Abstract Expressionism emphasized the depiction of emotions rather than objects. Most painters of the movement favored large canvasses, dramatic colors, and loose brushwork. The movement originated in New York’s Greenwich Village in the mid-1940’s and was also called action painting and the New York School.

Emphasizing its independence from European art trends, Abstract Expressionism was the first American school to influence artists over seas rather than vice versa. The movement was put into motion by Arshile Gorky whose paintings were derived from the art of Surrealism, Picasso, and Miro.

As in Surrealism, the psychoanalytic theories of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung provided the basis for the intellectual and internal subject matter. Their influence came from many of the artists who fled Europe for American during World War II, notably Piet Mondrian and Max Ernst.

These artists’ departure from traditional painting inspired the revolutionary attitude of the Abstract Expressionist movement. Abstract Expressionism held prominence until the development of Pop Art in the 1960’s. The movement allowed New York to replace Paris as the center of the art world.


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The study of the history of art stimulates an intensive awareness of creative achievements in the fields of art and architecture.

As one explores and analyses artistic style, social context, and meaning in both Western and non- Western cultures, you can gain an insight into the richness of both personal and cultural expression.

Art history is often a fascinating topic that visually and viscerally points the audience through the eras and ethnicities worldwide. From olden days to the present humans have been painting, drawing and sculpting works of art that endure the test of time. Historically, art history has been defined by study regarding objects of art because they relate with the limitations of their era and genre.

The main arts are believed to be painting, sculpture and architecture, as the minor arts are thought to be ceramics, furniture and decorative arts. Art history is a interesting subject that one can create a lifetime pursuit and still not manage to study each and every work of art ever created.

Art is persistent in everyday life, and also by studying art from days gone by, we get a concept of the types of cultures and arenas the artist moved in. Art history included the close researching of individual art materials in an attempt to reply to historical questions such as: What were the objectives of the artist and were they met? What is its functionality visually?

What significance does this painting/sculpture/etc communicate? What is the significance involved? And so on. Through this studying, art historians attempt to rebuild an element of the past through the eyes of the artist that lived hundreds, possibly even many thousands of years ago. Art historians also look to place current context on works of art. T

hey seek a remedy to the object's relevance today and extended meaning into your future. In fact, what makes one piece of art greater than another? What makes gives one artist a Picasso degree of fame while another has unsold canvasses every bit as ground breaking and ground breaking lining the walls of their garage?



Rayonism, an ephemeral style which lasted only about a year, was not only unique to Russia, but to the entire world. It was invented by Mikhail Larionov and practiced mostly by him and his companion Natalia Goncharova.

Introduced to the public in 1913 at the Target exhibition, Rayonism was described as "naturally encompassing all existing styles and forms of the art of the past, as they, like life, are simply points of departure for a Rayonist perception and construction of a picture" .

The central feature of Rayonism is the "crossing of reflected rays from various objects;" to this end, its most powerful tools are color and line. Although short-lived, Rayonism proved to be a crucial step in the development of Russian abstract art. As Larionov said, it represented the "true freeing of art" from the former "realistic" conventions that had so "oppressed" the artistic community


Rayonism


John E. Bowlt suggests that Larionov's Rayonist theory might have been influenced by the developments in photography and cinematography, the Moscow photographer A. Trapani invented the photographic technique of "ray gum" -- a version of the gum-arabic process -- which enabled the photographer to create the illusion of a radial, fragmented texture. . . . Of possible relevance to Larionov's theory of Rayonism was the peculiarly "broken" texture that Mikhail Vrubel favored in so many of his works in the 1890s and 1900s.

A technique admired by a number of young Russian artists. Moreover, Vrubel's theory of visual reality came very close to Larionov's formulation, as the following statement by Vrubel would indicate: "The contours with which artists normally delineate the confines of a form in actual fact do not exist -- they are merely an optical illusion that occurs from the interaction of rays falling onto the object and reflected from its surface at different angles. In fact, at this point you get a 'complementary colour' -- complementary to the basic, local color.


Rayonism painting


There are stories about individual's pursuits and passions in the news and media that fascinate us in the twenty-first century. Stories that perk our interest and compels us to follow their saga, especially those who are celebrities or musicians. With so many people in the world today the stories are endless and the intrigue into them is coupled by the fascination of their lives.

To see today's story one would wonder if there was such fascinating stories from times long ago, especially throughout the time when they must have been maddened by boredom. These tales of artists from the past is more then real fascinating stuff mainly because it is all tucked away behind the masterpiece created on a white canvas, in the minds of those famous artists of times gone by.

The name Picasso brings an approaching knowledge of an artist with pure masterpieces but his life was just as common as today's celebrities. Picasso had a long string of lovers, numerous affairs and shared in the parenting of five children by three different women.

Perhaps it was due in part to his fear of being alone that made him so immoral. His first long-term relationship ended after he received some fame, Picasso left her for another woman, until it was apparent that she was dying, Picasso again left her. When he married in the 20's Picasso and his wife Olga bared two children together.

When Olga pushed the social life on Picasso, he separated from her. His fear of her taking half his fortune kept the two legally married while Picasso carried on a long-term relationship with another woman, Marie. The two bared a daughter out of the relationship. Marie hoped Picasso would eventually marry her, when Picasso did not agree Marie eventually hung herself. Picasso remained a tired abusive narcissist, with affairs and different lovers until he met Francoise whom bared another two children with Picasso. But she also eventually left him due in part to his cheating and abusiveness.


By the time Picasso was seventy he was alone until he met Jacqueline, whom he married in 1961 and was with until his death. Just as many artists have pronounced there was a time in their lives they were forced to start out life in a different field then their dreams would have them.

Claude Monet was just on of those artists. He was forced to serve in the army in Algeria just as he reached his adult years. He accepted a trade off to take an art class in return for leaving the army.

