V. Kurchatov, now 47, has headed the Soviet team that developed the Soviet bomb (see 1945); his team includes chiefly Andrei Dmitriyevich Sakharov, 28, who won a doctorate at age 26, and 1925 German Nobel laureate Gustav Hertz, 62, whose uncle Heinrich Hertz pioneered the wireless in 1887. The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists reacts to news of the Soviet nuclear explosion by advancing the hands of its "Doomsday Clock" from 7 minutes before midnight to 3 minutes.

The Women's Royal Naval Service

The Women's Royal Naval Service (WRNS; popularly and officially known as the Wrens) was the women's branch of the Royal Navy. Members included cooks, clerks, wireless telegraphists, and electricians, and a small number of air mechanics during the Second World War. It was formed in 1917 during the First World War, and by the end of the war had 5,500 members, 500 of them officers.

It was disbanded in 1919. It was revived in 1939 at the beginning the Second World War, with an expanded list of allowable activities, including flying transport planes. At its peak in 1944 it had 75,000 people. During the war there were 100 deaths. One of the slogans used in recruiting posters was "Join the Wrens -- free a man for the fleet." It remained in existence after the war and was finally integrated into the regular Royal Navy in 1993. Women sailors are however still known as wrens in naval slang.

Before 1993, all women in the Royal Navy were members of the WRNS except nurses, who joined (and still join) Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service, and medical and dental officers, who were commissioned directly into the Royal Navy, held RN ranks, and wore WRNS uniform with gold RN insignia.


As the century began, Paris was the artistic capital of the world, where both French and foreign writers, composers and visual artists gathered. By the end of the century, the focal point of culture had moved to the United States, especially New York City and Los Angeles. Movies, music and the media had a major influence on fashion and trends in all aspects of life. As many movies and music originate from the United States, American culture spread rapidly over the world.

After gaining political rights in the United States and much of Europe in the first part of the century, and with the advent of new birth control techniques women became more independent throughout the century. In classical music, composition branched out into many completely new domains, including dodecaphony, Aleatoric and chance music, and minimalism.

Electronic musical instruments were developed as well, vastly broadening the scope of sounds available to composers and performers. The jazz and rock and roll genres developed in the United States, and quickly became the dominant forms of popular music. Many other genres of pop music were born in the latter half of the century, such as heavy metal, punk, alternative rock, house, dance, reggae, soul, rap and hip-hop.

Sputnik satellite

1957 USSR launches the Sputnik satellite into space. The EEC, European Economic Community, founded. The Medical Research Council links lung cancer with smoking. BMW launches the three-wheel Isetta 1958 Yves Saint Laurent holds his first fashion show in Paris. Danish toymakers Ole and Godtfred Kirk Christiansen launches Lego. Bill and Mark Richards of California invents the skateboard. Australian David Warren invents the black box flight recorder.

NASA founded. Jack Kilby from Texas and Robert Noyce from California invents the integrated circuit at the same time! However, their idea is not new - Briton GW Dummer had suggested such a design in 1952. 1959 First pictures of dark side of the moon by Luna III. Fidel Castro takes power in Cuba. Alec Issigonis's Morris Mini is launched. Haloid launches the first copier, the "Xerox 914," able to reproduce documents at the press of a button. Briton Christopher Cockerell launches the hovercraft. Ermal Cleon Fraze invents the easy-open can. First Daytona 500 takes place, won by Lee Petty in an Oldsmobile.

The Beatles form. Barbie doll debuts, after she started life years earlier as Lilli. 1960 US submarine Triton makes the first round the world undersea voyage. Two hackers from MIT create the first computer video game, Spacewar. "Ben Hur" is awarded 10 Oscars. Largest earthquake recorded in Chili. 1961 Yuri Gagarin the first man in space. A coup, backed by the CIA and President John F Kennedy, fails at the Bay of Pigs in Cuba. Russia starts building the Berlin Wall

Alan B. Shephard Jr is the first American in space. Bob Dylan plays his first gig, in New York. World Wildlife Fund founded. Weight Watchers founded by 97kg (214 lb) Jean Nidetch. 1962 The Beatles debut with "Love me do". John Glenn becomes first American to orbit earth in space. Dow Corp invent silicone breast implants. Ivan Sutherland demonstrates Sketchpad, the first programme to use windows, icons, and a light pen. In "the Cuban crisis," Khrushchev removes Russian nuclear missiles from Cuba, but only after Kennedy agrees to remove US missiles from Turkey.

John Glenn

History gets a bad rap in school. Many of us have memories of history class being taught by rote memorization of facts and dates and names with little or no application to our daily lives. No wonder its considered boring and dull.

Any time we are expected to simply recite and repeat bare data for the sole purpose of passing a test, that information is unlikely to have any lasting change or effect on our lives. In order to use the valuable lessons that history can teach us, it needs to be presented to children (and adults!) in a way that brings it alive and connects to our present day way of life.

History has many valuable lessons for us that can spur us on to greater achievement and accomplishments, but only if we can find a way to teach it to our children in a way that will get them excited and revved up. If a child is taught that the great discoveries and milestones in our history shaped our culture and our world, and that these discoveries were made by ordinary people JUST LIKE THEM, they can be inspired to go and achieve huge milestones and accomplishments of their own.

If a child learns the history of the civil rights movement, in a way that shows and creates empathy for the very real feelings of the people that lived and still do live with such terrible injustice and intolerance, cruelty and ignorance, she can learn to find ways to end the rest of the racism in America. The lives of leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr. are taught in history classes, but usually not to the depth that can create real change. If a child could be shown the creation of prejudice by a class-based society when he is seven, eight or nine years old, before he has been exposed to a lifetime of bigotry, he could readily accept the faulty thinking involved and prevent it from passing on to his generation. ?

If a child learns the truth of wars like Vietnam he could learn that war really doesn't solve a thing. Although we salve our egos with noble causes like ending Communism, ending slavery, ending terrorist rule, most wars are caused by power, hatred, and greed. If a child learns that these are really the reasons that thousands and thousands of soldiers and civilians die, he might learn to live a life free of these crippling, deadly emotions.

If all of our children in third, fourth and fifth grade could learn to live without a need for power, a hatred of others and a greed that drives him to do unthinkable things, how might that change our world in 25 years? Radio Free Europe begins beaming world news to listeners behind the Iron Curtain from an operations base at Munich. Gen. Lucius D. Clay has helped start the organization and is chairman of the board; he asks for private contributions to help fund its broadcasts, but nearly all of its support comes from the CIA.

Pacifica Radio has its beginnings in the FM station KPFA that goes on the air at Berkeley, Calif., April 15. Kansas City-born pacifist Lewis Hill, 29, spent the war in a camp for conscientious objectors; moved from Washington, D.C., to the Bay Area 3 years ago; and pioneers in listener-sponsored radio, with on-air pledge drives in place of commercial sponsors to free it from dependence on advertisers who might object to some of its views. The station is housed in a Victorian house, where on-air hosts must sometimes speak over the sound of bathroom plumbing noises. By late 1961, the Viet Cong had won control of virtually half of South Vietnam with little local opposition.

The United States increased its military and economic aid to combat the Communist threat and at the same time put pressure on President Diem for democratic reforms. In Apr., 1961, Diem was re-elected president, but many voters boycotted the election. Resentment against the government was dramatized by the Buddhist crisis, which erupted in May, 1963, as a result of government persecution. A number of self-immolations by Buddhist monks followed.

Large anti government demonstrations provoked police shootings, mass arrests, and more repressive government measures. These actions, along with the increasing loss of territory to the Viet Cong, prompted Diem's own military commanders to resort to a coup (Nov. 1, 1963), in which Diem and his brother, Ngo Dinh Nhu (who headed the secret police), were murdered. A period of great political instability followed, with frequent changes in government, mounting disorders, and continued religious unrest (both Buddhist and Catholic).

blacks freedom march

With the assassination of President McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, not quite 43, became the youngest President in the Nation's history. He brought new excitement and power to the Presidency, as he vigorously led Congress and the American public toward progressive reforms and a strong foreign policy. He took the view that the President as a "steward of the people" should take whatever action necessary for the public good unless expressly forbidden by law or the Constitution." I did not usurp power," he wrote, "but I did greatly broaden the use of executive power." Roosevelt's youth differed sharply from that of the log cabin Presidents.

He was born in New York City in 1858 into a wealthy family, but he too struggled--against ill health--and in his triumph became an advocate of the strenuous life. In 1884 his first wife, Alice Lee Roosevelt, and his mother died on the same day. Roosevelt spent much of the next two years on his ranch in the Badlands of Dakota Territory. There he mastered his sorrow as he lived in the saddle, driving cattle, hunting big game--he even captured an outlaw.

On a visit to London, he married Edith Carow in December 1886. During the Spanish-American War, Roosevelt was lieutenant colonel of the Rough Rider Regiment, which he led on a charge at the battle of San Juan. He was one of the most conspicuous heroes of the war.

Boss Tom Platt, needing a hero to draw attention away from scandals in New York State, accepted Roosevelt as the Republican candidate for Governor in 1898. Roosevelt won and served with distinction. As President, Roosevelt held the ideal that the Government should be the great arbiter of the conflicting economic forces in the Nation, especially between capital and labor, guaranteeing justice to each and dispensing favours to none.

whale bone corsets

Back then most of the clothes for families were made by the family mom. Soon they were fitted and made by tailors, though. By the end of this decade almost everyone was buying already made clothes. The kinds of clothes that a woman would wear were usually skirts that came down to the ground. Even if she was doing "unladylike" things, such as farming or bicycling.

Another thing that they wore were high, buttoned shoes. Another popular type of clothes for a woman was whale bone corsets, and hats with festive plumage and decorations. The men's suits were almost always dark and heavy. In the summer, out in the country a man might wear white flannel, but back then there was no such thing as a "summer weight suit".

The shirts had high collars and detachable cuffs for easier washing. Almost every man wore a hat. Farmers wore straw hats, rich people wore silk hats, and middle-class men wore derbies. So, as you can see the dress code back then was strict.

Royal Irish Constabulary

Royal Irish Constabulary recruits whose khaki tunics and trousers and dark green caps are almost black. Nicknamed after a familiar breed of Irish hound, the Black and Tans have been helping the British suppress Irish nationalists since March and take reprisals for nationalist acts of terrorism.

They arrest Countess Markievicz September 26 and hold her in Mountjoy Jail. Two agitators for Irish independence die in an English prison after fasting for 75 days in a protest demonstration. Cork Lord Mayor Terence James MacSwiney, 41, collapses on the 15th day, physicians are unable to save him, and his death in October produces widespread rioting.

The rebels shoot 14 British spies November 21, the Black and Tans retaliate that afternoon by firing at random during a football match at Croke Park, killing 12 women and men (including one of the players) and wounding 60. The countess is court-martialed December 2 and 3 on charges that she organized the Fianna in 1909.

The Government of Ireland Act passed by Parliament December 23 gives Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland the right to elect separate parliaments of their own with each to retain representatives in the British Parliament at London.

Sinn Fein political militants

British reinforcements arrive in Ireland May 15 to support His Majesty's forces against attacks by Sinn Fein political militants who continue resistance to British regulars and to the new "Black The U.S. population reaches 105.7 million. Urban residents total 54 million, up from 1.4 million in 1840, and for the first time exceed rural residents (51.5 million), but one in every three Americans still lives on a farm, a proportion that will drop in the next 50 years to one in 22.

The world population reaches 1.86 billion. A new French legal ruling classes contraception with abortion and makes anything having to do with birth control illegal. The action is designed to compensate for the population loss experienced in the Great War. Severe fines and prison sentences are ordered for anyone who administers or receives an abortion, but the law will be widely flouted.

The number of illegal abortions will climb to an estimated 500,000 per year within 50 years, with bungled abortions causing an estimated 500 deaths per year. "Any Protestant woman in her senses would object to marrying a Roman Catholic," writes Marie Stopes October 18 in a letter to an Irish Catholic. "They prohibit the use of proper hygienic Birth Control methods preferring that a woman's health should be entirely ruined and that she should bring forth feeble, dying, or imbecile infants rather than that proper hygienic methods should be used."..

Four black college freshmen stage a sit-in February 1 at a whites-only F. W. Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C. North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College freshmen David Richmond, Joseph McNeil, Franklin McCain, and Ezell Blair Jr. occupy stools at the lunch counter, a white waitress refuses to take their order; white counter manager Clarence L. Harris, 55, gives orders that no other action be taken; and the youths sit for more than an hour before Harris closes for the day.

Within 2 days 80 students have joined the protest, and by week's end some 200 men and women are spelling each other at the counter, refusing to be provoked by white youths who come in from outlying areas to incite violence. Some Bennett College students, including government president Gloria E. Brown, 21, participate in passive protest against discrimination, and Brown will later say, "I was scared.

We knew what could happen to us. We knew it was a time when we were being watched very, very carefully." The sit-in spreads within 2 weeks to 11 cities in Alabama, Virginia, and three other states. The Congress of Racial Equality and NAACP call for a nationwide boycott of F. W. Woolworth in March.

Atlanta civil rights activist Ruby (née Rubye) Doris Smith, 18, is arrested with others after a student lunch-counter sit-in protesting Jim Crow laws. She and three others (the "Rockville Four") refuse to be released on bail, preferring to serve jail sentences that will draw attention to their cause. Ella Baker quits the SCLC to work in a YWCA regional student office, using it to recruit backers and student members of a new organization.

