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What drives a man or "less so" a woman to commit such awful crimes, on this page we look at some of the most notorious killers of the 20th century.

Some infamous serial killers of the 20th century include Willie Pickton, Harold Shipman, Luis Garavito, Javed Iqbal, Anatoly Onopriyenko, Dean Corll, Carl Panzram, John Wayne Gacy, Jeffrey Dahmer, Ted Bundy, Peter Sutcliffe, Fritz Haarmann and Peter Kürten, Peter Tobin, Albert Fish, Ed Gein, Fred West, Richard Ramirez

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The public are fascinated by horror and cruelty. Fictional characters like Hannibal Lecter and Michael Myers amuse moviegoers; but while these interesting beings and their crimes sometimes seem far-fetched, they can be all too close to reality. What happens when the characters of a movie come to life, or cinema imitates reality? Just mentioning “Helter Skelter” or “Zodiac” can send chills down the spine of the biggest horror film fan. Anyone who has a common knowledge of Jeffery Dahmer or Ted Bundy knows they are far from fictional. Bonnie and Clyde, David Berkowitz, and Jack the Ripper are all real as well. They are all infamous serial killers. According to Eric W. Hickey, author of Serial Murderers and Their Victims, serial murderers include “any offenders, male or female, who kill over time”. It is doubtful that anyone would disagree with Hickey’s definition, but some experts may choose to be a bit more descriptive. Due to the qualifications of a serial homicide, there tends to be a general consensus among reactions to serial killings by the public but not necessarily among the proposed reasons for which one may commit such an atrocious act. The crime should not be confused with a spree killing, which involves the murder of many victims without a relationship or extended period of time existing between the killings.
How Often are Serial Murders Committed? While murdering multiple victims is a terrible form of homicide, these instances only account for 4.4% of all homicides as of 2005, according to Bureau of Justice statistics. Despite this small fraction, there has been an increase of 1.3% since 1975. Although these percentages seem very low, they should still be taken seriously due to the cruelty of the crime. Again as of 2005, 4% of all homicides included two victims, .6% involved three victims, .1% involved four victims, and .05% involved five or more victims (“Homicide Trends”). While these numbers prove that killings with many victims are rare, they are still the stories that are embedded in our minds, and often times in history.

Potential murderers often feel the crime will benefit them psychologically, perhaps fulfilling them internally. This depends upon the state of mind of the killers, which of course is the most troubling and confusing aspect of the murder to begin with. The offenders often discover that their fulfillment disappears and they soon get the urge to kill again. The murderer also suffers from the act due to incarceration and a possible death sentence if they are caught. Obviously victims suffer by losing their lives, and the families of victims go through a great deal of grieving. Finally, society suffers from fear. People may be afraid to leave their houses or allow their children to play in the streets. Daily life is interrupted when a serial murderer is on the prowl.

In his book To Kill Again, Donald J. Sears states, “The serial killer’s childhood is marked by a lack of nurturing and love. He usually grows up in a neglectful, abusive, and even violent atmosphere, where important needs are not met.  As a result, many kids who grow up in this type of environment have trouble controlling their emotions and establishing meaningful relationships as they grow older. The relationship with one’s parents, the first connection a human builds in his or her life, provides structure and lessons, teaching one how to interact with others. Speaking metaphorically, if these so-called “lessons” are absent or not taught correctly, the individual will lack the knowledge to connect with others in physical, emotional, spiritual, and sexual relationships.

Here Sears refers to what Gottfredson and Hirschi would suggest is improper childhood socialization on the part of the parents (Lilly, Cullen, and Ball 108). This improper socialization should be interpreted as anything from abuse to neglect, or simply not correcting negative behaviors. As explained previously, the McDonald Triad proposes early warning signs of future violent behavior. Fire setting, prolonged bed-wetting, and violence toward animals are not the only early behaviors that provide insight into a child’s troubled mind, but these activities, among others, could easily be ignored by a neglectful parent. In allowing this sort of behavior to continue, parents are promoting the improper socialization of their child. Children displaying these behaviors need attention, prevention lessons, or even psychological help. In its idea of improper childhood socialization, Self-Control Theory clearly addresses this concept of neglect that Sears presents.