But he did not like the way the university taught painting styles. In 1862 he studied in Paris where he met another great painter by the name of Pierre-Auguste Renoir. They formed a friendship and the two founded the Impressionist movement. Monet married a client who posed for a painting and they to Agential and had their first child. Monet lived with his wife Camille for six years until her death, where Monet painted her on her deathbed.

In 1892 he married again to Alice, a woman he had an affair with when he was married to his first wife. Monet was exceptionally fond of painting controlled nature - his own garden, his water lilies, his pond, and his bridge. His home was, and still is, surrounded with a magnificent garden where his most famous paintings were completed.

The same goes for an enthusiastic painter who was present in the early 1900's. Henri Matisse originally studied Law in Paris and worked as an administrative administrator in Chateau Cambresis. After he had an attack of appendicitis he began painting throughout his recovery. He returned to Paris to study art. His first art exhibit was in 1901; his first solo exhibit was just three years later in 1904, while many of his fine paintings were completed between 1906 through 1917.

He was diagnosed with cancer in 1941 and soon ended up in a wheelchair where he continued his painting until his death in 1954. There are other artists whose youth were as much to talk about as the lives they lived thereafter, such as the strange behaviors at an early age of Salvidor Dali.

His behavior often got him in trouble in school when he would often interrupt his class. Just as he was kicked out of art school when he studied in Madrid. Many of Dali's paintings were said to be unreal and at times scary. He was also jailed, where he spent a number of years.

He often used his dreams as subjects for his paintings. His style of painting became known as Surrealism. His paintings were often with simple items of everyday use, but with some tainted additions, just as one of his paintings was about a melting clock.

These are only to name of a few of the world's most fascinating famous artists. History has some fascinating past stories as well as fascinating people. Should your mind continue to ponder the lives of those artists you admire you'll find yourself with some new interesting knowledge. By CJ Jacobs.


Abstract Expressionism


In 1913, in the miscellany Donkey's Tail and Target, Larionov published a pamphlet entitled "Rayonist Painting," which contained an extensive description of the theory and practice of Rayonist art. Below are the most important excerpts: "We do not sense the object with our eye, as it is depicted conventionally in pictures and as a result of following this or that device; in fact, we do not sense the object as such. We perceive a sum of rays proceeding from a source of light; these are reflected from the object and enter our field of vision.

Consequently, if we wish to paint literally what we see, then we must paint the sum of rays reflected from the object. But in order to receive the total sum of rays from the desired object, we must select them deliberately -- because together with the rays of the object being perceived, there also fall into our range of vision reflected reflex rays belonging to other nearby objects.

Now, if we wish to depict an object exactly as we see it, then we must depict also these reflex rays belonging to other objects -- and then we will depict literally what we see now, if we concern ourselves not with the objects themselves but with the sums of rays from them, we can build a picture in the following way: The sum of rays from object A intersects the sum of rays from object B; in the space between them a certain form appears, and this is isolated by the artist's will of Perception, not of the object itself, but of the sum of rays from it, is, by its very nature, much closer to the symbolic surface of the picture than is the object itself.

This is almost the same as the mirage which appears in the scorching air of the desert and depicts distant towns, lakes, and oases in the sky (in concrete instances). Rayonism erases the barriers that exist between the picture's surface and nature.


Abstract Expressionism


Although Abstract Expressionism encompassed an array of stylistic approaches, several unifying themes were present in the movement. Abstract Expressionist paintings consisted of shapes, lines, and forms meant to create a separate reality from the visual world.

Technically, most abstract expressionists paid attention to the surface quality and texture and used large canvases. Abstract Expressionists wished to emphasize the accident and chance in their work, but often highly planned their execution. So, mistakes that did occur during the painting process were used to the artist’s advantage.

Arshile Gorky and Hans Hoffman were integral in calling artists’ attention to the physicality of paint and the potential for expression in abstraction. The two major types of Abstract Expressionism are Action Painting and Color Field Painting.

Action painters such as Jackson Pollock wished to portray paint texture and the movement of the artist’s hand. Colour Field painters such as Mark Rothko were concerned with color and shape in order to create peaceful and spiritual paintings with no representative subject matter.


Cubism and Surrealism


American artists were wrestling with abstraction when the 1940s opened. Cubism and Surrealism had been at the forefront of European art for over two decades but had not really arrived in the United States. Through the 1930s social realism and regionalism dominated the American art scene. This naturalist painting was the style of Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood, and John Stuart Curry.

Edward Hopper had made some gestures toward abstraction, and Stuart Davis was a crossover artist creating work somewhere between figure painting and abstraction. The focus of their work was depiction of place and people, a kind of folkloric representation of American life, the texture and the colour of its objects.

Though Georgia O'Keeffe and Arthur Dove had worked abstractly in their own style through the 1920s, the American painters as a whole were looking backward. Modernism had not really arrived.


Cubism and Surrealism paintings


The last decade of 19th century and the first one of 20th gave birth to a new spirit of industrial new age. Modernism brings a vitalist touch of hope: industry is believed to help spiritual and material fields of life. Modernism is a widely spread movement. It suggests an impression of agility with its curve lines and subjets inspired from Nature.

These features will be applied to daily objects, even to underground, in order to make people familiar with this feeling. Modernism is an international style: an urban and bourgeois manifestation. Middle-class opens his mind and becomes cosmopolitan.

Fashion is shown in illustrated magazines that spread over Europe. A new necessity of change and innovation is created everywhere. Artists try to create a new style without references to tradition in its ways or subjects.


Modernism is an international style: an urban and bourgeois manifestation. Middle-class opens his mind and becomes cosmopolitan. Fashion is shown in illustrated magazines that spread over Europe. A new necessity of change and innovation is created everywhere. Artists try to create a new style without references to tradition in its ways or subjects.

First manifestation of Modernism can be seen in furnitures and objects of common use. They get a strong ornamental component. It is inspired in delicate flowers and animals in a process that almost comes to abstraction. Decoration must never be something added to objects, but a part of them intimately connected to its structure.