Support groups for Greensboro's sit-in demonstrators organize at 21 northern schools, including Harvard, Yale, Princeton, the University of Chicago, City College of New York, and the University of California, Berkeley. A race riot at Biloxi, Miss., April 25 is the worst in the state's history; it ends only after eight blacks and two whites have been shot dead.

civil rights movement

U.S. personal bankruptcies jump to 367,000, up from 209,500 last year. A new federal bankruptcy law that went into effect October 1, 1979, enables individuals to protect much more of their property against seizure by creditors. Some 36 million Americans receive monthly Social Security checks, 26 million Medicare benefits, 22 million Medicaid benefits, 18 million food stamps, 15 million veterans' benefits, 11 million Aid to Families with Dependent Children funds; millions of students receive federal scholarship aid; 27 million children benefit from school lunch programs, and most of these categories overlap. Ronald Reagan promises to reduce the size of government.

A U.S. recession in the second quarter cuts real output by 9.9 percent; double-digit inflation continues, fueling opposition to President Carter. Ronald Reagan campaigns on what his running mate George H. W. Bush has called "voodoo economics" (based on supply-side ideology) during the primary elections, but Bush drops his opposition at the Republican Convention.

The U.S. economy is on the rise again by fall, but prices have risen 12.4 percent by year's end as compared to 13.3 percent last year; some countries have triple-digit inflation. British unemployment rises above 2 million for the first time since 1935 (when the workforce was one-third smaller) as recession depresses the economies of many countries.

Unemployment reaches nearly 2.5 million by year's end, up from 800,000 early in 1975, and industrial production falls 5 percent as the government's monetarist policies try to stem a new burst of inflation, which again climbs above 20 percent, double the rate when Thatcher took office. West Germany has a currency deficit of $14.2 billion, up from $5.4 billion last year (there was a surplus of nearly $9 billion in 1978) as energy costs climb, interest rates rise, and consumer spending eases. Imports grow more costly as the mark falls 15 percent in relation to the U.S. dollar.

Russian Revolution of 1905

1905 Jan 2, Sir Michael Tippett, British composer, was born in London. His childhood was divided among England, France and Italy. His work included the oratorio Jan 9, (Old Style calendar) On what would become known as "Bloody Sunday," Russian Orthodox Father George Gapon led a procession in St. Petersburg of some 200,000 who were marching on the Winter Palace to present their grievances to Czar Nicholas. Troops on the scene panicked, firing into the crowd and killing hundreds, thus igniting the Revolution of 1905.

Across Russia, government officials were attacked, peasants seized private estates and workers’ strikes virtually paralyzed the economy. In St. Petersburg, a council (soviet) of workers’ delegates threatened to take over the government. Nicholas consented to the adoption of a constitution and election of a parliament (Duma). The first Duma met in 1906. Jan 25, Largest diamond, Cullinan (3106 carets), was found in South Africa. Feb 8, A cyclone hit Tahiti and adjacent islands killing some 10,000 people. Apr 19, Tom Hopkinson, British writer, was born. May 28, A Japanese fleet under Adm. Heihachiro Togo defeated a Russian fleet under Adm. Zinovi Petrovich Rozhestvensky in the Battle of Tsushima.

The Russian fleet lost 22 ships out of 38 to the Japanese in the Battle of Tsushima Straits. In 2002 Constantine Pleshakov authored "The Tsar’s Last Armada: The Epic Voyage to the Battle of Tsushima." Jun 7, Norway declared independence from Sweden. Their union had been in effect in since 1814 Jun 29, Archibald Wright “Moonlight” Graham (1876-1965) of the New York Giants played for two innings in right field in his only professional baseball game on this day and was promptly forgotten until 1989 when the movie “Field of Dreams” was released. “Moonlight” never got to bat, instead he was left on deck, a late substitute in a lopsided 11-1 win. Graham completed his medical degree from the University of Maryland in 1908. He obtained his license the following year and began practicing medicine in Chisholm, Minnesota. Jan 1, Kim Philby was born.

He became a ringleader of a group of upper crust Englishmen who entered public service or, in many cases, the British Secret Service, then spied for the Soviets. Philby got away and spent his last years in Moscow. Feb 6, Eva Braun, mistress (Adolph Hitler), was born. 1936 Jan 14, American explorer Lincoln Ellsworth and Canadian pilot Herbert Hollick-Kenyon were rescued by the research ship Discovery II. The pair had made the first flight across Antarctica, 2,300 miles from the Weddell Sea to the Ross Sea, landed when their plane's engine faltered, and waited in the previously constructed shelter at Little America for a month to be picked up.

After his earlier attempts to cross Antarctica failed, Ellsworth set out with Hollick-Kenyon in the monoplane Polar Star and succeeded. Part of the area that Ellsworth and Hollick-Kenyon flew over in 1935 has been named the Ellsworth Highlands. 1943 Jan 9, Soviet planes dropped leaflets on the surrounded Germans in Stalingrad requesting their surrender with humane terms.

The Germans refused. 1943 Jan 14, Roosevelt, Churchill, and DeGaulle met at Casablanca, Morocco, to discuss the direction of the war. The Casablanca Conference, a pivotal 10-day meeting during WWII between U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, determined unconditional surrender would be the only basis of negotiations with the Axis. Roosevelt and Churchill also pledged maximum aid to the Soviet Union and China in the war.

 Simon & Garfunkel

The death of Ernesto "Che" Guevara in a small clash in South-east Bolivia is somewhat ironic. A man hailed as the master guerilla strategist of the Cuban revolution has met his death at the hands of the ill considered troops of a Bolivian dictatorship. In his 1960 guerrilla manual, Guevara wrote: "Given suitable operating terrain, land hunger, enemy injustices, etc., a hard core of thirty to fifty men is, in my opinion, enough to initiate armed revolutions in any Latin- American country." Born in 1928 in Rosario, Argentina, Guevara opted early for a life of adventure and took up sport in an effort to overcome his enduring asthma. His father - who told me In July in Buenos Aires that he had no idea of his son's whereabouts - found that they were both independently involved in anti-Peron conspiracies in the early 1950s.

By then Guevara had already qualified as a doctor and had traveled through Chile and Peru and had been thrown out of Colombia and Venezuela for his political activism. Sought refuge Forced to flee from Argentina by Peron's secret police, Guevara was compromised in a revolt in La Paz, Bolivia, and moved to Guatemala, which was then being governed by the Popular Front President, Arbenz Guzman.

He took refuge in the Argentine Embassy when the CIA-sponsored coup by Castillo Armas overthrew Arbenz and the experience undoubtedly ripened his anti-Americanism. In Mexico City he was introduced to Fidel Castro through Castro's brother, Raul. On December 2, 1956, Guevara landed with Castro's expedition on the shores of Batista's Cuba and the happiest period of his life commenced. Starting simply as the party's doctor, he gradually became its ideologist, tactician, and Castro's indispensable lieutenant.

He was the strategist of the battle of Santa Clara, which precipitated Batista's flight, and was put in charge of the fortress of Havana after its capture. Later he was named Chief of Education in the Revolutionary Army and in November, 1959, he became President of the National Bank and subsequently Minister of Industry. Among his books are "Guerrilla Warfare" (1960), accepted as a classic, and " Passages of Revolutionary War" (1963) which contains his personal impressions of the Sierra Maestra.

In his writing he concentrated on the moral requirements of a revolutionary and hoped that Cuba would see the dawn of a "new man" such as was dream't of in 1917. Rumors of disagreements with Castro grew. After months of mystery Castro announced that Guevara, who was known to have a garibaldian yearning to liberate the entire Latin American land mass, had resigned Cuban citizenship and left for "a new field of battle in the struggle against imperialism".

Like an elusive Pimpernel Guevara was thereafter reported anywhere from the Congo to Santo Domingo via Vietnam. His presence with the Bolivian guerrillas was affirmed by Regis Debray and first denied then affirmed by the Bolivian Government. He had written his own epitaph: " Wherever death may surprise us, let it be welcome, provided that this our battle cry may have reached some receptive ear and another hand may be extended to wield our weapons."

1966 Jan 1, Simon & Garfunkel's "Sounds of Silence" reached #1. 1966 Jan 10, In Mississippi Vernon Dahmer, a revered civil rights leader, was killed in a firebombing. In 1998 Klansmen Sam Bowers (1924-2006), Deavours Nix and Charles Noble were arrested for the murder. 8 men in 2 cars loaded with shotguns and 12 gallons of gasoline attacked Dahmer’s home.

Billy Roy Pitts participated and later testified how Bowers had called meetings and presided over the planning of the bombing. Bowers was convicted in his 5th trial and sentenced to life in prison where he died. 1966 Jan 12, "Batman" with Adam West & Burt Ward premiered on ABC TV. 1966 Jan 31, U.S. planes resumed bombing of North Vietnam after a 37-day pause. 1966 Feb 1, Nicholas Piantanida, set a balloon flight record & died during the descent .

1966 Feb 3, The Soviet probe Luna 9 became the first manmade object to make a soft landing on the moon. 1966 Feb 4, Gilbert H. Grosvenor , president National Geographic Society, died . 1966 Feb 9, Sophie Tucker Russian-US singer, actress (My Yiddish Mama), died. 1966 Feb 10, Protester David Miller was convicted of burning his draft card.

1966 Feb 12, The South Vietnamese won two big battles in the Mekong Delta. In Vietnam's Mekong Delta, Navy SEALs were the military's eyes and ears, providing vital intelligence on enemy operations. 1966 Feb 16, The World Council of Churches being held in Geneva, urged immediate peace in Vietnam. Vietnam was the war that five presidents "owned"--and yet no president "owned."


Someone asked the other day, 'What was your favourite 'fast food' when you were growing up?' 'We didn't have fast food when I was growing up,' I informed him. 'All the food was slow.' ‘C'mon, seriously ... Where did you eat?' 'It was a place called 'home,'' I explained. 'Mum cooked every day , we sat down together at the dining room table, And if I didn't like what she put on my plate, I was allowed to sit there until I did like it.' By this time, the lad was laughing so hard I was afraid he was going to suffer serious internal damage, so I didn't tell him the part about how I had to have permission to leave the table. But here are some other things I would have told him about my childhood if I'd figured his system could have handled it: Some parents NEVER owned their own house, wore jeans, set foot on a golf course, travelled out of the country or had a credit card. My parents never drove me to school ...I walked.

We didn't have a television in our house until I was 28. It was, of course, black and white, and the station went off the air at 10 PM, after playing the national anthem and epilogue; it came back on the air at about 12 noon. Pizzas were not delivered to our home ... But milk and Coal was. All newspapers were delivered by boys and all boys delivered newspapers — I delivered a newspaper, seven days a week. I had to get up at 5.30 every morning except Sunday when I had a lie-in until 6.30.

Film stars kissed with their mouths shut. At least, they did in the films. There were no movie ratings because all movies were responsibly produced for everyone to enjoy viewing, without profanity or violence or almost anything offensive. If you grew up in a generation before there was fast food, you may want to share some of these memories with your children or grandchildren. Just don't blame me if they bust a gut laughing. Growing up isn't what it used to be, is it? MEMORIES from a friend: My Dad is cleaning out my grandmother's house (she died recently) and he brought me an old lemonade bottle.

In the bottle top was a stopper with a bunch of holes in it. I knew immediately what it was, but my daughter had no idea. She thought they had tried to make it a salt shaker or something. I knew it as the bottle that sat on the end of the ironing board to 'sprinkle' clothes with because we didn't have steam irons. Man, I am old How many do you remember? Headlight dip-switches on the floor of the car. Ignition switches on the dashboard. Trouser leg clips for bicycles without chain guards. Soldering irons you heated on a gas burner Using hand signals for cars without turn indicators.

1. Sweet cigarettes 2... Coffee shops with juke boxes 3 .. Home milk delivery in glass bottles 4... Party lines on the telephone 5.. Newsreels before the movie 6. TV test cards that came on at night after the last show and were there until TV shows started again in the morning. (There were only 2 channels [if you were fortunate] ) 7.. Peashooters 8. 33 rpm records & 78s 9. 45 rpm records 10. Hi-fis 11. Metal ice tray s with levers 12. Blue flashbulb 13. Cork popguns 14.Wash tub wringers If you remembered 0-3 = You're still young If you remembered 3-6 = You are getting older If you remembered 7-10 = Don't tell your age If you remembered 11-14 = You're positively ancient! I must be 'positively ancient' but those memories are some of the best parts of my life.

sent in by "Poacher72"

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt (October 27, 1858–January 6, 1919) was born in New York into one of the old Dutch families which had settled in America in the seventeenth century. At eighteen he entered Harvard College and spent four years there, dividing his time between books and sport and excelling at both.

After leaving Harvard he studied in Germany for almost a year and then immediately entered politics. He was elected to the Assembly of New York State, holding office for three years and distinguishing himself as an ardent reformer. In 1884, because of ill health and the death of his wife, Roosevelt abandoned his political work for some time. He invested part of the fortune he had inherited from his father in a cattle ranch in the Badlands of Dakota Territory, expecting to remain in the West for many years.

He became a passionate hunter, especially of big game, and an ardent believer in the wild outdoor life which brought him health and strength. In 1886 Roosevelt returned to New York, married again, and once more plunged into politics. President Harrison, after his election in 1889, appointed Roosevelt as a member of the Civil Service Commission of which he later became president.

This office he retained until 1895 when he undertook the direction of the Police Department of New York City. In 1897 he joined President McKinley's administration as assistant secretary of the Navy. While in this office he actively prepared for the Cuban War, which he saw was coming, and when it broke out in 1898, went to Cuba as lieutenant colonel of a regiment of volunteer cavalry, which he himself had raised among the hunters and cowboys of the West.