One of the highest profile cases using bite-mark analysis was that of Theodore Bundy. Bundy was an intelligent, well traveled, charismatic and handsome young man. However, he remains one of the most prolific serial killers in American history. No one knows for sure how many victims Bundy murdered, but ranges estimate from 28 to nearly 100. Between 1969 and 1975, dozens of young, attractive females were murdered or reported missing from California, to the Pacific Northwest and into Utah and Colorado. On November 8, 1974, Ted Bundy tried to abduct 18 year old Carol DaRonch in Salt Lake City. Claiming to be a police officer investigating the arrest of a man who was breaking into DaRonch’s car, Bundy asked DaRonch to accompany him to police headquarters to give a statement. DaRonch followed Bundy to his Volkswagen, and they drove off. However, DaRonch became suspicious when she smelled alcohol on Bundy’s breath and because he was driving in the wrong direction of the police station.

Stopping briefly at a side street, DaRonch tried to jump out of the car. Bundy snapped a handcuff on her wrist, but was unable to secure the other cuff. When Bundy produced a gun and threatened to shot her, DaRonch managed to jump out of the car. Bundy followed on foot, but gave up when a car approached. Undeterred, Bundy abducted and killed another woman, 17year old Debbie Kent later that night. Despite this close call, Bundy continued his killing spree until August 16, 1975 when, in the early hours of the morning, Bundy was stopped while driving without lights in a Salt Lake City suburb. When the officer arrested Bundy and searched his car, her found handcuffs and a crowbar. Carol DaRonch identified Bundy as the man who had attempted to abduct her. Bundy was sentenced to 1 to 15 years in prison. In 1977, Bundy was extradited to Colorado on a murder charge. While in custody, Bundy escaped by jumping out of the window of a court building, only to be recaptured 8 days later.

In December, 1977, while still in custody in Colorado, Bundy cut a hole in his cell with a hacksaw blade and escaped again. This time he eluded capture for much longer. Bundy’s career as a serial killer began a decade earlier in Washington state. At the time, Bundy was studying psychology at the University of Washington in Seattle. Bundy's first victim was Lynda Healy, 21, another psychology student at the University of Washington, who was abducted from her basement flat. Five more young women vanished from the Seattle area in the spring and summer of 1974 but the case did not merit national newspaper headlines until July, when two girls disappeared from Lake Sammamish State Park on the same day.

It is believed that Bundy lured women into helping him by putting a cast on his arm. After escaping custody the second time, Bundy fled to Florida. On 15 January he broke into a sorority house on a university campus in Tallahassee, Florida. He strangled 21-year-old art history student Margaret Brown and beat to death Lisa Levy, 20, after assaulting her. Two other girls who lived in the house had also been beaten with a wooden club but they survived. A month later Bundy claimed what would be his final victim, 12-year-old Kim Leach. She was abducted from a high school gym, sexually assaulted and strangled. Bundy's days as a free man were, however, numbered. . Bundy was finally arrested in the early hours of 15 February 1978 as he drove a stolen car towards Pensacola. However, Bundy was a methodically organized killer, and very little forensic evidence existed to tie him directly to the murders in Florida. Very little trace evidence existed, and both the crime scenes as well as Bundy’s apartment were completely devoid of fingerprints. Although this heightened suspicion (after all, whose house doesn’t contain a single fingerprint from the owner) – suspicion was not enough to secure a conviction. The prosecution’s key piece of evidence was a bite mark inflicted on the left buttock of one of the victims in the sorority house.

The prosecution’s key piece of evidence was a bite mark inflicted on the left buttock of one of the victims in the sorority house. Photographs taken at the scene of the crime (complete with a ruler for scale) were compared to

casts made of Bundy’s teeth. Bundy had a unique bite pattern as the result of a malocclusion. Although Bundy initially refused to give a mold of his teeth, A search warrant was issued, and Bundy was forced to comply. The results were a perfect match. Bundy’s trial began in Miami on June 25, 1979. Bundy, a former law student, led his own defense. His law experience notwithstanding, Bundy’s cross examination of prosecution witnesses was amateurish.

He allowed his defense counsel to cross examine Dr. Richard Souviron, the dentist who had taken Bundy’s dental impressions. Although the defense got Souvison to admit that analzing bite marks was part science and part art, and that his his conclusion was a matter of opinion, the court was unconvinced. On July 23, 1978, Bundy was found guilty of all charges.