Symmetric systems will be rejected, searching for undulations called little whip line suggesting liveliness or strength rather than symmetry and regularity. A touch of optimism according to its social class is expressed. Scholars say that Modernism is young, new, blooming... That is why it has recieved different names: Art Nouveau, Liberty Style.


The Liberty style


The Liberty style arose from the design of goods produced by the London store Liberty & Co. and became distinctive enough to form an artistic category in itself. The store's founder, AL Liberty originally worked at Farmer and Rogers' Great Shawl and Cloak Emporium in London, and later at the firm's Oriental Warehouse.

When the firm refused him partnership, he left to open his own store also specializing in Oriental goods. With its evolution, Liberty & Co. quickly expanded to include fashionable clothing and furniture as well as decorative items such as vases, clocks, jewelry, textiles, and wallpapers. Liberty later opened another store in Paris.

The cohesion of the Liberty Style stems from the store's policy of retaining the anonymity of its designers. It frequently changed and adapted designs in the manufacturing of its items, which reduced the differences in style of the store's many designers and gave Liberty's goods their own recognizable style. The Italians adopted the term "Stile Liberty" as their name for Art Nouveau itself because of the specific style created by Liberty & Co.

While closely related to the Art Nouveau movement with its highly linear forms, Liberty consciously shifted away from what he described as the "fantastic motifs which it pleases our continental friends to worship as Art Nouveau" This British form of Art Nouveau shied away from the erotic human form in its designs and instead relied more heavily on strong lines and organic details.

While selling the goods of many other designers from across Europe, Liberty & Co. developed two of its own lines in order to further keep costs down: the Cymric line of silver goods and jewelry, and the Tudric line of pewter goods.

Items of these two lines often also featured materials such as enamel and semiprecious stones. Liberty's use of mass production minimized the cost of its Cymric and Tudric lines. In particular, the Tudric line's use of relatively inexpensive pewter made the goods extremely affordable.

Stylistically, these goods showed "strong celtic revival and Renaissance influences" as well as the characteristics commonly associated with the continental style of Art Nouveau. The Liberty Style often utilized the interaction of basic planes and lines to create clean and simple effects. The recognizable curves of Art Nouveau also appear in the Liberty Style's frequent use of the celtic knot and organic forms.


The Liberty style


Liberty's main goal for his store "was to combine utility and good taste with modest cost." leading to a highly successful combination of art and industry . Unlike other retailers of Art Nouveau products both in England and continental Europe, Liberty's kept its manufacturing costs down in order to in turn keep its prices low. This differed greatly from the one of a kind, and therefore expensive, Art Nouveau objects offered by most other retailers such as La Maison de l'Art Nouveau in Paris.

This resulted in the immense popularity of Liberty Style objects due to its availability to members of the public despite their wealthy or social status. Liberty himself said that his store aimed for "the production of useful and beautiful objects at prices within the reach of all classes (. The store sold everything from elaborate furniture to silver buttons, offering contemporary artistic style to the public at large.

At the time, Liberty & Co. was said to have "built up an influence that has laid hold of almost every section of society, and has been responsible for a radical change in the general opinion on aesthetic questions. The accessibility of Liberty's goods became the key in its pervasive influence on the Art Nouveau movement.


andy warhol


Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 – February 22, 1987), known as Andy Warhol, was an American painter, printmaker, and film maker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became famous worldwide for his work as a painter, avant-garde film maker, record producer, author, and member of highly diverse social circles that included bohemian street people, distinguished intellectuals,

Hollywood celebrities and wealthy patrons. Warhol has been the subject of numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. He coined the widely used expression "15 minutes of fame."

In his hometown of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, The Andy Warhol Museum exists in memory of his life and artwork. The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is $100 million for a 1963 canvas titled Eight Elvises. The private transaction was reported in a 2009 article in The Economist, which described Warhol as the "bellwether of the art market." $100 million is a benchmark price that only Jackson Pollock, Pablo Picasso, Gustav Klimt and Willem de Kooning have achieved Andy Warhol was born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on August 6, 1928.

He was the fourth child of Ondrej Warhola (died 1942) and Julia (née Zavacka, 1892–1972),whose first child was born in their homeland and died before their move to the U.S.

His parents were working-class emigrants from Mikó (now called Miková), in northeastern Slovakia, then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Warhol's father immigrated to the US in 1914, and his mother joined him in 1921, after the death of Andy Warhol's grandparents. Warhol's father worked in a coal mine.

The family lived at 55 Beelen Street and later at 3252 Dawson Street in the Oakland neighborhood of Pittsburgh. The family was Byzantine Catholic and attended St. John Chrysostom Byzantine Catholic Church. Andy Warhol had two older brothers, Ján and Pavol, who were born in today's Slovakia. Pavol's son, James Warhola, became a successful children's book illustrator.

In third grade, Warhol had chorea, the nervous system disease that causes involuntary movements of the extremities, which is believed to be a complication of scarlet fever and causes skin pigmentation blotchiness. He became a hypochondriac, developing a fear of hospitals and doctors. Often bed-ridden as a child, he became an outcast at school and bonded with his mother.

At times when he was confined to bed, he drew, listened to the radio and collected pictures of movie stars around his bed. Warhol later described this period as very important in the development of his personality, skill-set and preferences. When Warhol was 13, his father died in an accident.



The origins of pop art in North America and Great Britain developed differently. In America it marked a return to hard-edged composition and representational art as a response by artists using impersonal, mundane reality, irony and parody to defuse the personal symbolism and "painterly looseness" of Abstract Expressionism.

By contrast, the origin in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, was more academic with a focus on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American popular culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while improving prosperity of a society.

Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture viewed from afar, while the American artists were inspired by the experiences, of living within that culture. Similarly, pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism.

While pop art and Dadaism explored some of the same subjects, pop art replaced the destructive, satirical, and anarchic impulses of the Dada movement with detached affirmation of the artifacts of mass culture. Among those artists seen by some as producing work leading up to Pop art are Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters, and Man Ray.