He won great fame as leader of these «Rough-Riders», whose story he told in one of his most popular books. Elected governor of the state of New York in 1898, he invested his two-year administration with the vigorous and businesslike characteristics which were his hallmark. He would have sought re-election in 1900, since much of his work was only half done, had the Republicans not chosen him as their candidate for the second office of the Union. He held the vice-presidency for less than a year, succeeding to the presidency after the assassination of President McKinley on September 14, 1901. In 1904 Roosevelt was elected to a full term as president.

Rock and roll

Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll is a form of music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly spread to the rest of the world. Classic rock and roll is played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a string bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit. In the earliest rock and roll styles of the late 1940s and early 1950s, either the piano or saxophone was often the lead instrument, but these were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the mid to late 1950s.

The beat is essentially a boogie woogie blues rhythm with an accentuated back beat, the latter almost always provided by a snare drum. The massive popularity and eventual worldwide view of rock and roll gave it an unprecedented social impact. Far beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll, as seen in movies and in the new medium of telivision, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. It later spawned the various sub-genres of what is now called simply 'rock music'.

rock and roll montage

The immediate origins of rock and roll lie in the late The 1940s and early The 1950s through a mixing of the genres of blues, country, R&B, folk and gospel music. Alan Freed, a disc jockey based in Cleveland, Ohio is generally credited with first using the phrase rock and roll in 1951, though the phrase was in constant use at time in lyrics of R&B songs of the time.

The phrase rocking and rolling has its origins in slang for dancing or having sex. Many early rock and roll hits were re-writes of earlier R&B or blues songs. Black music was still taboo on radio stations, so producers and artists began making white versions of black music. In 1955, Bill Haley’s Rock Around the Clock became the first rock and roll song to top the charts.

The song became one of the biggest hits in history, and hordes of teenagers began flocking to hear Haley and his band The Comets. Blues would continue to inspire rock for decades with great acts like Cream, The Yardbirds and Led Zeppelin drawing their inspiration from musicians like Robert Johnson and Skip James.

Rock and Roll influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes and language. It also appeared at a time when racial tensions were coming to a head in the United States, the music contributed to the civil rights movement as both black and white teenagers followed the music. It was a fresh sound which spawned fresh ideas and approaches which paved the way for the swinging sixties.

Captain Marvel

Adventures of Captain Marvel (1941) is a twelve-chapter film serial directed by John English and William Witney for Republic Pictures, adapted from the popular Captain Marvel comic book character then appearing in Fawcett Comics publications. It starred Tom Tyler (who also played The Phantom) in the title role of Captain Marvel and Frank Coghlan, Jr. as his alter ego, Billy Batson. This serial was the twenty-first of the sixty-six serials produced by Republic and their first comic book adaptation (not counting comic strips such as Dick Tracy).

Spy Smasher, also based on a Fawcett character, would follow in 1942. This serial was the first film adaptation of a comic book superhero. That claim would have gone to the previous serial, Mysterious Doctor Satan, which was intended to have been a Superman serial until National Comics (now DC Comics) pulled out of negotiations. National Comics unsuccessfully attempted to sue Republic for producing a Captain Marvel serial.

Jarrow crusade

At the start of the period, Britain was the world's most powerful nation. However, its economy was ruined by World War I, and its empire began to shrink, producing a growing power vacuum in Europe. Fascism, a movement which grew out of post-war angst and accelerated by the Great Depression of the 1930s, gained momentum in Italy, Germany and Spain in the 1920s and 1930s, finally culminating in World War II (1939 1945), sparked off by Nazi Germany's aggressive expansion at the expense of its neighbours.

Meanwhile, Japan had rapidly industrialized and transformed itself into an aggressive and technologically-advanced industrial power. Its aggressive expansion into eastern Asia and the Pacific Ocean brought the United States into World War II. Germany was defeated after pushed by the Soviet Union to the east and the D-Day invasion of the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and Free France from the west.

The war was ended with the dropping of two devastating atomic bombs on Japan. Japan has since transitioned into one of the most pacifistic countries on the planet, building a powerful economy based on consumer goods and trade. Germany was divided between the western powers and the Soviet Union; all areas recaptured by the Soviet Union (East Germany and eastward) were essentially transitioned into Soviet puppet states under communist rule.

Meanwhile, western Europe was revitalized by the American Marshall Plan and made a quick economic recovery, becoming major allies of the United States under capitalist economies and free governments. The largest and most devastating war ever fought, World War II - 1939 1945 claimed the lives of about 60 million people. When the conflict ended in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as the two most powerful nations, and while they had been allies in the war, they soon became hostile to one other as the competing ideologies of capitalism and communism occupied Europe, divided by the Iron Curtain and the dreaded Berlin Wall.

The military alliances headed by these nations (NATO in North America and western Europe; the Warsaw Pact in eastern Europe) were prepared to wage total war with each other throughout the Cold War (1947 1991). The period was marked by a new arms race, and nuclear weapons, the most devastating ones yet to have been developed, were produced in their tens of thousands, sufficient to end most life on the planet had they ever been used.

This is believed by some historians to have staved off an inevitable war between the two, as neither could win if their full nuclear arsenals were unleashed upon each other. This was known as mutually assured destruction (MAD). Although the Soviet Union and the United States never directly entered conflict with each other, several proxy wars, such as the Korean War (1950 1953) and the vietnam (1957 1975) were waged to contain the spread of Communism.

WW1 Soldiers

After decades of struggle by the women's suffrage movement, all western countries gave women the right to vote. Rising nationalism and increasing national awareness were among the many causes of World War I (1914–1918), the first of two wars to involve many major world powers including Germany, France, Italy, Japan, Russia/USSR, the United States and the British Empire.

World War I led to the creation of many new countries, especially in Eastern Europe. At the time it was said by many to be the "war to end all wars". Warfare in the early 20th Century (1914–1918)Clockwise from top: front line Trenches, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes.

Warfare in the early 20th Century (1914–1918) Clockwise from top: front line Trenches, a British Mark I Tank crossing a trench, the Royal Navy battleship HMS Irresistible sinking after striking a mine at the battle of the Dardanelles, a Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, and German Albatros D.III biplanes.

A violent civil war broke out in Spain in 1936 when General Francisco Franco rebelled against the Second Spanish Republic. Many consider this war as a testing battleground for World War II as the fascist armies bombed some Spanish territories. The economic and political aftermath of World War I and the Great Depression in the 1930s led to the rise of fascism and nazism in Europe, and subsequently to World War II (1939–1945). This war also involved Asia and the Pacific, in the form of Japanese aggression against China and the United States.

Civilians also suffered greatly in World War II, due to the aerial bombing of cities on both sides, and the German genocide of the Jews and others, known as the Holocaust. In 1945, Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed with nuclear weapons. During World War I, in Russia the Bolshevik putsch took over the Russian Revolution of 1917, precipitating the founding of the Soviet Union and the rise of communism. After the Soviet Union's involvement in World War II, communism became a major force in global politics, notably in Eastern Europe, China, Indochina and Cuba, where communist parties gained near-absolute power.

This led to the Cold War and proxy wars with the West, including wars in Korea (1950–1953) and Vietnam (1957–1975). The Soviet authorities caused the deaths of millions of their own citizens in order to eliminate domestic opposition. More than 18 million people passed through the Gulag, with a further 6 million being exiled to remote areas of the Soviet Union. The civil rights movement in the United States and the movement against apartheid in South Africa challenged racial segregation in those countries.

The two world wars led to efforts to increase international cooperation, notably through the founding of the League of Nations after World War I, and its successor, the United Nations, after World War II. The creation of Israel, a Jewish state in the Middle East, by the British Mandate of Palestine fueled many regional conflicts. These were also influenced by the vast oil fields in many of the other countries of the mostly Arab region. The end of colonialism led to the independence of many African and Asian countries. During the Cold War, many of these aligned with the United States, the USSR, or China for defence.

The Great Chinese Famine was a direct cause of the death of tens of millions of Chinese peasants between 1959 and 1962. It is thought to be the largest famine in human history. The revolutions of 1989 released Eastern and Central Europe from Soviet supremacy. Soon thereafter, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia dissolved, the latter violently over several years, into successor states, many rife with ethnic nationalism. After a long period of civil wars and conflicts with European powers, China's last imperial dynasty ended in 1912.

The resulting republic was replaced, after yet another civil war, by a communist People's Republic in 1949. At the end of the century, though still ruled by a communist party, China's economic system had transformed almost completely to capitalism. European integration began in earnest in the 1950s, and eventually led to the European Union, a political and economic union that comprised 15 countries at the end of the century.

london bus 1950

1925 Red double-decker buses enter service in London. In-flight movie offered by German airline. Walter P Chrysler founded vehicle company. Frisbee is invented - by Yale students, using empty plates used to hold pies from the Frisbie Baking Company. 1926 Marion B Skaggs founded Safeway food stores. Scottish engineer John Logie Baird demonstrates a machine that transmits movie pictures using radio technology, calling it a "televisor", based on a 1884 idea by German Paul Nipkow.

(But the mechanical TV system is beaten to general use by Philo Farnsworth's design of 1928.) 1927 25-year old Charles Lindbergh flies non-stop from New York to Paris in Spirit of St Louis. The Jazz Singer, starring Al Jolson, is the first talkie movie. The first words were: "Wait a minute! You ain't heard nothing' yet!" First transatlantic phone call - at $75 for 3 minutes, half the cost of a car. 1928 Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin. Philo Fransworth has a working model for TV. TV sets go on sales in the US for $75.

Harry Ramsden opens the first chip shop in Bradford, England. First Bubble Gum, Fleer's Dubble Bubble, goes on sale in the US. JW Horton and WA Morrison invent the quartz crystal clock. 1929 US engineer Paul Galvin invents the car radio. Enzo Ferrari launches his company.

Colour television pictures is transmitted in New York. Kelloggs launches Rice Krispies. Popey debuts in the Thimble Theatre strip by Elzie Segar. New York Stock Exchange crash on "Black Thursday" 24 October. 1950 Otis invents the passenger lift. Charles Schultz launches "Peanuts". Mr Potato Head debuts. Diners Club issues the first credit card. Korean war erupts. Danish doctor Christian Hamburger performs the first sex change operation on New Yorker George Jargensen, who becomes Christine Jargensen. Yoshuito Nakamats invents the floppy disc (but it is introduced by IBM only in 1970).

1951 First Miss World contest is held at the Lyceum theatre in London, won by Miss Sweden. John Paul Getty becomes the richest man. Zenith Radio Corp introduces cable television. Chrysler introduces power steering. First space flight by living creatures when US sends 4 monkeys into the stratosphere. Remington Rand launches the first commercially available computer, the Univac 1. 1952 M&R Labs introduce the first coffee creamer, "Pream". Kirsch launches the first diet soft drink, "No-Cal Ginger Ale". Car safety belts introduced.

BOAC starts first jet passenger service. Sony invents pocket-sized transistor radio. Ian Fleming's James Bond debuts in novel "Casino Royale". 1953 US physiologist Ancel Keys suggests link between heart disease and high fat diet. Dr James Watson discovers the structure of DNA. Playboy magazine is launched. Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay reach summit of Mount Everest. Baron Bich launches Bic ballpoint in France. Queen Elizabeth II crowned.

1954 Oxford student Roger Bannister breaks the 4-minute mile. Elvis Presley debuts with "That's all right, Mamma." Racial segregation in US schools banned. Nuclear power station begins production in Obninsk, USSR. First mass-produced computer by IBM, installing 120 "650's". Ray Kroc start McDonalds. 1955 Guinness Book of Records is published. Clean Air Act is passed in Britain. Walt Disney opens Disneyland in Anaheim, California. 1956 CIA launches the U-2 spy plane. Swiss Georges de Metral perfects Velcro. John Bachus and his IBM team invent FORTRAN, the first high-level programming language.

The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy

The assassination of Robert F. Kennedy, a United States Senator and brother of assassinated President jfk took place shortly after midnight on June 5, 1968 in Los Angeles, California. Robert F. Kennedy was killed during celebrations of his successful campaign in the Californian primary elections while seeking the Democratic nomination for President of the United States.

The perpetrator was a twenty-four year old Palestinian immigrant named Sirhan Sirhan, who remains incarcerated for this crime as of 2009 The shooting was recorded on audio tape by a freelance newspaper reporter, while the aftermath was captured on film.

Kennedy's body lay in repose at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York for two days before a funeral mass was held on June 8. His body was interred near his brother John at Arlington National Cemetery. His death prompted the protection of presidential candidates by the United States Secret Service. Hubert Humphrey went on to win the Democratic nomination for the presidency, but ultimately lost the election to Richard Nixon.

Britain's Edward VII

Britain's Edward VII

dies at Buckingham Palace May 6 at age 68 after a 9-year reign of peace and prosperity. He is succeeded by his 44-year-old second son, who will reign until 1936 as George V with help from his wife, Mary, nearly 44 herself. She will be credited with helping the bluff king adapt to changing conditions and make himself popular with the people, although he will never be as popular as she.

Montenegro proclaims herself an independent Balkan kingdom August 28, and Prince Nicholas, who obtained recognition of his country's independence in the Treaty of Berlin in 1878, receives the title king by a vote of the national legislature. Now 69, he will reign until 1919 as Nicholas I.