Despite another decade of legal wrangling from his cell on death row, Bundy was ultimately executed by the state of Florida in the electric chair on January 24, 1989. Before his death, Bundy hinted that he was responsible for 40 to 50 deaths.

Hamilton Howard

Charles Montaldo
Updated July 01, 2017

Hamilton Howard "Albert Fish" is known for being one of the most vile pedophiles and child serial killers and cannibal of all time. After his capture he admitted to molesting over 400 children and tortured and killed several others, however it was not known if his statement was truthful. He was also known as the Gray Man, the Werewolf of Wysteria, the Brooklyn Vampire, the Moon Maniac, and The Boogey Man.

Fish was a small, gentle looking man who appeared kind and trusting, yet once alone with his victims, the monster inside him was unleashed; a monster so perverse and cruel, his crimes seem unbelievable. He was eventually executed and according to rumors, he turned his own execution into a fantasy of pleasure.
Long Roots of Insanity

Albert Fish was born on May 19, 1870, in Washington D.C., to Randall and Ellen Fish. Fish's family had a long history of mental illness. His uncle was diagnosed with mania. He had a brother that was sent to a state mental institution and his sister was diagnosed with a "mental affliction". Ellen Fish had visual hallucinations. Three other relatives were diagnosed with mental illness.

His parents abandoned him at a young age and he was sent to an orphanage. The orphanage was, in Fish's memory, a place of brutality where he was exposed to regular beatings and sadistic acts of brutality.

It was said that he began to look forward to the abuse because it brought him pleasure. When asked about the orphanage, Fish remarked, "I was there 'til I was nearly nine, and that's where I got started wrong. We were unmercifully whipped. I saw boys doing many things they should not have done."

By 1880, Ellen Fish, now a widow, had a government job and was able to remove Fish, at the age of 12, from the orphanage.

He had very little formal education and grew up learning to work more with his hands than his brains. It was not long after Fish returned to live with his mother that he began a relationship with another boy who introduced him to drinking urine and eating feces.
Fish's Crimes Against Children Begins

According to Fish, in 1890 he relocated to New York City and began his crimes against children. He made money working as a prostitute and began to molest boys. He would lure children away from their homes, torture them in various ways, including his favorite, the use of a paddle laced with sharp nails, then rape them. As time went on, the sexual fantasies he would act out on the children grew more fiendish and bizarre, and often ended in murdering and cannibalizing his young victims.
Father of Six

In 1898 he married and later fathered six children. The children led average lives up until 1917, after Fish's wife ran off with another man. It was at that time the children recall Fish occasionally asking them to participate in his sado-masochistic games. One game included the nail filled paddle Fish used on his victims. He would ask the children to paddle him with the weapon until blood ran down his legs.

He also found enjoyment from pushing needles deep into his skin.

After his marriage ended, Fish spent time writing to women listed in the personal columns of newspapers. In his letters he would go into graphic detail of sexual acts he would like to share with the women. The descriptions of these acts were so vile and disgusting that they were never made public even though they were submitted as evidence in court.

According to Fish, no women ever responded to his letters asking them, not for their hand in marriage, but for their hand in administering pain.
Across State Lines

Fish developed his skill for house painting and often worked in different states across the country. Some believe he selected states largely populated with African Americans. It was his belief that the police would spend less time searching for the killer of African American children than a prominent Caucasian child.

Thus, several of his victims were black children selected to endure his torture using his own labeled "instruments of hell" which included the paddle, meat cleaver and knives.
Polite Mr. Frank Howard

In 1928, Fish answered an ad by 18-year-old Edward Budd who was looking for part-time work to help out with the family finances. Albert Fish, who introduced himself as Mr. Frank Howard, met with Edward and his family to discuss Edward's future position. Fish told the family that he was a Long Island farmer looking to pay a strong young worker $15 a week. The job seemed ideal and the Budd family, excited about Edward's luck in finding the job, instantly trusted the gentle and polite Mr. Howard.

Fish told the Budd family that he would return the following week to take Edward and a friend of Edward's out to his farm to begin working. The following week Fish failed to show on the day promised, but did send a telegram apologizing and set a new date to meet with the boys. When Fish arrived on June 4, as promised, he came baring gifts for all the Budd children and visited with the family over lunch. To the Budd's, Mr. Howard seemed like a typical loving grandfather.