The Dada movement


The Dada movement was an artistic revolution that took place in the early decades of the twentieth century. Dada changed the face of contemporary art, introducing a wide range of new techniques, styles, and aesthetics. While Dada originally emerged as an anti-war movement, it was also in many ways an anti-art movement, characterized by aspects of surrealism, whimsy, and irrationality.

Many famous artists produced work during the Dada period, and others were heavily influenced by the work of the Dadaists. Dada emerged in Germany in 1916 as a collaboration between artists of several nations including Germany, France, and Switzerland. Initially it was conceived as an anti-war art movement, and much of the early Dada work takes the form of protest art.

The movement chose the name “Dada” by inserting a slip of paper into a French dictionary and choosing the word it landed on, which happens to mean a hobbyhorse or child's toy. Dada also appeared in New York, centering around Gallery 291. Many artists of the Dada period went on to be associated with Surrealism, the artistic movement which followed. Marcel Duchamp, Paul Klee, Sophie Taeuber, Max Ernst, and Pablo Picasso are all representatives of the Dada movement, along with many others.

The movement represented an artistic union between several warring nations, and was in many ways a remarkable achievement. The work of the Dada period is extremely distinctive, and the techniques and styles used have become so pervasive in modern art that Dada is not often given the recognition it deserves. Collage, borrowing from native cultures, avant-garde film and literature, performance art, confrontational art, and surrealist elements are all legacies of the Dada movement.

Many artists of the period created large format pieces which were designed to confront the viewer, and often forced interaction of some form or another. The Dadaists also played with typography, guerilla theatre, minimalism, and advertising techniques. Many of the artists in the Dada period felt that European art was corrupted, and sought to purify it by mocking it.

Thus, many Dada pieces are extremely playful and teasing, such as Marcel Duchamp's famous portrait of the Mona Lisa with a moustache. Almost all Dada artwork inspires a reaction, which was the intended goal. The movement was very short lived, being essentially over by 1923, but Dada left a lasting legacy to modern art, advertising, and society. Without Dadaism, it is unlikely that Surrealism and other modern art movements would have occurred.


Modernism


Innovators in the sciences usually show us where we are going, but our artistic innovators tend to illuminate where we are, so that we can then move in whichever direction we see fit. And although most scientific innovations become mundane the moment we assimilate them, cutting-edge artworks can remain radical for decades, even as times and tastes change. "Make it new!" was Ezra Pound's call to artists to embrace and express change, and it became a central tenet of Modernism.

The Vorticists: Rebel Artists in London and New York, 1914–18, a new show at Duke University's Nasher Museum of Art through Jan. 2, gives an unprecedented look at one facet of early 20th-century art, albeit a dim and dusty one. A collaborative curatorial effort between the Nasher, the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice and London's Tate Britain, this show is the first U.S. retrospective of the British alternative to French Cubism and Italian Futurism since the original show at a New York gallery in 1917.

Keep in mind that the differences between the many Great War-era "isms" were very high stakes. Aesthetics and politics were forged together in the foundry of a Europe about to explode. Today, if you put a Wyndham Lewis painting next to a Picasso, few viewers would find it provocative even if they could tell the difference between the two.

But in 1917, you'd likely get a glass of Pernod—if not a fist—in the face if you lumped them together. Still, don't dismiss The Vorticists as an academic obligation next to the hipper, contemporary The Record, the current featured exhibition at the Nasher. Many of these works would look perfectly at home on a contemporary gallery wall, testifying to the intellectual and aesthetic rigor of the group.



The Wall Street Crash in October, 1929 served as the great divide between the 1920s and the 1930s, and between American modernist designs. The distinct moods of the two decades dramatically affected the arts of each. The '20s were characterized by a blend of two stylistic influences: the exotic materials and voluptuous interiors found in those "tall buildings that scraped the sky," an influence emanating from France's L'Art Déco elite, and the functional geometry of Zigzag Moderne quickly absorbed from such art movements as French Cubism, Dutch de stijl, Russian Constructivism, Italian Futurism and German Bauhaus.

Both strains gave way to the austerity binge of the '30s where sleek finishes, aerodynamic forms, synthetic materials and an infatuation with speed and futuristic elements came to the fore -- the advent of the Streamlined Moderne. In a period of only twenty years, from 1920 to 1940, this country produced a body of design work remarkable for its collective daring and ingenuity.

Ranking among the finest designs produced in the 20th century, they remain relatively unknown, underappreciated, and virtually unacknowledged by art museums Comprised of works from the Norwest collection, this exhibition provides an opportunity to examine a selection of applied and industrial designs created by many of America's most gifted talents during this twenty-year period.

It wasn't until 1925, the year the great Paris L'Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (from which Art Deco derives its name) opened that the now familiar Art Deco style was formally introduced to the world.

The French high style was epitomized in the luxurious furnishings of the artistes-decorateurs who were to have a tremendous influence on American interiors, finding ultimate expression in the extravagant spaces of Radio City Music Hall designed by Donald Deskey.

The rich décors of the skyscraper and high-rise apartments provided the necessary commissions for America's new breed of designers. Paul Frankl developed a complete line of Skyscraper furniture and others such as Norman Bel Geddes produced Skyscraper cocktail sets. Justly so. There was a pervasive air of escape from pre-World War I constraints in what is variously described as the Cocktail Age, the Jazz Age and the Roaring Twenties. At the least, it was the dawn of a new morality. The stock market crash soon put a decisive end to the indulgence.

Realizing their products were more marketable when they differed from similar consumer goods, American manufacturers turned to design as an important solution. The designer's attempt to modernize these products as a means of boosting sales led to the pursuit of a new style, one which evolved from the preceding fashionable Art Deco style of the 1920s and could be applied to industrial products especially.