The Portuguese monarchy founded in 1143 by Afonso Henriquez ends October 4 in a revolution at Lisbon after a 2-year reign by Manoel II. He flees to England (where he will live as a country gentleman until his death in 1932) and a republic is proclaimed with a provisional government headed by scholar-writer Teofilo Braga, 67. A coalition of rebellious U.S. congressmen led by George W. (William) Norris, 48, (R. Neb.) and Champ (originally James Beauchamp) Clark, 60, (D. Ky.) curtails the powers of Speaker Joseph (Gurney) "Uncle Joe" Cannon, 73, (R. Ill.) and excludes him from the House Rules Committee March 19.

The congressmen establish a system of seniority that will control committee chairmanships for decades, Clark will be speaker of the House from 1911 to 1919, and Norris will serve in the Senate from 1912 to 1942.


A civil disobedience campaign against British rule in India begins March 12 . The All-India Trade Congress has empowered Mohandas K. Gandhi to begin the demonstrations (poet Rabindranath Tagore has called Gandhi Mahatma, meaning great-souled, or sage, and that honorific has been commonly used for the past decade).

Ashramites have left the Sarbamanti ashram outside Ahmedabad and march 240 miles to the beach at Dandi, on the Gujurat Coast of the Arabian Sea, where Gandhi breaks the law as a gesture of defiance against the British monopoly by picking up a handful of salt crystallized by the evaporation of seawater. It is illegal to manufacture or sell salt except under license from the raj, and Gandhi exhorts his fellow Indians to follow his example.

British forces are unable to deal with a protest on such a large scale. The British release agitator Gandhi from prison April 5 and allow him to recuperate just outside Bombay. Britain's prime minister Ramsay MacDonald convenes a Round Table Conference on Indian affairs at Westminster in November, but neither Gandhi nor any other member of the Congress is able to attend and little or nothing is accomplished.

Josef Stalin

Physicist Klaus Fuchs is found guilty March 1 of having given British atomic secrets to Soviet agents. Attorney General Lord Shawcross of Nuremberg trials fame has prosecuted Fuchs, whom the British hired to do nuclear research in 1941, knowing he was a communist; he was a member of the team that developed the atomic bomb beginning in 1943, his work at Alamagordo and Los Alamos, N.M., made him privy to the bomb's design, construction, components, and detonating devices, and he will serve 9 years in a British prison. His U.S. accomplice, Harry Gold, gets 30 years.

Communist North Korean armored columns clank across the border into the Republic of South Korea June 25, beginning a 3-year Korean War that will involve 16 nations against the communists. Josef Stalin rejected Kim Il Sung's request for assistance last year, but he saw that the United States did not come to Chiang Kai-shek's aid against Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) and has construed a statement made in January by U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson to mean that the United States would not go to war in support of South Korea; he has supplied his client state with planes, tanks, and other military weapons.

UN Secretary-General Trygve Lie urges UN members to support South Korea June 27, and President Truman that day orders U.S. air and sea forces to "give the Korean government troops cover and support." He has resisted sending ground troops to the peninsula, but Seoul falls to the North Koreans June 28. Gen. MacArthur visits Korea June 29 and resolves not only to drive the communists back but also to unite Korea. He takes command of UN forces July 9.

Norman Borlaug

Norman Borlaug says in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech at Stockholm December 10 that only population control can win the battle against world hunger. The world's population reaches 3.63 billion, up from just over 3 billion in 1960, with 1.13 billion in South Asia, 929.9 million in East Asia (including Japan), 462.1 million in Europe, 344.4 million in Africa, 283.3 million in Latin America, 227.6 million in North America, 19.4 million in Oceania.

The USSR has only 9 urban centers with populations of 1 million or more versus 35 such urban centers in the United States. Only 8.5 percent of the Soviet population is in these large urban centers versus 41.5 percent of the U.S. population. Soviet census figures show that Muslim populations in the Uzbek S.S.R., the Tadjik S.S.R., and other Muslim republics have increased by roughly 50 percent since the 1959 census but that the number of Great Russians in these republics has declined. Ethnic Russians remain the largest single national group within the USSR, they are roughly three times as numerous as the Ukrainians, but they will become a minority by 1976.

Population in the Soviet Union reaches 242.6 million, in the People's Republic of China 760 million, in India 550 million, in the United States 205 million. The United States has 85 people per square mile, the PRC 305, India 655, Japan 1,083. Egypt's population has been growing at the rate of 1 million per year, and some 35 million people are crowded into the Nile valley and delta.

Lord Mountbatten

A 50-pound bomb planted by Irish Republican Army terrorists explodes August 27 on the fishing boat of Lord Mountbatten off the coast of County Sligo, killing the 79-year-old cousin of Elizabeth II with his 14-year-old grandson and a 15-year-old passenger. Four others aboard the Shadow V are seriously hurt (one dies the next day), and an IRA ambush 35 miles south of Belfast kills 18 British soldiers. A leading Conservative MP has been killed by the IRA outside the House of Commons March 30 and the violence continues. A bomb of a different sort explodes in Parliament November 15 when art historian Sir Anthony Blunt, 72, is revealed to have been a Soviet spy.

Blunt confessed to treason in 1964 and was given immunity from prosecution and permitted to remain curator to the queen. He is stripped of his knighthood. French statesman Jean Monnet dies at his country home outside Paris March 6 at age 90, having laid the groundwork for the European Community. U.S.-educated German political leader Petra (Karin) Kelly, 32, quits the Social Democratic Party in protest against its policies toward nuclear defense, health, and women.

Stepdaughter of a U.S. Army colonel, Kelly joins with some friends to found the Green Party, whose anti-nuclear, pro- environmental views will attract many followers (see 1983). Former Hungarian premier Ferenc Nagy dies of a heart attack at Washington, D.C., June 12 at age 75; former Czech president Ludvík Svoboda at Prague September 20 at age 83. Washington breaks ties with Taiwan as of January 1 and establishes diplomatic relations with Beijing (see 1978).

Deputy Premier Deng Xiaoping accepts a New Year's invitation to the U.S. Embassy at Beijing and flies to the United States later in the month, becoming the first Chinese leader to visit America (in addition to seeing President Carter at Washington, he tours the NASA Space Centre at Houston, tries out a flight simulator, and attends a Texas rodeo), but he cracks down on dissenters upon his return.

Beijing advises Moscow April 3 that China will not renew her 1950 treaty of friendship, due to expire in 1980. Moscow replies April 4 that the decision was taken "contrary to the will and interests of the Chinese people." The Taiwan Relations Act signed into law by President Carter April 10 is the only domestic U.S. law governing relations with a foreign nation.

Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Roberts Thatcher, best known worldwide as the "Iron Lady", was Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990. She was the most powerful woman in the industrialized world.Mrs Thatcher does not herself as a feminist. Thatcher was reflected Prime Minister in the 1980s and she was an active anti-communist leader.

Her economical philosophy provided a model for many countries as Hungary, Czech Republic, Mauritius, Botswana, El Salvador, Chile and Cyprus. Under her leadership, the UK´s economy witnessed the most rapid growth in the 1980s.Ironically, she has not made campaigns for women´s rights, but she is an advocate for the ecology.Europe has produced many leaders, but none as Margaret Thatcher...

John Major

John Major, 47-year-old son of a circus acrobat. The youngest prime minister thus far in this century, he will prove inadequate. Iraqi forces invade Kuwait August 2 after Kuwait refuses demands by President Saddam Hussein that she pay compensation for allegedly drilling oil on Iraqi territory, cede disputed land, reduce oil output, and raise prices.

Kuwait has rebuffed Iraqi demands that she forgive $15 billion in loans extended during the Iraq-Iran war. The Bush administration has told Saddam Hussein that it has no treaty obligation to defend Kuwait and would not take sides (Saddam has interpreted remarks by U.S. ambassador to Iraq April Gillespie that Washington would not oppose him), but Washington, Moscow, Tokyo, London, Teheran, and Beijing unite in denouncing his move and the United Nations Security Council votes 13 to 0 August 6 to impose economic sanctions (Yemen and Cuba abstain).

Iraq masses troops on the border of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh agrees to receive U.S. ground and air forces. President Bush says Iraq's aggression "will not stand" and dispatches forces to Saudi Arabia August 7, risking his presidency. Iraq annexes Kuwait August 8 and proceeds to loot the country; Egypt, Syria, Morocco, and nine other Arab states vote August 10 to oppose Iraq with military force; Saddam Hussein calls for a "holy war" against Westerners and Zionists, gaining wide popular support among Arabs; he holds more than 10,000 foreigners hostage beginning August 18 but permits women and children to leave August 29 and releases all the others by early December as the standoff continues.

Kuwait's billionaire emir Sheik Jaber al-Ahmed al-Sabah, 64, has narrowly escaped capture and fled to Saudi Arabia; he addresses the United Nations General Assembly September 27, urging it to stand by the sanctions it has imposed. His relatives have acted swiftly to keep Kuwaiti funds abroad out of Saddam Hussein's hands. Bush ups the ante November 8 (2 days after the elections), committing far more U.S. forces to "Operation Desert Shield," but popular opposition grows to launching any offensive action.

François Mitterand

Former French president François Mitterand dies January 8 at age 79 of prostate cancer, which was diagnosed before he took office in 1981 but has never interfered with his duties. President Jacques Chirac brings France back into NATO, and the nation pays homage to the 55,000 who died in 8 years of war in Indochina with a modest memorial unveiled at Fréjus, near Toulon, December 19, the 50th anniversary of the outbreak of hostilities in Indochina. The Irish Republican Army ends a 17-month self-imposed cease-fire February 9 by exploding a bomb in East London, killing two people, injuring 140, and causing $100 million in property damage.

Sinn Fein leader Gerry Adams says he is saddened by the blast but declines to condemn it, calling on Prime Minister Major to help him consolidate the sectarian peace process. Another bomb explodes June 15, this time in downtown Manchester, injuring more than 200, and further violence follows (see 1997; Good Friday accord, 1998).

Italian economist Romano Prodi, 56, heads a new government that takes office May 18 and will continue until October 1998 Russia's voters reelect Boris N. Yeltsin, now 65, in a July 3 runoff race against Communist Party leader Gennadi A. Zyuganov, 51, despite falling industrial production, a growing poverty rate, soaring death rates, and anxieties about Yeltsin's health.

Retired general Aleksandr I. Lebed, 46, has opposed the war in Chechnya but swings his support to Yeltsin, who wins 55 percent of the popular vote to Zyuganov's 40 percent, becoming the first democratically elected head of state in Russia's 1,000-year history. Chechen separatist Shamil Basayev leads 1,500 men and boys into Grozny from three directions before dawn August 6 and in less than 2 weeks has routed the Russians from the capital, which they have held since January of last year.

While numerically far superior, the Russian Army is ill-trained, rarely paid, poorly equipped, and commanded by corrupt officers. Gen. Lebed negotiates a peace accord in August, he says September 3 that about 85,000 have been killed and some 240,000 wounded in the 21-month Chechnya conflict, Yeltsin dismisses Lebed October 17 following reports that the national security chief is plotting a coup, Yeltsin survives open-heart surgery a few weeks later, announces in November that all Russian troops will be withdrawn from Chechnya, and resumes his presidential duties December 24.

Britain gets a U.S.-style Bill of Rights October 2 as the Labour government enforces a new Human Rights Act incorporating a European Convention on Human Rights into British civil law. Britain signed the convention in 1953 but there was little public enthusiasm for it and many right-wing elements feared that it would give too much power to criminals, homosexuals, minorities, and women at the expense of government authority; Scotland has incorporated the convention into her laws earlier in the year, it now becomes part of English and Welsh law, but aside from absolute bans on slavery and torture most of the rights in the convention are qualified or limited in some way.

Marian Anderson

Jan 7, Singer Marian Anderson made her debut with the Metropolitan Opera in New York, in Verdi's "Un Ballo in Maschera." She was the first black singer to perform there. 1955 Jan 18, Kevin Costner, actor (Dances With Wolves), was born in LA, Calif. 1955 Feb 8, John Grisham, writer (Client, Firm, Pelican Brief), was born 1955 Feb 17, Britain announced its ability to make hydrogen bombs. 1955 Mar 3, A truck driver from Tupelo, Ms., made his first-ever TV appearance on this night.

Elvis Aron Presley was featured on "Louisiana Hayride". This prompted promoters to send Elvis to New York City to audition for Arthur Godfrey’s immensely popular and career-making "Talent Scouts" program. Talent coordinators and Godfrey are said to have passed on Elvis appearing on the show. Not much later, he was tossed out of the Grand Ole Opry as well, and told to "go back to driving a truck." In a little over a year, however, the nation was caught up in Presley-mania which continues even today. 1955 Mar 11, Alexander Fleming (73), English bacteriologist (penicillin), died. 1955 Mar 24,

The Tennessee Williams play "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" opened on Broadway with Barbara Bel Geddes as Maggie, Ben Gazzara as Brick and Burl Ives as Big Daddy. Paul Newman won Gazzara’s role for the 1958 film. 1955 Apr 12, The Salk Vaccine was declared safe and effective. Salk vaccine shots for polio began to be given out to school kids. The March of Dimes accomplished its mission within 20 years. Research led by Dr. Jonas Salk and supported by funds (those marching little dimes) raised annually by thousands of volunteers, resulted in the announcement that the Salk polio vaccine was "safe, potent and effective."