After lunch, Fish explained to the family that he had to attend a children's birthday party at his sister's home and would return later to pick up Eddie and his friend to take to the farm. He then suggested that the Budd's allow him to bring their oldest daughter, ten-year-old Grace along to the party. The non-suspecting parents agreed and dressed her in her Sunday best, Grace, excited about going to party, left her house for the very last time. Grace Budd was never seen alive again.
Six Year Investigation

The investigation into the disappearance of Grace Budd went on for six years before detectives received any substantial break in the case. Then on November 11, 1934, Mrs. Budd received an anonymous letter which gave grotesque details of the murder and cannibalism of her precious daughter, Grace.

The writer tortured Mrs. Budd with details about the empty house her daughter was taken to in Worcester, New York.

How she was then stripped of her clothing, strangled and cut into pieces and eaten. As if to add some solace to Mrs. Budd, the writer was emphatic about the fact that Grace had not been sexually assaulted at any time.

By tracing the paper the letter to Mrs. Budd was written on, the police were eventually led to a flophouse where Albert Fish was living. Fish was arrested and immediately began confessing to killing Grace Budd and several hundred other children. Fish, smiling as he described the grizzly details of the tortures and murders, appeared to the detectives as the devil himself.
Insanity Plea

On March 11, 1935, Fish's trial began and he plead innocent by the reason of insanity. He said it was voices in his head telling him to kill children that made him do such horrendous crimes. Despite the numerous psychiatrists who described Fish as insane, the jury found him sane and guilty after a short 10-day trial. He was sentenced to die by electrocution.

On January 16, 1936, Albert Fish was electrocuted at Sing Sing prison, reportedly a process Fish looked upon as "the ultimate sexual thrill" but later dismissed as just rumor.

There are enough recorded instances of multiple murders by doctors (real or bogus) to make at least a prima facie case that the profession attracts some people with a pathological interest in the power of life and death. Would be doctors with homicidal tendencies include Kenneth Bianchi, one of the serial “Hillside Stranglers” in 1978 (his cousin was the other murderer), who had always wanted to be a psychiatrist and indeed set himself up as a psychological counsellor after assuming a false identity, and William Henry Theodore Durrant, a San Francisco medical student and Sunday school superintendent who murdered two women in a church in 1895, nine days apart, the so called “Demon in the Belfry” murders. He was hanged three years later. Robert Diaz, a Los Angeles nurse, had always wanted to be a doctor and often pretended he was one—he would give unauthorized injections and even as a nursing student liked to be called “Dr” Diaz. In 1984 he was sentenced to the gas chamber for murdering 12 patients with lignocaine (lidocaine)

Real doctors who killed in the 19th century include the American Edward William Pritchard. Before poisoning his mother-in-law and first wife with antimony, Pritchard killed his fourth child and insured a servant girl who then died mysteriously. He was the last person to be publicly hanged (1865) in Glasgow. American Dr Bennett Clarke Hyde killed three of his in-laws, inheritors of the family estate, by bacteriological methods as well as bleeding, cyanide, and strychnine.12,13 Hyde's sister-in-law also became ill with “the typhoid” that had killed the three other in-laws. The doctor who was to give evidence against him died before the trial in 1910.

Bacteriogenic shock may also have been the means of murder in a later case in America when the rich wife of a Dr John Hill died after a short illness. She was embalmed before the toxicological tests her father demanded could be done. Hill's second wife, his ex-mistress, alleged he also tried to kill her. She said that he had told her he had killed his brother with morphine and his father and a friend. He was assassinated on his doorstep in 1972.

Dr Jeffrey Macdonald of the US army (the “Green Beret Killer”) was, after several abortive investigations, brought to justice for the murders of his pregnant wife and children in 1970. The heavily insured wife and brother of general practitioner William Palmer died suddenly of sickness and convulsions, preceded by his mother-in-law of “apoplexy” in 1849.16 He was a serial forger and also poisoned a betting crony with strychnine. Other doctors who were called in to confirm the death accepted his explanations of natural death. In 1881 Dr George Henry Lamson poisoned his two brothers-in-law for their legacies, at least one with aconitine, the only recorded case of its use to kill.17 Dr De La Pommerais used digitalis to kill his mother-in-law for her estate and then his mistress for her insurance money in 1863.18

In 1954 Dr Sam Sheppard (of “The Fugitive” fame) was convicted of killing his wife by 35 blows to her head. Then his mother and mother-in-law died, it seemed from suicide, and he was sued after two surgical deaths. His second wife obtained a restraining order because of his threats to kill her.