Whereas the skyscraper had inspired an angular, setback style (generally described as Zigzag Moderne) that expressed the 1920's unbridled entrepreneurship, it was unsuited to the sober economic mood that followed the Crash in 1929. An authentic new image was needed to unify industry and to propel it out of economic stagnation. The image that answered this need was the streamlined form.

Based on sound aerodynamic principles, it came to symbolize industrial progress. The optimum streamline form became that of the tear drop, or parabolic curve, providing an image of fluid, energy-efficient motion. Little attempt was made to distinguish between functional and non-functional streamlining.

Whether moving or stationary, products were cased in sleek, aerodynamic bodies, emblematic of the 1930s obsession with speed and efficiency. At most speeds streamlined styling did not, in fact, save much energy and, in stationary objects, it saved none at all. These were secondary considerations as the style came to represent an embracement of the machine and the hope that it held for the future.


science-fiction


The roots of the Streamlined Moderne lie also in an infatuation with science-fiction. Utopian visions were provided by scores of illustrators for magazines, comic books and Hollywood film sets. The serial Buck Rogers began in 1930 and Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon appeared four years later. In H.G. Wells' 1936 film version of Things to Come, montage and photography were combined with state-of-the-art moderne model sets. The futuristic cities painted for Amazing Stories and other "pulps" variously anticipate or reflect the advanced designs of Buckminister Fuller, Walter Dorwin Teague and other piorneering designers of the thirties.

Four American expositions, all in the 1930s, also had a significant impact on design awareness. Of the four, Chicago's Century of Progress Exposition in l933-34 had the greatest mass appeal and likely did more to advance the cause of design in America. It drew 38 million visitors to the 424-acre parcel of reclaimed land on the edge of Lake Michigan and turned a handsome profit at the depth of the Depression.

It is difficult to appreciate the excitement, even euphoria, surrounding such an event, but it provided a welcome relief from unrelenting financial woes with a glimpse into a utopian future.


designs of the 1920s


In retrospect, the designs of the 1920s are best remembered for lavish interiors, angular designs, an emerging machine aesthetic, an avoidance of both ornament and organic forms, and a cerebral approach rationalized through mathamatics.

In contrast, the new breed of industrial designers in the l930s were more open to the suggestions of science and practical technologies, but were less restricted by aesthetic traditions. They must be credited with tempering rational engineering with the artists quest for perfected form.

In the following decade the steady evolution of design was interrupted by the second World War which created an enormous demand for products in which performance was the crucial requirement. After the war, products reappeared that vaguely resembled designs of the l930s, but only as a superficial application, for styling had replaced design. American dominance in design would gradually yield to the Italians, Swedes and Japanese.


Psychedelic art


Psychedelic art is any kind of visual artwork inspired by psychedelic experiences induced by drugs such as LSD, mescaline, and psilocybin. The word "psychedelic" (coined by British psychologist Humphrey Osmond) "mind manifesting". By that definition all artistic efforts to depict the inner world of the psyche may be considered "psychedelic". In common parlance "Psychedelic Art" refers above all to the art movement of the 1960s counter-culture.

Psychedelic visual arts were a counterpart to psychedelic rock music. Concert posters, album covers, light shows, murals, comic books, underground newspapers and more reflected not only the kaleidoscopically swirling patterns of LSD hallucinations, but also revolutionary political, social and spiritual sentiments inspired by insights derived from these psychedelic states of consciousness.

Psychedelic Art is informed by the notion that altered states of consciousness produced by psychedelic drugs are a source of artistic inspiration. The psychedelic art movement is similar to the surrealist movement in that it prescribes a mechanism for obtaining inspiration.

Whereas the mechanism for surrealism is the observance of dreams, a psychedelic artist turns to drug induced hallucinations. Both movements have strong ties to important developments in science. Whereas the surrealist was fascinated by Freud's theory of the unconscious, the psychedelic artist has been literally "turned on" by Albert Hofmann's discovery of LSD.


Remedios Varo


The early examples of "Psychedelic Art" are literary rather than visual, although there are some examples in the Surrealist art movement, such as Remedios Varo and André Masson. It should also be noted that these came from writers involved in the Surrealist movement. Antonin Artaud writes of his Peyote experience in "Journey to the Land of the Tarahumara" (1937). Henri Michaux wrote "Miserable Miracle" (1956), to describe his experiments with Mescaline and also hashish. Aldous Huxley's "The Doors of Perception" (1954), and "Heaven and Hell" (1956), remain definitive statements on the psychedelic experience. Albert Hofmann and his colleagues at Sandoz Laboratories were convinced immediately after its discovery in 1943 of the power and promise of LSD.

For two decades following its discovery LSD was marketed by Sandoz as an important drug for psychological and neurological research. Hofmann saw the drug's potential for poets and artists as well, and took great interest in the German poet, Ernst Junger's psychedelic experiments.

Early artistic experimentation with LSD was conducted in a clinical context by Los Angeles based psychiatrist Oscar Janiger. Janiger asked a group of 50 different artists to each do a painting from life of a subject of the artist's choosing. They were subsequently asked to do the same painting while under the influence of LSD.

The two paintings were compared by Janiger and also the artist. The artists almost unanimously reported LSD to be an enhancement to their creativity. Ultimately it seems that psychedelics would be most warmly embraced by the American counterculture.

Beatnik poets Allen Ginsberg and William S. Burroughs became fascinated by psychedelic drugs as early as the 1950s as evidenced by "The Yage Letters" (1963). The Beatniks recognized the role of psychedelics as sacred inebriants in Native American religious ritual, and also had an understanding of the philosophy of the surrealist and symbolist poets who called for a "complete disorientation of the senses" (to paraphrase Arthur Rimbaud).

They knew that altered states of consciousness played a role in Eastern Mysticism. They were hip to psychedelics as psychiatric medicine. LSD was the perfect catalyst to electrify the eclectic mix of ideas assembled by the Beats into a cathartic, mass-distributed panacea for the soul of the succeeding generation.