The foundation also supported the research that led to the Sabin oral vaccine, another safe, effective polio preventative discovered by Dr. Albert B. Sabin. Following the victory over infantile paralysis, the March of Dimes turned its attention to conquering the largest killer and crippler of children: the mental and physical problems that are present at birth. Some 100 million people were given the vaccine during the 1950s and 1960s which was later found to be contaminated with the SV40 simian virus, a possible carcinogen. 1955 Apr 18, Albert Einstein (76), physicist, died in Princeton New Jersey.

Dr. Thomas Harvey, chief pathologist at Princeton Hospital, performed Albert Einstein’s autopsy. He removed the brain and took it home. In 2000 Michael Paterniti authored "Driving Mr. Albert: A Trip Across America with Einstein’s Brain." In 1999 it was reported that Einstein’s inferior parietal lobe was larger than normal. In 2000 Amir D. Aczel published "God's Equation: Einstein, Relativity, and the Expanding Universe." In 1983 Abraham Pais (d.2000 at 81) authored "Subtle Is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein." In 2000 Dennis Overbye authored "Einstein In Love," on Einstein’s 1st marriage with Mileva Maric.

In 2002 Fred Jerome authored "The Einstein File: J. Edgar Hoover’s Secret War Against the World’s Most Famous Scientist." In 2007 Walter Isaacson authored “Einstein: His Life and Universe;” Jurgen Neffe authored “Einstein: A Biography;” and Jozsef Illy edited “Albert Meets America,” a chronicle of Einstein’s first visit to the US (1921) on a fund-raising tour with Zionist leader Chaim Weizman. Apr 1, The first weather satellite, TIROS 1, was launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla. May 9, The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the pill Enovid as safe for birth control use. The pill was made by G.D. Searle and Company of Chicago. It was commissioned by Margaret Sanger and funded by heiress Katharine McCormick. In 2001 Carl Djerassi authored "This Man’s Pill: Reflections on the 50th Birthday of the Pill." Djerassi synthesized a key hormone in the pill in Mexico City in 1951.

Carly Simon

Events of the 70s.

1973 Jan 1, The European Union (EU) admitted Britain, Ireland and Denmark even though they made chocolate containing a small percentage of vegetable fat. 1973 Jan 2, The United States admitted the accidental bombing of a Hanoi hospital. 1973 Jan 3, The Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) got out of the baseball business this day by selling the New York Yankees to a 12-man syndicate headed by George Steinbrenner III for $10 million. 1973 Jan 6, “You’re So Vain” by Carly Simon peaked in the top 10 singles. 1973 Jan 8, The trial of Watergate burglars began in Washington, DC. In 2006 Andreas Killen authored “1973 Nervous Breakdown: Watergate, Warhol and the Birth of Post-Sixties America.” 1973 Jan 8, Secret peace talks between the US and North Vietnam resumed near Paris.

1973 Jan 9, All remaining differences were resolved between Kissinger and Le Duc Tho. President Thieu, once again threatened by Nixon with a total cut-off of American aid to South Vietnam, now unwillingly accepts the peace agreement, which still allows North Vietnamese troops to remain in South Vietnam.

Thieu labels the terms "tantamount to surrender" for South Vietnam. 1973 Jan 10, An empty liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank in Bloomfield on Staten Island exploded and 40 workers were killed. 1973 Jan 11, Owners of American League baseball teams voted to adopt the designated-hitter rule on a trial basis. 1973 Jan 11, The Dow Jones Industrials hit a peak of 1051.70. The market then began a 24 month decline of 46%. 1973 Jan 12, Yasir Arafat was re-elected as head of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. 1973 Jan 13, In Bernardsville, N.J., Rabbit Wells (21) was shot a killed by a local patrolman.

In 1998 William Loizeaux authored "The Shooting of Rabbit Wells: An American Tragedy." 1973 Jan 15, Gene Shalit (b.1932) replaced Joe Garagiola on the Today Show panel. 1973 Jan 15, President Nixon announced the suspension of all U.S. offensive action in North Vietnam, citing progress in peace negotiations. 1973 Jan 15, Four of six remaining Watergate defendants pleaded guilty. 1973 Jan 15, Pope Paul VI had an audience with Golda Meir at Vatican. 1973 Jan 16, NBC presented the 440th and final showing of "Bonanza."

Alfred Hitchcock

Alfred Hitchcock, destined to make sublime film thrillers, was born in London at the end of the Victorian era. He was the youngest child of an East End family whose father ran a poulterer's and greengrocer's business and whose mother came of Irish stock. The family was Catholic. Hitchcock loved his mother dearly and took after her in her quiet constancy . He grew up an independent youth given to attending films and plays on his own.

He also read widely, including works by Dickens, Poe, Flaubert, Wilde, Chesterton, and Buchan. With training in electrical engineering and draughtsmanship acquired at night school while working for a cable company, at age 20 he joined the London studios of Famous Players-Lasky, already affiliated with Paramount Pictures. In these early years he worked under two top directors. The first was an American, George Fitzmaurice, noted for the holistic way he conceived a picture, including its sets and costumes.

The other director was Graham Cutts. Cutts' vitality was reflected in both the subject-matter of his films – often emphasising theatrical spectacle – and their mise en scène invoking a sadomasochism of “the look” . Cutts' influence is obvious in the opening scenes of Hitchcock's first feature,

The Pleasure Garden (1925), set in and around a London music hall. But in fact the film was shot in Germany. For a year both men were employed there as part of a deal by producer Michael Balcon of Gainsborough Pictures. Hitchcock seized the chance to observe F.W. Murnau on the set of The Last Laugh (1924). Afterwards, he would describe Murnau's film as an almost perfect example of “pure cinema” – visual storytelling employing a minimum of title-cards.

No less crucial to Hitchcock's later development was his marriage in 1926 to his assistant Alma Reville. By all accounts, including that of the Hitchcocks' only child, Patricia (born 1928), the couple always remained devoted to each other. Alma made an ideal working collaborator. An experienced film editor and scripter, for 50 years she served as unofficial consultant on her husband's pictures, and could be his severest critic. The marriage, though affectionate, was hardly a grand passion.

By Hitchcock's admission, he led a celibate lifestyle full of sublimations, foremost among which was his work but which included travel, gourmandising at exclusive restaurants, attending both wrestling matches and symphony concerts at the Albert Hall, and collecting first editions and original works of art. A persistent theme of his films is the battle of the sexes.

It's tempting to speculate how much he drew on his own marriage. One hears that the diminutive Alma more than stood up to the often grossly overweight Alfred – being described as “peppery” and given to “bossing” her husband. Hitchcock's Blackmail (1929) was promoted as Britain's first full-length talkie (though that claim is still disputed). Then, in the mid-1930s, the director gained an international reputation with a series of brisk and audacious “chase” thrillers for Gaumont-British, including The 39 Steps (1935) and The Lady Vanishes (1938). In turn, Rebecca (1940) launched his American career.

That film began Hitchcock's systematic emphasis on “the subjective” (much of the film is ostensibly told from the point of view of one character) and thus, I would argue, immeasurably deepened his capacity to bring audiences out of the cold, to engage us at a fundamental level. Such Hitchcock masterpieces as Rear Window, Vertigo, and Psycho all owe a debt to Rebecca. Now, a key to Hitchcock's work is suitably psychological – “I like stories with lots of psychology”, he once confirmed – and is the key to be pursued here. To gay actor/screenwriter Rodney Ackland (Number Seventeen) he confided: “You know, if I hadn't met Alma at the right time, I could have become a poof.” There's no reason to doubt it.

The facts bear him out. In particular, biographer Donald Spoto reports that the youthful Hitchcock read Oscar Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) “several times”; Wilde's “decadent” novel may be the single most important literary influence on the director's work. It was, after all, written by an Irishman, who converted to Catholicism on his deathbed, and it reads like an iconoclastic thriller. Hitchcock's astute “every thing's perverted in a different way” probably derives from it. (Another of his favourite sayings, “Each man kills the thing he loves”, is classic Wilde.)

To understand the importance of Dorian Gray to such pivotal films as The Lodger, Murder!, Rope, Vertigo, and Psycho, we must traverse some surprising territory, but it may bring us to the heart of “the Hitchcock paradox”. Now that the Twentieth Century has drawn to a close, let us sit back and savor our memories of the events that shaped our world.

Or shaped our country. Or didn't shape much of anything. And of course, at least half of these probably won't really be memories to most of you unless you're a Centenarian or something. But don't let that stop you. Just pause for a moment with me here, won't you, and reflect on these Days Gone By. At the end of the last Century, Rome had long since fallen. The Dark Ages were drawing to a close and the Medieval Period was . . . no, wait, that's the end of the last Millennium, not the end of the last Century, isn't it? Ahem.

At the end of the Nineteenth Century, the auto-mobile had just been invented. Disinfection was still a new medical technique, and anaesthesia was limited to circus side shows. Human beings had never flown in heavier-than-air machines, unless you count gliding, which aviation historians apparently don't. The term "computer" referred to a profession, not a machine. Or at least that's what somebody told me, and it sounded like a good story so I'm reprinting it here.

In fact, all of my alleged historical facts pretty much belong in the hearsay category. I ain't a historian. I don't need to be. All I need to do is publish false information on a webpage and everybody will send me e-mail correcting it, won't you? Ah, the beauty of modern technology. (Actually, I didn't lavish nearly as much attention on this page as I did on That Wacky Millennium!. This page only covers 1/9 as much history, after all.) And if there's a favourite Historical Event of yours that happened in this century but that I left out (no, your first date does not count), send it to rogermw@ix.netcom.com and I may or may not get around to reading it. 1901 – The Nineteenth Century officially ends and the Twentieth Century begins. Unfortunately, everybody did all their partying in 1900 and never bothered to ask a Canadian.

President George Bush

1992 Jan 9, President Bush declared his trade visit to Japan a success, saying Japanese officials had agreed to increase imports of American cars, auto parts, computers and other goods. However, U.S. auto executives travelled with Bush sounded less enthusiastic. 1992 Jan 10, President Bush returned home from his grueling 12-day journey to Australia, Singapore, South Korea and Japan, boasting of "dramatic progress" on trade issues. 1992 Jan 10, In Algeria an army coup cancelled elections that were running strongly in favor of the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS).

France supported the move which led to a bloody struggle between the Algerian army and Algerian fundamentalist (Armed Islamic Group, GIA) guerillas that by 1995 claimed nearly 40,000 lives and numerous bomb attacks in France. 1992 Jan 11, The president of Algeria (Chadli Bendjedid) resigned, two weeks after Muslim fundamentalists had defeated his ruling party in legislative elections. 1992 Jan 12, The Washington Redskins won the NFC championship, defeating the Detroit Lions 41 to 10; the Buffalo Bills won the AFC title, beating the Denver Broncos 10 to 7.

1992 Jan 12, HAL, the Heuristically Programmed Algorithmic Computer, from the 1968 Arthur C. Clark and Stanley Kubrick movie and book, “became operational” at the HAL plant in Urbana, Illinois. [1997 article claimed 1/12/97 as birthdate] The book "HAL’s Legacy: 2001’s Computer as Dream and Reality" was published in 1997 by MIT Press. The birthday in the movie was 1/12/92. 1992 Jan 12,

One day after the surprise resignation of Algeria's president, Chadli Bendjedid, the army-backed Algerian government canceled parliamentary elections to prevent fundamentalist Muslims from winning power. 1992 Jan 13, US serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer in a pretrial hearing pleaded guilty but insane in fifteen of the seventeen murders he confessed to committing. 1992 Jan 13, Israeli, Palestinian and Jordanian negotiators began talks in Washington on Palestinian autonomy.

1992 Jan 13, Japan apologized for forcing tens of thousands of Korean women to serve as sex slaves for Japanese soldiers during World War II. 1992 Jan 14, Historic Mideast peace talks continued in Washington, with Israel and Jordan holding their first-ever formal negotiations, and the Israelis continuing exchanges with Palestinian representatives.

1992 Jan 15, The Yugoslav federation, founded in 1918, effectively collapsed as the European Community recognized the republics of Croatia and Slovenia. 1992 Jan 16, Officials of the government of El Salvador and rebel leaders signed a pact in Mexico City ending 12 years of civil war that had left at least 75,000 people dead. 1992 Jan 17, President Bush laid a wreath at the crypt of Martin Luther King Jr. in Atlanta. 1992 Jan 17, IBM announced a nearly $5B loss for 1991. 1992 Jan 17, Eight Protestant laborers were killed in an IRA bombing in Northern Ireland. 1992 Jan 18, The Hollywood Foreign Press Association presented its Golden Globe awards, considered a forerunner of the Academy Awards; no clear favourite emerged as the Walt Disney animated film "Beauty and the Beast," "Bugsy," "JFK" and "The Prince of Tides" were honoured.

Chicago about 22 inches of snow

1999 Jan 2, In Chicago about 22 inches of snow fell on the city and across the northern Midwest. In Detroit some 4,000 travelers were stranded in planes on the tarmac for as long as 9 hours. 1999 Jan 2, Rolf Liebermann, Swiss composer, died in Paris. He led the Hamburg Opera from 1959-1972 and the Paris Opera from 1973-1980. His work included "Eleonore 40/45," "Penelope," "L'Ecole des Femmes" and "La Foret." 1999 Jan 2, In Angola rebel forces shot down a UN plane with 8 people shortly after takeoff from Huambo; there were no survivors. The plane was later found with bullets in the tail section and the flight recorders removed. 1999 Jan 2, In Egypt police arrested 71 suspected Muslim militants over the last 3 days on suspicion of plotting to kill senior government officials.