Dr J Milton Bowers' three wives were all heavily insured and died in suspicious circumstances, one in 1865 and the other two in the 1880s. His brother-in-law, who died of cyanide poisoning, left a confession exonerating the doctor, but this confession was probably forged by Milton Bowers.20 Milton Bowers died in 1905.

Another doctor who killed his three wives, this time with aconite, was Dr Warder of Brighton, who gave evidence as a poisons' expert at Palmer's trial in 1856 and who escaped the hangman's noose by taking cyanide. Dr George Chapman, one of the “Jack the Ripper” suspects, was hanged for the serial poisoning of three of his partners with antimony.

In 1947 Dr Robert George Clements, a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons, murdered his fourth wife with morphine for her money. He may have murdered his first three wives too as he signed their death certificates. Both he and the doctor he called to examine his dying fourth wife diagnosed leukaemia. This doctor later committed suicide.

Dr Carl Coppolino, an anaesthetist, murdered his wife, who was a doctor, with a muscle relaxant. Under his direction his mistress also injected her husband with the muscle relaxant, who died suddenly of “coronary thrombosis” after being attended by Coppolino. He was convicted in 1967.

In 1935 Dr Buck Ruxton dissected his wife and maid (the “jigsaw murders”) and scattered their parts in the Scottish Borders.23 Both he and Dr Hawley Harvey Crippen, whose two wives predeceased him (he was hanged in 1910), are in Madame Tussaud's Chamber of Horrors. Dr Henry Lovell William Clark, a doctor in the Indian medical service in the 1930s, conspired with his mistress to murder first her husband (with arsenic to simulate “heat stroke” topped up with gelsemine to treat the “heat stroke”) then his wife, who was killed by four paid assassins.

In the past 15 years two American doctors have committed double filicide. A doctor from St Louis murdered his two sons, several years apart, for their insurance money. Dr Debra Green, an oncologist who was an alcoholic, killed two of her children by arson and also confessed to the attempted murder of both her third child by arson and her husband (a cardiologist) by ricin poisoning

Few doctors have had as great an impact on British medicine as Harold Shipman. When he and his colleagues qualified from Leeds Medical School in 1970, none of them would ever have imagined that his obituary in the BMJ would have opened with such a sentence. But his impact, and his legacy, is incalculable. Few lives can have raised so many questions about how we practise and regulate medicine.

Britain's general practitioners are frequently the cornerstone of their community, offering care, compassion, and continuity. In return they are trusted—quite remarkably trusted. Shipman betrayed that trust in the most appalling and distressing way, killing at least 215, and possibly 260, of his patients.

Harold Frederick Shipman was born in Nottingham in 1946, the son of a lorry driver. No one in his family had ever been to university. While he was taking his A levels, his mother died from cancer at the age of 42. He met his wife, Primrose Oxtoby, at a bus stop while he was at Leeds University, and they married in 1966. They had four children.

Apart from the death of his mother, there was nothing unusual about his early years. At medical school, Fred—the name by which he was known throughout his later life—stood out only by being entirely unremarkable. So far, so normal.

Shipman became a general practitioner in Todmorden, West Yorkshire, in 1974. But something had clearly happened to him. By 1976 he was self administering pethidine obtained by fiddled prescriptions. He was taken to court, fined £600 by magistrates, referred to a psychiatric unit near York, and was issued with a warning by the General Medical Council but was not struck off.

By 1977 he had joined a group practice in Hyde but his violent mood swings made the partnership untenable and in 1992 he set up in singlehanded practice. No one knows when the killing first started, but from this point it escalated out of control. He killed people by injecting them with opiates, often at home, sometimes in the surgery. In 1998 another general practitioner in Hyde told the coroner of her suspicions, but after a police investigation it was felt that no further action was needed, and the killings continued.​

His final victim was Kathleen Grundy, an 81 year old former mayoress of Hyde. Extraordinarily he forged her will, using a battered old typewriter on which he wrote, “I give all my estate, money and house to my doctor. My family are not in need, and I want to reward him for all the care he has given me and the people of Hyde.” This was an absurdly clumsy forgery, with an obviously forged signature. It's hard not to believe that he wanted—at least unconsciously—to be caught. Or perhaps he thought that he was invincible.