Pollock, Jackson


Pollock, Jackson (1912-56). American painter, the commanding figure of the Abstract Expressionist movement. He began to study painting in 1929 at the Art Students' League, New York, under the Regionalist painter Thomas Hart Benton. During the 1930s he worked in the manner of the Regionalists, being influenced also by the Mexican muralist painters (Orozco, Rivera, Siqueiros) and by certain aspects of Surrealism. From 1938 to 1942 he worked for the Federal Art Project.

By the mid 1940s he was painting in a completely abstract manner, and the `drip and splash' style for which he is best known emerged with some abruptness in 1947.

Instead of using the traditional easel he affixed his canvas to the floor or the wall and poured and dripped his paint from a can; instead of using brushes he manipulated it with `sticks, trowels or knives' (to use his own words), sometimes obtaining a heavy impasto by an admixture of `sand, broken glass or other foreign matter'.

This manner of Action painting had in common with Surrealist theories of automatism that it was supposed by artists and critics alike to result in a direct expression or revelation of the unconscious moods of the artist.

Pollock's name is also associated with the introduction of the All-over style of painting which avoids any points of emphasis or identifiable parts within the whole canvas and therefore abandons the traditional idea of composition in terms of relations among parts.

The design of his painting had no relation to the shape or size of the canvas -- indeed in the finished work the canvas was sometimes docked or trimmed to suit the image. All these characteristics were important for the new American painting which matured in the late 1940s and early 1950s.


Pop art 1960s


Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in the late 1950s in the United States. Pop art challenged tradition by asserting that an artist's use of the mass-produced visual commodities of popular culture is contiguous with the perspective of fine art.

Pop removes the material from its context and isolates the object, or combines it with other objects, for contemplation. The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the attitudes that led to it.

Characterized by themes and techniques drawn from popular mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects, pop art is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion upon them.

Pop art is aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture, most often through the use of irony. It is also associated with the artists' use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques.

Much of pop art is considered incongruently, as the conceptual practices that are often used make it difficult for some to readily comprehend. Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some of the earliest examples of Postmodern Art themselves.

Pop art often takes as its imagery that which is currently in use in advertising. Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, like in the Campbell's Soup Cans labels, by Andy Warhol. Even the labeling on the shipping carton containing retail items has been used as subject matter in pop art, for example in Warhol's Campbell's Tomato Juice Box 1964, or his Brillo Soap Box sculptures.


Pop artists


Although the movement began in the late 1950s, Pop Art in America was given its greatest impetus during the 1960s. By this time, American advertising had adopted many elements and inflections of modern art and functioned at a very sophisticated level.

Consequently, American artists had to search deeper for dramatic styles that would distance art from the well-designed and clever commercial materials. As the British viewed American popular culture imagery from a somewhat removed perspective, their views were often instilled with romantic, sentimental and humorous overtones.

By contrast, American artists being bombarded daily with the diversity of mass produced imagery, produced work that was generally more bold and aggressive.



The history of art has for a long time been criticized for its subjective nature since the definition of beauty varies from one person to another. The art of learning to assess the relevance of art pieces form an artistic form usually develops an individual's understanding of the arts aesthetic value. The enlightenment age refers to the 18th century according to the European philosophy and it has been thought to be a part of a larger time that sometimes includes the Age of Reason.

The term specifically refers to a movement of historical intellectuals that advocated for rationality as a means of establishing authoritarian ethical, aesthetical and knowledge systems. The leaders in this intellectual movements believed they were courageous and elite and regarded their purpose as one that leads to global progress out of traditions that are full of doubts, superstition and tyranny. From a political history angle, the movements provided the American and French the framework during the earlier years' revolutions leading to the rise of capitalism and socialism.

The concept has been matched by high classical and baroque eras of music and the neo-classic art periods receiving contemporary applications in the unity of sciences revolutions that include logical positivism. Europe as well as North America saw the onset of religious wars in early 16th and 17th centuries and the European situation only stabilized after the signing of the Peace of Westphalia and the halt of the English Civil War. There were upheavals that toppled the notions of faith and mysticism in people revelation as the core source of wisdom and knowledge.

The Age of Reason sought the creation of philosophies that were axiomatic and absolutism as the fundamentals of stability and knowledge. In this case, epistemology deduced from René Descartes and Michael de Montaigne was based on inquiries in knowledge's nature and extreme skepticism.

The goal behind this age was to build axioms that were self-reliant that saw their heightened accomplishment in Baruch Spinoza's ethics. Neoclassicism was a major definer of enlightenment with regard to art both in North America and in Europe.

The concept was idealized through the harmonization of the great Greek art forms where neoclassicists were working on a grand scale. The balance and order reigned as preferences turned to antiquity scenes.Jacques Louis David's exemplified the heroic sensibilities of Greco-Roman encounters through a balanced composition. Through neoclassicism, people were able to use myth and patriotism scenes in challenging the social and political order at the time.

Neoclassicism literature was also used as a powerful voice in poetic literature where it devoted neoclassicism to both deism and reason. According to Immanuel Kant (1784),enlightenments is the man's abandonment of his self acquired immaturity that can be defined as the incapacity to utilize ones intelligence without directions from others.

From such a context, enlightenment is viewed to have started in belief, comprehensive and orderly universe that is preceded by stages like those found in the concept of Deism. This begins through the assertion that law governs heavenly and human affairs.


In France, the Encyclopedistes coined the enlightenment thinking where the premise of the enterprise was primarily found on the basis that knowledge had some moral architecture within itself. The thinking was then suffused with two varying strains where one was characterized by faith and intense spirituality with regard to church and religion.

In opposing such moves, there was the growth in anti-clericalism that was seen to mock the perceived relationships between the ideals of priesthood and church. With regard to architecture and art, the enlightenment concepts led to the spread of cultures that primarily resulted from colonization.

For example in the 19th century, theatre designs were explored based on conventions where in North America they were established in the Baroque era. In this case, theatre was viewed more than a place to perform plays, opera and representations in drama. It was changed into a focal point where the society displayed its fashion and in most cases, it showed its latest tastes and styles.