1999 Jan 2, In the Philippines rebels lobbed a grenade into a crowd watching firemen fight a fire on Jolo Island and at least 10 people were killed and 74 injured. The Abu Sayyaf guerrillas were believed to be responsible. 1999 Jan 3, The Mars Polar Lander was launched. Landing was scheduled for Dec 3 with probes designed to burrow 3 feet into the Mars surface. 1999 Jan 3, Chicagoans dug out from their biggest snowstorm in more than 30 years. 1999 Jan 3, In Wyoming Cindy Thompson Dixon was found dead near a road about 5 miles north of Laramie. She was reported to have frozen to death after leaving a bar.

She was the mother of Russell Henderson , who was waiting in jail for trial in the death of Matthew Shepard. Henderson pleaded guilty to murder in 1999 to avoid a trial and possible death sentence. He was sentenced to 2 consecutive life terms without eligibility for parole. 19991999 Jan 2, In Chicago about 22 inches of snow fell on the city and across the northern Midwest.

In Detroit some 4,000 travelers were stranded in planes on the tarmac for as long as 9 hours. 1999 Jan 2, Rolf Liebermann, Swiss composer, died in Paris. He led the Hamburg Opera from 1959-1972 and the Paris Opera from 1973-1980. His work included "Eleonore 40/45," "Penelope," "L'Ecole des Femmes" and "La Foret." 1999 Jan 2, In Angola rebel forces shot down a UN plane with 8 people shortly after takeoff from Huambo; there were no survivors. The plane was later found with bullets in the tail section and the flight recorders removed. 1999 Jan 2, In Egypt police arrested 71 suspected Muslim militants over the last 3 days on suspicion of plotting to kill senior government officials. 1999 Jan 2, In the Philippines rebels lobbed a grenade into a crowd watching firemen fight a fire on Jolo Island and at least 10 people were killed and 74 injured.

The Abu Sayyaf guerrillas were believed to be responsible. 1999 Jan 3, The Mars Polar Lander was launched. Landing was scheduled for Dec 3 with probes designed to burrow 3 feet into the Mars surface. 1999 Jan 3, Chicagoans dug out from their biggest snowstorm in more than 30 years. 1999 Jan 3, In Wyoming Cindy Thompson Dixon was found dead near a road about 5 miles north of Laramie. She was reported to have frozen to death after leaving a bar.

She was the mother of Russell Henderson , who was waiting in jail for trial in the death of Matthew Shepard. Henderson pleaded guilty to murder in 1999 to avoid a trial and possible death sentence. He was sentenced to 2 consecutive life terms without eligibility for parole. 1999 Jan 3, In NYC Andrew Goldstein pushed Kendra Webdale into the path of an oncoming train at Manhattan's 23rd St. and Broadway station. Goldstein, a schizophrenic who refused to take his anti-psychotic medicine, was later convicted for 2nd degree murder. This led to "Kendra's Law," which allows violent patients to be medicated by force.

V-J Day in Times Square

The international framework of 20th‐century development was formed by two world wars, economic depression and the resolution of the cold war. All societies were influenced as global relationships intensified. International organizations formed to offer a different path to resolving global crises. Massive population growth tripled global numbers and produced new migration streams. American popular culture gained worldwide attention. Confidence and Internationalism on the Eve of World Warʹs I.

Before 1914 Westerners regarded themselves as members of a civilization making constant advances favorable to humanity and, through imperialism, bringing this enlightenment to other world areas. First steps were underway in creating international organizations. In 1851 an International Statistical Congress began standardization efforts. The Red Cross was established in 1854 by the Geneva Convention.

The Telegraphic Union (1865) and the Postal Union (1875) brought the world closer together. The habit of thinking internationally influenced all fields. The steps represented an important trend in world history, but there were weaknesses.

They were based on Western dominance and made primarily for Europeans. Rising nationalism and political affairs limited internationalist thinking. Efforts made to limit armaments at the close of the 19th century had little success, although the World Court was established at The Hague. World War I. The war demonstrated many 20th century trends. Nationalist hostilities weakened Europe as nationalism and revolution occurred in other regions. The Onset of World War I.

Europe was divided into two rival alliance systems before 1914. Although most of the worldʹs available territory had been claimed, nations often used military and diplomatic measures to defuse social tensions at home. The Balkans became a dangerous trouble spot where rival small nations contested and where the great powers had interests.

The assassination of an Austrian archduke by a Serbian nationalist in 1914 provided the cause for war. Austria‐Hungary, supported by Germany, moved to attack Serbia. Russia responded by mobilizing its military, causing Germany to declare war on Russia and its ally, France.

When Germany invaded Belgium to strike France, Britain entered the war. Patterns of War in Europe. The war was fought on two major fronts. In the west the Germans fought the French and British in France; in the east Germany and Austria‐Hungary fought the Russians.

A 3rd front opened when the Italians joined the British and French. On the seas the principal contest was between the British navy and German submarines. On the western front modern technology created a devastating stalemate that kept the military confined to trenches. In eastern Europe the fighting occurred in western Russia and in the Balkans where the small states joined in to gain local advantage. The war resulted in unprecedented government growth. The executive branch of government increased power at the expense of parliaments, and governments manipulated public opinion and suppressed dissent.

The War Outside Europe. The presence of the West in all world regions inevitably spread the conflict. The British Dominions quickly gave support to Britain and their troops fought on many fronts. The United States at first remained neutral and sold goods to both sides and made loans to governments. For the first time in its history the United States moved from being a debtor to a creditor nation.

American leadership remained pro‐British and when German submarines struck at American vessels public opinion turned interventionist. The United States entered the war in 1917. Its men and materials helped to turn the balance against the Germans. The United States also introduced a new current of idealism that influenced the war’s results. Combatants in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East. Hostilities occurred in Africa as the Allies moved to seize the German colonies.

France used African troops on the European front; Britain sent Indian forces to several war theaters. The increased awareness gained of European realities helped to stimulate nationalistic responses among the African and Asian participants. In East Asia Japan joined the Allies to share in seizing German holdings. Australia and New Zealand occupied German Samoa. China also declared war on Germany.

The war was very important in the Middle East. The Ottoman Empire allied with Germany, and the British in return sponsored Arab national movements opposing the regime. They promised in the Balfour Declaration of 1917 to support Jewish settlement in Palestine.

The Ottoman Empire fell apart because of the war. The Warʹs End. In March 1917 war pressures on the weakened Russian state caused a revolution that ended the tsarist government. When Lenin and the Communists came to power they ended the war in 1918 through the Treaty of Brest‐Litovsk. The heavy fighting on the Western front continued without issue until a last German offensive in 1918 failed. As the Allies began a counteroffensive the German generals installed a civilian government that sued for peace in 1918.

The Treaty of Versailles

The Peace and the Aftermath. The Treaty of Versailles left its signers unsatisfied. The French regained lost provinces, but did not gain security from Germany. Italy felt that it did not gain enough territory, while Japan was ignored during the negotiations. Woodrow Wilson of the United States hoped to settle nationalist issues and create a League of Nations to ensure peace, but he was not supported by American public opinion. China, weakened by internal divisions, lost territory to Japan.

The multi‐ethnic Austro‐Hungarian Empire collapsed before nationalist risings that led to the formation of Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and an enlarged Yugoslavia. Germany lost lands to France and to the new Polish state. Its colonial empire was divided among the victors. Germany had to pay large reparations to the allies. Communist Russia was not at the conference; it lost territory to Poland and the Baltic states. The treaty set the stage for a very insecure future. The Warʹs Devastations and Dislocations.

The war weakened Europe both internally and externally. Over 10 million people died; France and Serbia lost over one‐tenth of their population. The dead young men were the workers and leaders of the future; their loss hampered the birthrate. There also was massive destruction in industry and agriculture. Government borrowing to finance the war left massive debts and caused inflation. Outside Europe the colonial world survived, but there were many indigenous leaders beginning to talk about independence. Changes were very apparent in the Middle East.

Although a Turkish republic succeeded the Ottoman Empire, most of its territories were divided into League of Nations’ mandates. The British took Palestine and Iraq; the French gained Syria and Lebanon.

New or renewed kingdoms, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, appeared in the politically‐ fragmented Middle East. There were international economic reverberations after the peace settlement. The United States and Japan took over European export markets; Britain never recovered its former position. The war led to the new League of Nations, but, despite useful information and social work, it had minimal influence in international affairs.

The Great Depression

The Great Depression. International economic depression dominated the 1930s. Problems in the industrial economy of Europe and the United States, and long‐term weaknesses elsewhere, caused global‐wide collapse. New governmental policies emerged to meet the crisis. So did extremist political groups. Causes of Economic Instability.

The impact of World War I influenced European economies into the early 1920s. Serious inflation in Germany was only resolved through massive currency devaluation in 1923. A general recession occurred in 1920 and 1921, although production levels rose again by 1923.

Britain had a very slow recovery because of competition within its export markets. There were many general structural problems. Western farmers faced chronic overproduction; prices fell and continuing flight from the land followed. Overproduction similarly harmed the dependent areas of the world economy and lessened their ability to import Western manufactured goods.

Governments lacked knowledge of economics and provided little leadership during the 1920s. Nationalist selfishness predominated and protectionism further reduced market opportunities. Collapse and Crisis. The depression began in October 1929 when the New York stock market crashed. Stock values fell and banks failed. Americans called back their European loans and caused bank failures.

Investment capital disappeared. Industrial production fell, causing unemployment and lower wages. Both blue‐collar and middle class workers suffered as the depression grew worse from 1929 to 1933. Worldwide Impact. A few economies escaped incorporation in the depression.

The Soviet Union, isolated by its Communist directed economy, went about the business of creating rapid industrial development without outside capital. In most other nations the depression worsened existing hard times. Western markets were unable to absorb imports, causing unemployment in economies producing foods and raw materials. Japanʹs dependence on exports caused similar problems.

Latin American governments responded to the crisis by greater involvement in planning and direction; the Japanese increased their suspicions of the West and thought about gaining secure markets in Asia. In the West the depression led to welfare programs and to radical social and political experiments. The global quality of the depression made it impossible for any purely national policy to restore prosperity and contributed to the second international world war..

World War II, also known as the Second World War

World War II. The hostilities leading to the outbreak of war in 1939 started earlier in the decade. Japan and Germany began military actions that were met with passive responses from other powerful states exacerbated nationalistic and ideological tensions that included Western fears of the Soviet Union. New Authoritarian Regimes.

The depression contributed to the rise of ultra nationalist groups. In Japan one such group killed the prime minister in 1932 and caused the inauguration of a military regime. The military already had moved into Manchuria in 1931 to counter Chinese efforts to reunify their nation. The Japanese proclaimed Manchuria an independent state.

When the League of Nations condemned the step, Japan withdrew from the League. In Germany the depression followed a degenerating political situation and created political chaos. The National Socialist (Nazi) Party of Adolf Hitler advocated an authoritarian state and an aggressive foreign policy. With conservative support Hitler legally took power in 1933 and quickly built a totalitarian state.

The Nazis deliberately created a war machine. Italy had been following a similar path. Benito Mussolini formed a fascist state during the 1920s; with Hitler in power he reacted more forcefully to attain nationalistic triumphs. The Steps toward War.

Hitler began the process ending in war as Germany suspended reparation payments and in 1935 began rearming. In 1936 Germany occupied the Rhineland. Britain and France did nothing to counter the violations of the Versailles treaty. Mussolini in 1935 attacked and defeated Ethiopia without significant reaction from the international community. In 1936 civil war began in Spain between authoritarian and republican and leftist groups. Germany and Italy supported the Spanish right and Russia the left. The principal democracies remained inert. The republicans were defeated by 1939. In 1938 Hitler united Austria to Germany and later marched into part of Czechoslovakia. Britain and France at Munich accepted Germanyʹs move in return for promises of peace.

Hitler went ahead to take the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939 and signed an alliance with the Soviet Union. When Hitler invaded Poland in 1939, Russia moved into Poland and the Baltic states. Britain and France declared war against Germany. War began in China with a Japanese invasion in 1937. In 1940 Germany, Italy, and Japan concluded an alliance. When the war began the European powers desiring to preserve the status quo were unprepared for conflict. The United States wished to remain neutral.

Pearl habour

The Course of the War: Japanʹs Advance and Retreat. Stalemate against China turned the Japanese to other parts of Asia; they moved into Indochina, Malaya, and Burma. The United States withheld materials necessary for the Japanese war effort and when all negations broke down Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in late 1941. The Philippines were seized in 1942.

By the end of 1942 the United States gained the initiative and went on to recover lost possessions and in 1944 to begin massive air attacks on Japan. Germany Overreaches. By 1940 German forces had defeated Poland, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Belgium, and France. Germany aided Italy to seize Yugoslavia and Greece, and both nations pressed against British and French territories in North Africa. Britain held on and won the battle for control of its air space. The conquered lands were forced to supply resources for the German war machine.

By 1941 the balance of the war began to turn. Hitler stretched German resources by invading Russia. In late 1941 the United States joined the alliance against Germany. The Americans and British in 1942 pushed the Germans and Italians back in North Africa while Russia at Stalingrad broke the German advance and began their own successful offensive. Italy was invaded by the British and Americans and Germany suffered heavy bombing. In 1944 the Allies invaded France and gradually surged into western Germany as the Russians moved into eastern regions.

Germany surrendered in May 1945. A few months later Japan surrendered after American use of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Human Costs. The war caused a massive, worldwide, loss of life. Nazi gaschambers resulted in 6 million deaths.