Mrs Grundy's daughter was a solicitor and pursued the truth, which turned out to be shocking. Shipman was eventually charged with the murder of 15 women and found guilty on 31 January 2000. It was clear that he had covered his tracks by altering records and falsifying death certificates. On every level he had abused the trust that his patients put in him.

The report of the subsequent inquiry by Dame Janet Smith was published in 2001 and concluded that Shipman had unlawfully killed 215 patients, and that a real suspicion remained over 45 others. Shipman was sentenced to life—one of 20 prisoners in the United Kingdom who were told that they would never be released—and eventually, after giving no obvious cause for concern about his safety, he hanged himself in his cell with bedsheets tied to the bars of his window.

Most of the explanations for why Shipman killed his patients—leaving nearly 300 families bereaved and distraught—are probably too simple, too glib. Did he witness his mother's suffering, and believe that sudden death at the end of a trusted and friendly physician's syringe was a preferable option? Did he hate women (and most of his patients were women) for reasons that we cannot understand? Was he clinically insane? Was he terrifyingly sane? Was he obsessed with power—power that was perhaps exemplified by his choosing the time and manner of his own death, ultimately frustrating those who wanted to know “why?”

We will probably never know why he did what he did, but we can begin to see his legacy. At first thought his truly extraordinary actions might seem to have no implications for the ordinary business of general practice. But his murders have led to questions being asked about the function and strength of the GMC, the role of revalidation, how we deal with sick doctors, the purpose and reliability of death certification, the monitoring of cremation certification, the use of controlled drugs, the problem of isolated doctors, the value of clinical governance, the problems of whistleblowing, and the function of the coroners' service. The inquiry is working its way through these questions and is likely to have profound consequences for medicine. Even the GMC itself may be numbered among Shipman's victims.

He leaves Primrose and their four children, all of whom remained loyal to him.

Harold Frederick Shipman, former general practitioner Hyde, Greater Manchester (b 1946; q Leeds 1970), died in Wakefield prison on 13 January 2004.

Serial killers are localists. They murder within their chosen patch — a red-light district, a city quarter — and tend not to travel beyond it. Changing location means recoding the method; learning a new vernacular of murder. It also increases the risk of detection: an out-of-towner is more likely to be remembered from a crime scene.

Jack Unterweger, the subject of John Leake’s bleak book, had no anxieties about being remembered, nor about exporting his method. For this eerily charming dandy wasn’t just a tourist but a murderer, who killed 12 women in four countries. Visiting Los Angeles in 1991 — ostensibly to research a radio program on prostitution — he dressed as a cross between a cowhand and a Mississippi preacher (white snakeskin boots and a white coat emblazoned with a hibiscus). By day he rode along with the Los Angeles Police Department on a journalist’s ticket, observing its method and its milieu. By night he strangled prostitutes to death, fashioning intricate nooses from their bras, which allowed him to throttle his victims before tying off the ligatures at enormous tension.

Unterweger’s idiosyncrasies stand out even within the idiosyncratic world of serial killers. Born in Austria in 1950, he was imprisoned at age 24 for the murder of a young German woman. While incarcerated, he began to write poems, plays and self-refashioning autobiographical novels. One novel, “Purgatory,” was a best seller. Unterweger became the darling of Vienna’s radical-chic set, who discovered in his literature the proof of a reformed man.

A lobbying campaign began for his release. Writers, artists, journalists and politicians — mostly Socialists — agitated for a pardon. Among them was Elfriede Jelinek, the Austrian playwright who won the 2004 Nobel Prize in Literature. Alfred Kolleritsch, editor of the magazine Manuskripte, went to the Stein prison to hear Unterweger read from his work. “He was so tender,” Kolleritsch later recalled, “and at that moment we decided we had to get him pardoned.” Unterweger became the poster boy of successful rehabilitation: his story was told, Leake notes, “as a triumph of the individual over all the social and political pathologies into which he’d been born.”

On May 23, 1990, having served the minimum possible sentence, Unterweger was paroled. In the 18 months following his release, he became an Austrian celebrity, lionized by literarniks (literary intellectuals) and promis (prominent people) alike. He gave readings throughout Austria and Germany, he staged his plays and he worked as a reporter for the ORF — Austria’s equivalent of the BBC. He also killed 11 women.

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