Through different dramatic expressions and interpretations theatre mirrored trends in culture where it captured the social changes and moods. The German's advent of romantic operas coined the establishment of a new theme that was found within the first half of the century defining the term "romantic" as the quest for a cultural vision that encompassed all in the society.

The Festspielhaus founded by Richard Wagner in 1876 introduced an innovation series on both decorative levels and narratives that represented two inherent aspects of art that were interlinked. In this context, balconies and galleries were abolished and were replaced by the fan-shaped stalls that were appreciated by the audiences since they provided a more comfortable lateral stage view.

The orchestras were hidden between the stage and the stall where the audience space was left in darkness when the performances were in progress. The dramatic realism trend later brought a revision of the way presentations were done for performances.

More attention was paid on the accuracies of historical reconstructions, even details, costumes sets and lighting that meant that in future no lone theatrical aspects of production would be peripheral-judged again. In America, the influential figure in molding of the American classicism through architecture was the then third president Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) who was scholarly in his approach.

The architecture developed by Thomas was to express the republican ideals of the new America. The architecture adopted the Palladian style in the design of the house that saw the rejection of the English style. After independence, the president found the principles and style in roman architecture that he had seek for many years.

This was made possible owing to his posting as a foreign minister in France between the year 1784 and 1789. The designs were discovered in the Provence ruins and was used in the design of State Capitol at Richmond in 1785 becoming one instance of classical buildings that was then applied in building of monumental buildings.

This later coined the vocabulary for the democratic architecture globally. The beginning of 19th century witnessed the ascent of two architectural trends that were, Adam also called the federal and the revival style of the Greeks. The Adam derived its identity from the year 1789-1830 when the US federal government came into place but it was more rooted in the British neoclassicism where French influences were discerned and they reflected the pro-sentiment of the revolution.

The Greek revival reached its popularity peak in the year 1820 following the archeological discoveries that were made in Europe. In the design of Harrison Gray Otis house in 1806 by Bulfinch, exemplification were made of the federal house style within its composition and harmony. Artistically, the enlightenment concept led to the criticism of the monarchy hence the onset of many revolutions in Europe.

The monarchy and aristocracy was accused of corruption through the Rococo art in France under Louis XVI that was seen as indecent and immortal and it called for the establishment of a new art that would be moral and that taught the people what was right and what was wrong.

Following this kind of thinking, French citizens were left angry and hungry and in the year 1789, the French revolution started. The first stage saw the revolutionaries ask for a constitution that was to limit the powers of the king. The idea did not succeed and it led to the radical stage where in 1792 the French king was beheaded together with his wife along many aristocrats who supported the monarchy.

From this revolution, the enlightenment philosophy was represented through a messianic and violent lens. The rationality desires led the government to attempt ending the Catholic Church and in that case Christianity in France.


impressionism


The art of impressionism did not rise from any manifesto or theory. It is seen more of an artistic sharing of the same idea at a particular time in the art history. The movement of impressionism led to the evolution of art in a complex way where its first developmental signs were identified in the early 1860s. Collective conscious was not witnessed until the year 1867 and 1869.

The motivational force aiding impressionism is the desire by many small artists to view painting in a way that is completely opposed to what is practiced in sacrosanct environments of a salon. The artists in this case, were having different personalities and from different schools.

They embarked in different ways coming up with different and new artistic styles. The first steps of systematic impressionism were done in France in the years 1866 and it chose a subject that overly used a palette full of primary colors. The decisive advancement took place in the year 1869 where Monet and Renoir worked together at the la Grenouillere resort.

The resulting picture produced by the two artists showed that Monet had used brush strokes bringing the picture to light tonality whereas Renoir had recreated the delight of ordinary people. The impressionism movement was first started through painting that later was translated into music. The impressionistic paintings usually comprised of works that were done between 1867 and 1886 by artist having the same techniques and approaches.

A conspicuous impressionism characteristic is the attempt to objectively and accurately record realities in the visual sense through transient effects of color and light. The dissatisfaction of the early painters led to the rejection of conventional idealizing and imaginative treatment.

In the year 1860, many artist were producing artwork that reflected new value in aesthetics that later become the leading guiding force in works of impressionists where the traditional core matter was downgraded and more attention was given to the artists' manipulation of tone, color and texture.

In Manet's painting, this became a subject that was used by other many painters as a vehicle in the composition of artful paintings that had depth perspectives and flat color minimized allowing the viewer to look at these relationships and surface patterns rather than looking at the three dimension illusions created by the picture.

The impressions created by Eugene Boudin acted as an inspirations to Monet where they displayed the fleeting effects in sea vessels through sky and sea combinations where colors were highly applied to bringing out the textually varied painting through varied paint applications.

In this setup, Monet was able to adopt the practice allowing painting to be done out-of-doors where the actual scenes were viewed rather than using sketches that were formerly a common practice. In the 1860s, impressionist painters were able to record dispassionately the forms and colors as they naturally appeared during given times of the year.

Here, the traditional landscape palette was abandoned where more lighter and brilliant pictures were produced. The new method of paining was based on painting the reflected play of light upon water where reproduction was done through animated effects and manifolds of shadows and sunlight and of the reflected and direct light that was observed.

As painting advanced, challenges were generated where the likes of Georges Seurat decided to move from the traditional impressionistic standpoint to a technique that was referred to as pointillism.This was a deliberately designed form of painting and consisted of tiny dot usage, brush stroke dabbing that had more characteristics of impressionist mainstream painting. The technique also entailed the juxtaposition of colors on the canvas and it went against the traditional mixing of canvas colors directly rather than doing it on the palette.

In this technique, the tiny unmixed colors were placed close to each other where they seemed to blend and mix when the painting was observed from a proper distance. The technique provided one with an optical effect that was special. Through such special effects the figures and landscape were played on moving light, shadows and color where they shimmered. To achieve this, the canvas were made vibrant through vibrational movement and energy.