The air forces of both sides attacked civilian centers. and caused massive losses. Over 78,000 people died from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The war in all sectors cost the lives of at least 35 million people, 20 million of them in the Soviet Union. In Depth: Total War. During the 20th century total war, the marshaling of vast resources and emotional commitments, emerged. It was the result of the impact of industrialization on military effort.

The change had been underway since mass conscription was introduced during the wars of the era of the French revolution. Industrial technology was first applied on a large scale during the American Civil War. A new style of warfare appeared. World War I fully demonstrated the nature of total war. Governments took control of many aspects of their societies. The distinction between military and civilians blurred as bombing raids hit densely populated regions. The consequences of the new warfare were important. Workers, including women, secured concessions.

Technological research produced useful peaceful benefits. Total warfare produced embittered veterans, made post‐war diplomacy difficult, and resulted in societal tensions.. The Settlement of World War II. The victors in the war attempted to make a peace avoiding the mistakes made after World War I. The United Nations was established to allow for peaceful settlement of disputes. The great powers ‐ United States, Soviet Union, Britain, France, China ‐ controlled decisions in the Security Council. Discussions about the postwar future began among the United States, Britain, and Russia in 1942.

The three met at Teheran in 1943 where the West agreed to an invasion of France and left Russia free to move into eastern Europe. The three met again at Yalta in 1945. The Soviet Union agreed to join against Japan in return for territorial gains in China and Japan. Agreement over Europeʹs future was difficult. A disarmed Germany, purged of Nazi influence, was divided into four occupied zones. Eastern Europe, although promises were made for a democratic future, was left under Soviet domination.

The final postwar conference was at Potsdam in 1945. By then the Soviets occupied eastern Europe and eastern Germany. They annexed eastern Poland while the Poles gained compensation by receiving part of eastern Germany. Germany and Austria were divided and occupied. In East Asia Japan was occupied by the United States and stripped of its wartime gains.

Korea was freed, but was divided into United States and Soviet occupation zones. Asian colonies returned to their former rulers. China regained most of its territory but civil strife continued between the Communists and nationalist. In other regions colonial holdings were reconfirmed. In Europe Russiaʹs frontiers were pushed westward to regain its World War I losses. Most nations existing in 1918 were restored, although the Baltic states once again became Russian provinces. All states except Greece and Yugoslavia fell under Soviet domination. Western nations were free, but under American influence.

cold war

The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945‐1989. Rivalries began in Europe. The Soviets created an eastern block by installing communist governments in their occupied territories. The United States responded by supporting regimes under Soviet pressure; in 1947 it proclaimed the Marshall Plan to rebuild Western Europe. Germany emerged as the focal point of the Cold War. The Allies cooperated to begin rebuilding a unified West Germany in 1946.

The Soviets retaliated by blockading Berlin in 1947; an American massive airlift kept the city supplied. The crisis ended in 1948 with two Germanys divided by a fortified border. The Cold War divisions led to two military alliances: NATO was formed in 1949 under American leadership; the Soviets responded by the Warsaw Pact. By then the Soviets had nuclear weapons and from then on Russia and the United States engaged in a major arms race.

With Europe stabilized Cold War tensions turned to the global arena. When North Korea invaded South Korea in 1949 the United Nations, under American leadership, fought back. Elsewhere the Cold War rivals allied and supported friendly regimes in all continents. Nuclear confrontation almost occurred over a Soviet effort to install missiles in Cuba.

War occurred when the United States unsuccessfully intervened against communist forces in Vietnam. The Cold War also was an ideological struggle. with many other nations pressured into selecting one of the rival views of the future. Cold War intensity declined after the 1950s. By the 1970s arms limitation agreements were signed. Most European colonies in Africa and Asia gained independence. Some established close relations with different Cold War rivals; others, like India, were non-aligned. New international connections emerged as global economic interactions increased. The Cold War closed in the 1980s as the economically weakening Soviet Union was unable to match American military spending. In 1989 the Soviet Union had to recognize the independence of its European satellites.

The communist system in Europe then collapsed, and the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Period III: The 1990s and Beyond. Several new international and military features appeared in the initial stages of the new era. The military power of the United States was unrivalled. regional conflicts required new attention. The United Nation and the United States attempted, with varying results, to contain them. Regional identities heightened. In East Asia, the Islamic world, and India.

New emphasis was placed on regional, supranational, trade blocks ‐ the European Union, the North american free trade agreement, and looser arrangements in other areas. Most major societies moved towards more common commercial policies.

State‐run enterprises were replaced by increased private competition and freer market forces. A move to democratic political processes, beginning in the late 1970s, continued. No single framework emerged in an international era where superpower rivalry had disappeared. Conclusion: A Legacy of Uncertainty. World War II and the continuing rivalry following weakened Western Europe. New superpowers emerged, and American cultural influences surged. Asian and African peoples were able to take advantages of the changes to end colonial domination. The rebalancing of world power and the increase in importance of the global economy were the main results of the postwar era.

Red cross

The idea that peoples should unite across national boundaries; gained popularity during the 19th century; led to the establishment of organizations like the International Red Cross. World Court: permanent arbitration court established at The Hague in 1899; failed to resolve problems of international conflict. western front: war line between Belgium and Switzerland during World War I; featured trench warfare and massive casualties among combatants. Italian front: war line between Italy and Austria‐Hungary; also produced trench warfare. eastern front: war zone from the Baltic to the Balkans where Germans, Austro‐Hungarians, Russians, and Balkan nations fought. submarine warfare: a major part of the German naval effort against the allies during World War I; when employed against the United States it precipitated American participation in the war. Balfour Declaration (1917): British promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine. Brest‐Litovsk Treaty (1918): Russia and Germany agreement; Russia withdrew from the World War I and lost territory to Germany in return for peace.

Treaty of Versailles: ended World War I; punished Germany with loss of territory and payment of reparations; did not satisfy any of the signatories. League of Nations: international organization of nations created after World War I; designed to preserve world peace; United States never a member. socialism in one country: Stalinʹs concept of Russian communism based solely upon internal Soviet development; the resulting isolation helped the Soviet Union to avoid some of the consequences of the Great depression.

National Socialist (Nazi) Party: led by Hitler in Germany; gained support during economic chaos after World War I and the Great Depression; advocated an authoritarian state and an aggressive foreign policy; gained power in 1933. Adolf Hitler: Nazi leader of Germany from 1933 to 1945; led Germany into World War II. Benito Mussolini: Italian leader who created a fascist government during the 1920s; stressed an aggressive foreign policy and nationalist glories. anschluss: union between Germany and Austria under Hitler in 1938.

Munich Conference: meeting caused by German occupation of part of Czechoslovakia in 1938; Western leaders agreed to the action after Germany promised future peace. appeasement: name given to the policy of British leader Neville Chamberlain because of his acceptance at the Munich Conference of German aggression. Tripartite Pact: 1940 alliance between Japan, Germany, and Italy. Munich conference: 1938 meeting between German, French, and British leaders; allowed Czechoslovakia to be dismembered by Germany in return for promises of future peace.

Tripartite Pact (1940): treaty between Germany, Japan, and Italy Pearl Harbor: American naval base in Hawaii attacked by Japan in Dec. 1941; caused American entry into World War II. blitzkrieg: German term meaning lightening warfare; involved rapid movement of troops and tanks. Vichy: collaborationist French government established at Vichy in 1940 following defeat by Germany. Winston Churchill: British prime minister during World War II; exemplified British determination to resist Germany. siege of Stalingrad: 1942 turning point during Germanyʹs invasion of Russia; Russians successfully defended the city and then went on the offensive. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: two Japanese cities on which the United States dropped atomic bombs in 1945; caused Japanese surrender. Holocaust: Germanyʹs attempted extermination of European Jews; resulted in six million deaths.

Teheran Conference (1943): meeting between the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union; decided to open a new front against Germany in France; gave the Russians a free hand in eastern Europe. Yalta Conference (1945): agreed upon Soviet entry into war against Japan, organization of the United nations; left eastern Europe to the Soviet Union. Potsdam Conference (1945): meeting between the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union in 1945; the allies accepted Soviet control of eastern Europe; Germany and Austria were divided among the victors. Cold War: struggle from 1945 to 1989 between the communist and democratic worlds; ended with the collapse of Russia. eastern block: the eastern European countries of Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, and Eastern

Germany dominated by the Soviet Union during the Cold War. iron curtain: term coined by Churchill for the division between the Western and Soviet spheres. Marshall Plan: United States program begun in 1947 to help Western European nations recover from the devastation of World War II. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization; formed in 1949 to counter the threat of Soviet Union; included western European democracies, Canada, and the United States.

Warsaw Pact: the Soviet response to NATO; made up of Soviets and their European satellites. Korean War: war following the 1949 invasion of South Korea by North Korea; communist powers supported the former, the Western powers the latter. Vietnamese war: a long struggle beginning with the Vietnamese effort to expel the French; the United States unsuccessfully intervened to prevent communist victory. nonalignment: newly independent former colonial nations who proclaimed neutrality during the Cold War.

The 20th century has seen a huge upsurge in the importance placed by Western society on physical beauty, particularly for women. The fashion, cosmetics and plastic surgery industries have thrived on 20th century preoccupation with physical appearance. It is a preoccupation that affects women in every sphere, whether they choose to pander to it or not. This essay examines female beauty in the 20th century in terms of popular culture, in particular fashion, cinema and advertising. before exploring these areas, I intend to deal briefly with basic definitions of beauty. The main body of the essay will then be concerned with an overview of each decade's particular take in female beauty.

According to Kant, the judgement of beauty is different from cognitive or moral judgement because it is effected subjectively, that is, exclusively in reference to the person making the judgement. For a judgement to be truly “aesthetic”, rather than merely idiosyncratic, the person making the judgement must be adamant that their opinion be consensus. “A person who describes something as beautiful insists that everyone ought to give the object in question his approval and follow suit.” Plato, one of the earliest philosophers to concern himself with beauty, defined it as a “property intrinsic in objects” which could be measured in “purity, integrity, harmony and perfection.”

Definitions of beauty in the 20th century, when referring to human physical beauty, are nearly always constructed in terms of outward appearance and sexual attractiveness. Nancy Baker's definition is The Beauty Trap is more concerned with intangible personal qualities. “A truly beautiful woman makes the best of her physical assets but, more importantly, she also radiates a personal quality which is attractive.” In Beauty In History, Arthur Marwick defines a human physical beauty in more direct terms: “The beautiful are those who are immediately exciting to almost all of the opposite sex.”

For the first two decades of the 20th century, many of the attitudes towards beauty associated with the 19th century remained. In Victorian society, it was considered a woman's duty to make herself beautiful. In the early 20th century, this was coupled with the idea of “self-presentation” as enjoyable, expressive and creative. However, some of the more bizarre and painful “beauty aids” of the Victorian age continued to be marketed well into the 1920s. A particularly unpleasant example is “M.Trielty's Nose Shaper”, described as a “metal object ... held over the nose by straps buckled round the head and adjusted with screws.”

One of the main elements of this century's perception of beauty that sets it apart from the 19th century is the polarity of cosmetics. In the last century, cosmetics were frowned upon in society as the mark of a prostitute. The cosmetics industry grew from the roots of the manufacturing of theatre make-up by Helena Rubenstein and Max Factor, who adapted their products for everyday use.

From puberty onwards, young girls use cosmetics in order to look older an attract older boys. Conversely, their mothers use cosmetics in order to disguise the flaws of age and maintain a youthful appearance. That is not to say that the cosmetics boom does not have its adversaries: many feminists believe the marketing of cosmetics, along with high fashion, to be an exploitation of women by male industry moguls. Some women resent having to use cosmetics in order to compete in the workforce. But for many women, the cosmetics ritual is not a chore or a necessary evil, but an enjoyable activity in itself. It is not purely for the benefit of men that women wear cosmetics, but for themselves and each other.

The cosmetics and fashion industries are interdependent with the medium of advertising. Cynthia White points out that the turnabout in opinions on cosmetics is women's magazines in the 1920s coincided with the increase of cosmetics advertising in the same publications. Advertising is often presumed to have little cultural value, but is a powerful way in which attitudes towards women and beauty are reinforced. The 20th century fascination with celebrities is a tool expertly used in the advertising industry. If a beautiful model, or more effectively a beautiful celebrity is used in an advertisement, the qualities associated with that person are transferred onto the product.

Another major influence on this century's attitudes towards beauty was the growth of the film industry. For the first half of the century, all the major beauty icons were film actresses. It was a medium that allowed women who would have previously been overlooked to shine. For instance, the 19th century aversion to redheads was still in place as late as the 20s. It was that black-and-white medium that allowed Clara Bow to be the exception.

However, stars such as Bette Davis and Katherine Turner who could not be described as “conventionally beautiful” invariably came from middle or upper class backgrounds. Beauty was an essential attribute for a working class woman to become successful in Hollywood. This period was also the beginning of the ties between the film and fashion industries, which would continue for decades to come.

Up to the 1910s, the “Gibson Girl”, invented by Charles Dana Gibson in the 1890s, was still considered to be the ideal of femininity. The Victorian ideal of “the chaste and delicate woman” continued to be embodied in the form of childlike, virginal film stars such as Lillian Gish and Mary Pickford. A more typical 20th century contrast was provided by Theda Bara, who was perpetually cast in the role of the Vamp.

By the second decade of the century, fashion was losing its Victorian austerity, and giving way to soft, draping, Oriental-inspired fabrics. However, corsets were still worn, and the fashion for long, narrow skirts prompted the popularity of the “hobble garter”, a device worn around the calves to stop women from taking long strides and splitting their skirts.

One reason given by Fred E. H. Schroeder, quoted in Women In Popular Culture, for the continuing popularity of long skirts was the bulky menstrual cloths worn by women until the advent of disposable feminine hygiene products in the 20s.

1920s fashion placed more importance on “natural endowment” than any time in the preceding centuries. although cosmetics were worn to conceal natural flaws, their main function was to draw attention to women's natural features. Skirts became shorter than they had possibly ever been, but in contradiction to the atmosphere of freedom in fashion, feminine curves became unfashionable. Women wore “flatteners” to minimise their busts, and waistlines were lowered to hip level.

The ubiquitous bobbed hairstyles of the 20s were originally cut in barber shops. When barbers failed to meet the demands of fashionable young things, beauty shops sprang up everywhere. the new technique of permanent waving was immensely popular: American women spent $250m on perms alone during the 1920s.

The icons of the 1920s were represented, again exclusively in the cinema, by the up-front sexuality of Jean Harlow, Clara Bow and Mae West, together with the “mysterious androgyny” of Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich. The theme of androgyny was to be continually repeated throughout the century, particularly in the 60s and 80s.

The Production Code enforced on Hollywood films in the 1930s put an end to the sexual content of the films of the 20s, however tame, including a ban on miscegenation. Although sexuality was played down, the change in content meant that roles for women became more realistic, resulting in the rise of “wholesome” stars such as Katherine Hepburn and Jean Arthur. 1930s fashion favoured tall women with wide shoulders and narrow hips, a type exemplified by Greta Garbo. Hem-lines dropped and waistlines returned to their normal position, and the “erogenous zone” shifted from legs to the back, coinciding with the increasing popularity of sunbathing.

World War II brought strict controls on clothing production for the following decade. The principal 1940s look was a practical and masculine style (“the Utility Lines”) with padded shoulders and knee-length hem-lines. Shortage of materials for stockings led to the popularity of trousers for women. In the late 40s, as a reaction to wartime austerity, Christian Dior launched the “New Look”, with corseted waists, padded hips and billowing skirts, using far more fabric than most women's rations would allow.

Despite its exclusive nature, Dior's look revolutionised fashion and influenced the return to overt femininity in the next decade. The cinema continued its influence throughout the war years; icons of the 40s were as diverse as Vivien Leigh, Joan Crawford, Bette Davis and Rosalind Russell.

Fashion in the 50s was divided between the sophisticated Chanel/Dior end of the scale, and the newly invented teenage style. The archetypal 50s teenage girl wore tight sweaters, pointed bras and circular skirts, with tight trousers and Beatnik black becoming de rigeur for both sexes. Particularly in America, there was an emphasis on conformity and “flaw concealment” self-presentation. This was especially true for black women, who were encouraged to look as white as possible by straightening their hair and lightening their skin.

Three of the major film stars of the 50s, Marilyn Monroe, Jayne Mansfield and Kim Novak, were blonde and extremely curvaceous, harking back to the overt sexuality of the 1920s stars. Contrast was provided by the overtly non-sexual Doris Day. The changing sexual climate meant that Marilyn Monroe was able to turn the discovery of nude photos, taken before her rise to fame, to her advantage.

This would not have been possible ten years previously. In contrast to Monroe, Grace Kelly realised every little girl's dream of becoming a princess, and embodied a demure sophistication that made her a role model for socialites worldwide. It is interesting to note that the 1950s also saw the introduction of both the Barbie doll and Playboy magazine.

The 1960s was a decade of tremendous importance with regard to the late 20th century perception of beauty. The idea of beauty as a “status characteristic” on an equal footing with wealth and social position has its roots in the 60s. This is summed up by film director Michaelangelo Antonioni's description of his stars (e.g. David Hemmings and Vanessa Redgrave in Blow-up): “They are the heroes of the age, they have invented the new canons of beauty.” French and Italian film actresses replaced Hollywood stars as the chic role models, and fashion models rivalled film stars as the professional “beautiful people.” Due to the increasing focus on sexuality of the decade, young people abandoned rules of fashion which decreed modesty and concealed the imperfections of older people. The most obvious example of this is the mini-skirt, invented by Mary Quant in 1964.

The obvious artifice of the 50s gave way to a more “natural” approach to personal appearance. Nonetheless, the celebrated natural look was no less contrived than its 50s counterpart. In The Truth About Modelling, Jean Shrimpton talks about spending forty minutes applying her “natural look” make-up. Shrimpton, along with Twiggy, epitomised a new kind of beauty icon, the model-as-superstar. Twiggy was naturally thin, but most women had to struggle to achieve the same look. Cosmetic surgery became increasingly popular in the modelling industry, with removal of the back teeth and lower ribs becoming common operations.

In the late 60s and early 70s there was a marked decrease in the presence of female cinema stars. But this era also saw the beginning of rebellion against “imposed ideas of feminine beauty”. Individuality was expressed in customised clothes and the ethnic look. In the early 70s, the futurism of the 60s gave way to nostalgia. Long hair and flared trousers were compulsory for both sexes, and mini skirts were replaced by hot pants and ankle-length maxi-skirts. The popularity of platform soles in the mid-70s resulted in thousands of sprained ankles in the name of fashion, a performance that was repeated two decades later by the daughters of 70s fashion victims.

The late 70s saw the abolition of flared trousers and long hair under the influence of punk. A watered-down version of the punk aesthetic, combined with the influence of Japanese designers such as Kenzo and Miyake was to be the fashion template for the following decade. The health and fitness boom also has an enormous influence on 80s fashion, producing leotards, ra-ra skirts, leggings and tracksuits.

The popularity of careerism and power-dressing in the 80s saw women adopting the dress codes of men in the workplace. The 80s equivalent to Grace Kelly was Princess Diana, who was even more demure, more sophisticated and more emulated than her 50s counterpart.

Towards the end of the 80s, the underwear-as-outerwear look popularised by Madonna, Cher and Kylie Minogue found its way into mainstream fashion, where it would remain well into the 90s. Madonna symbolised the archetypal 80s woman: undeniably sexual and feminine, yet successful and in control. Kylie, on the other hand, had to drop her girl-next-door image and transform herself into “sex-Kylie” before becoming a bona-fide icon.

The 20th century's unbreakable link between beauty and success was consolidated in the 80s. This phenomenon was illustrated in a survey published in the Journal Of Applied Social Psychology in 1983. Participants were asked to match up women of varying degrees of attractiveness with jobs that they deemed suitable. Not only did attractive people receive a more positive response, but recommendations for their salaries were higher.

Although female curves enjoyed something of a comeback in the 80s, the obsession with fitness reinforced the thin-is-beautiful mythology. This culminated in the early 90s, with the underweight “waif” look, epitomised by Kate Moss, at the height of its popularity. Arthur Marwick states in Beauty In History that “anything which ... draws attention to mortality is very definitely not beautiful.” This does not take into account the 1990s fascination with underweight models and “junkie chic”. However, there is a marked difference between the body types of women who appear in fashion magazines and those who appear in men's publication and pornography. As Kathy Myers points out in Looking On: “There is an overall tendency to market `fleshier' women to men and thinner, sometimes sexually androgynous images of women to female audiences.”

By 90s standards Marilyn Monroe, the archetypal beauty icon of the 1950s, would be considered fat. Yet the average size of women in Europe and America had risen sufficiently by the 1980s to prompt clothes manufacturers to alter their sizing systems. There seems to be a link between accepted body weight and periods of prosperity. Curvaceous women were fashionable in the 1950s, when economics were still recovering from World War II, whereas thin women became more fashionable in the more prosperous 60s.

The popularity of cosmetic surgery among ordinary people has continued to increase within the last decade. 60,000 people in Britain every year avail of plastic surgery, the most popular operations being breast reduction and augmentation, liposuction, wrinkle removal, chin reduction, cheekbone implants and lip augmentation. French performance artist Orlan has turned plastic surgery into an art form by using her face as a canvas for a portrait, using “the chin of Venus ... the brows of Mona Lisa”.

The 1990s are primarily defined by their magpie-like theft of the styles and music of other decades. However, the “retro-chic” phenomenon is not a new one. One only has to look at examples such as the 1920s revival in the 60s and the 1950s revival in the 70s to realise that popular culture has always had a penchant for nostalgia. The Victorian fascination with classical Greek and Medieval styles is an even earlier example.

A legacy of the punk era that will certainly help to define 90s beauty in the future is the widespread acceptance and popularity of body art. An edition of Channel 4's Feminism In The 90s in July 1994 featured women with tattoos and body piercings who described body art as a medium of self-expression and a facility for a feeling of control over their bodies. One woman pierced her nipples after completing breastfeeding as “a symbolic act of taking back that part of the body they had given to their child.” The transformation in the general public's opinion on body art can be likened to the widespread acceptance of cosmetics in the early part of the century.

To conclude, the predominant feature of beauty in the 20th century is not the constant change I have described above, but the constant importance of outward appearances in so many women's lives, even those who reject 20th century cultural norms. The escalating growth of the fashion, cosmetics and cosmetic surgery industries is a testament to Western society's obsession with being beautiful. And because beauty is irreversibly linked with success in the Western psyche, out obsession with physical attractiveness looks set to continue into the next century and beyond.

The human condition as it exists today in both the spiritual and material sense has been formed by the interaction and dynamics of great individuals with the mass social movements and societal gyrations that make up the long human story. Through such dialogues has the civilising march of man been undertaken and the current situation, however unsatisfactory it may still be for the bulk of our species, been formed. It is unquestioningly correct; however, to recount from the lessons of history the overwhelming impact those individuals have had on this civilising process.

It is therefore put forward that in the dialogue between the mass and the great man (or woman), the formative influencing power rests with the individual. Without such leaders the entire world would be no more than an inchoate mass of tangled confusion, devoid of structure or purpose. Our environment would still be, as some Victorian philosophers would have it, "red in the tooth". Though these great leaders clambered above the chattering mass to lead, not always efficaciously but usually excitedly the human race in one direction, there is no point in deifying these extraordinary individuals. Through great exertions, massive intellect, cunning, innovation or unseemly percipience they have exhibited very human flaws and all made very human mistakes throughout their travails.

We should remember that the structure of the brain is roughly similar for each animal in our group, and the greatest just seem to use this engine more effectively. As a colleague of Churchill's once commented citing William James, the great American whom developed many principle strands of American philosophical and psychological theory: "…men of genius differ from ordinary men not in any innate quality of the brain, but in the aims and objects on which they concentrate and in the degree of concentration they manage to achieve. Winston Churchill possessed a power of concentration amounting almost to obsession. It gave his purpose a momentum which often proved irresistible....Though he was the most human of all human beings he was himself too extraordinary to know how ordinary people worked." Churchill is but one example of leadership genius tossing mankind onto different roads of endeavour.

What this volume will set out to prove in both a scholarly and straight forward manner, is that without question, Churchill was the most important political figure of the 20th century and probably the most influential individual in the course of our development in the past century. This is not to belittle the other greats of our age -- the Russell's, the Einstein's, the Fermi's, the King's, the Mandela's, the Mother Teresa's and John Paul's and others that will be discussed, including unfortunately the ignominious agents of evil such as Hitler, Stalin and their ilk.

The purpose of this volume is to provide some coherent meaning to what happened in the century past and why the world is on the verge of a Liberalising order, at the threshold of freeing millions of people, and their creative energies in the establishment of a better world.

Without Churchill, this would not have been possible or at least would never have happened as soon. Without Churchill and his nervous genius many of the aspects of modern life that we take for granted would have been delayed or never pushed into being. His is the story not just of a war leader, but of a politician that was active in many areas outside of war, intent on the establishment of a world order utilising Liberal principles. He was the last icon of the past, the symbol of a changing world, the portal to the past, yet the vision to the future.

He represented the humble hopes of the mass, but was of aristocratic ilk and lineage. He respected democratic governance applied with prudence and disdained politicking for the sake of power. He enshrined the establishment of helping the common man escape to higher successes, based on hard work and merit, yet he fully appreciated the differences between humans that would elevate some above others. A full democrat he never lost sight of the purpose that politics served - namely the progress of the human race. To cast Churchill in the role of the 20th century's most influential Leader is to elevate him into the sublime league of bygone icon's such as Thucydides, Alexander, Pericles, Octavian, Charlemagne, Sh'ih Tih and so on, and thereby ennoble his activity in the spheres of writing, soldiering, politicking, statesmanship and democratic resolve to a level rarely achieved by a Leader of any age.

To do such a service is dangerous but necessary if we are to fully implement what the human race has an abundance of - potential - and to avoid the criminal follies of our ancestors. One does not require foreknowledge of Churchill or a deep understanding of history to appreciate the role of Churchill and great leaders in the establishment of our current societal structures. One only needs the curiosity to comprehend that the 20th century - one of the most fearsome and difficult and interesting in mankind's march - has been a watershed and turning point in our development.

Our world in every way is vastly greater and different than any prognosticator could have envisioned in 1900. The fact that at least in the West that we have a free, open and civilised society is due in large measure to the social and political vision of Churchill. And I speak not just of his War record, but the entire breadth and degree of his political and societal vision that encapsulated the great principles of progress and power, and which sadly, we see lacking in our divisive and sometimes drifting world: "We see, then, how far the monuments of wit and learning are more durable than the monuments of power or of the hands. For have not the verses of Homer continued twenty-five hundred years or more, without the loss of a syllable or letter; during which time infinite palaces, temples, castles, cities, have been decayed and demolished?"

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