The paintings thus represented the viewer standing in front of them with a new kind of observational challenge. This called upon the viewer to reassemble and process all the tiny points of color on the canvas where they should juxtapose the isolated hues into new compositional shades.

The viewer was finally implicitly asked to reflect and register throughout the impressions color and light fleets. This was in many cases in motion thanks to the fostered optical illusion portrayed by this pointillist method.


impressionism


In the quest to reproduce the immediate impressions recorded on the retina, the use of gray and blacks shades  was abandoned in representation of shadows where they were termed as inaccurate. For these reasons, the use of complimentary colors was advocated for where objects were created out of flecks that were discrete and through the harmonization of contrasting colors that evoked the brilliance of the broken hue produced by reflections of sunlight.

In this kind of painting , the picture form ended up loosing their outlines where they became dematerialized, vibrating and shimmering due to the recreation of outdoor conditions. Traditional composition of forms was abandoned to pave way for the less contrived and casual object disposition found within the picture frame.

Camille Pissarro is another painter in the impressionist era whose paintings were not dramatic. However, his leading motifs of 1870 and 1880 paintings were outstanding where forms that were painted did not dissolve rather they remained firm and colors were strong.

This characteristic painting was attained through use of the comma-shaped brushstrokes that recorded the sparkling light scintillations. Pissarro later embraced the theories of fellow neo-impressionist such as Georges where he did his paintings through a technique that meticulously consisted of juxtaposed small painted dots. This was referred to as the divisionist style and it proved to be unpopular among painting dealers.     

In the musical field, Claude Debussy has been considered as an impressionist. Though impressed and influenced by impressionist painters and their attitudes Claude made no attempts in composing his music through techniques that were similar to those used in painting. The characteristics of Claude's music varied considerably from the first to the last composition where impressionistic traits were absent.

Some of renowned impressionistic musical works are the " nuages" and the opera "pelleas et melisande". In this context, music impressionism has always been thought to refer to amorphous passivity, subtle fragility and vague music moods.

The characterization of impressionistic music can be accurately defined through understatement and restraints, quality statics and colorful effect that is provocative resulting in fascination of the composer where pure sound are made beautiful throughout the music.

From a technical point of view, these characteristics usually result from the use of ambiguous tone, static harmony use of less formal contrast coupled by an  rhythmic drives where blurring of differences in accompaniments and melody are done. Impressionism has always been considered as a move from the romanticism excesses where most of its characteristics can be found in composers' works that are considered expressionists and precursors of romance.


Other impressionist music composers of the past considered themselves as classicist. They used the traditional techniques in expressing their innovative harmonies. Such musicians included Joseph Maurice Ravel whose music was unique in that the transition between one section to the other was hidden making the audience blurred in cracking the motif. This kind of music based on a tonal center has been viewed by many as classy and innovative.

Ravel's music like many contemporary music, had modal melodies used in minor and major bends such as in Aeolian and mixolydian. They are marked by unresolved complexity and appoggiaturas and they were influenced by different styles of dancing where the most predominant was the minuet. With time, the music style was revisited where it was revised to be later produced in a complex and meticulous way.


Pablo Picasso


No two people will agree on the top ten most famous and influential artists, since every person has his or her own view of what type of painting is the most articulate. Every art lover sees each painting in their own way, so that any list is purely subjective. Here is a compilation that will cover some of the most famous artists: 1. Pablo Picasso is widely accepted as the most influential artist of his time, with a unique style and an ambitious attitude.

It is widely believed that he surpassed the masters who came before him, and he defined the concept of art as it would be known. 2. The "Mona Lisa" secured Leonardo da Vinci as the creator of the painting that is more well-known than any other. Others have often attempted to imitate his style and stroke, with no success.

He was an artist and a humanist. Vincent van Gogh is one of the most famous names in any study of art. He suffered a great deal in his life, and his paintings reflect the pain with their personal look. He was a great influence on the painters of the twentieth century.

Claude Monet has sometimes been overlooked by art lovers, who see simple beauty but little else in his works. His work showed complex technique but he wanted the works only to be loved and not necessarily understood. 5. Michelangelo Buonarroti actually thought of himself as a sculptor, although he was among the top artists of all time.

He will forever be known by his painting in the Sistine Chapel, and that work alone deems that he is included in any top ten artist list. 6. Rembrandt van Rijn used shadows and light to express a lot of his own personal experiences. He was one of the main faces of European painting in the 17th century.

He painted one of the most remarkable self-portraits. 7. Jackson Pollock is a very modern artist in this group of older masters. He was the main artist in American Abstract works, and his "drip" paintings are said to be truly emblematic of his most popular style. 8. Henri Matisse stands behind only Picasso as the master of 20th century painting.

He used a purity in color in many of his works, and it is believed to have influenced many artists who came after him. 9. Paul Cezanne was called "the father of us all" by either Matisse or Picasso (it has been, over time, attributed to both of them). He painted during the same time span as Impressionist artists, but he left them behind and developed an entirely new painting style that had never been seen before. 10. Paul Gauguin is quite a fascinating artist, as they all tended to be, to one degree or another.

He began with works of Impressionism, but he soon abandoned that for vigorous and colorful works, like his Polynesian paintings. If you are an art aficionado, you would never be able to understand Fauvism and Matisse without first understanding Gauguin's works.


Da Vinci


Famous artists throughout history have contributed to the social and political landscape of different societies around the world. Some of these artists have made creations never before seen by man. Many have lead art movements that have shaped the world we live in. Here are four out of many who have changed the world through art.

Leonardo Da Vinci: Multi-talented Italian painter of the 15th Century, Leonardo Da Vinci, was a master sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist. Apart form being an ingenious artist, Da Vinci possessed a brilliant mind which was inclined towards knowledge and understanding of everything.

He is unique in the scientifically accurate sketches of objects, human body anatomy drafts, and medical and scientific designs that he also constructed with great detail, creativity and accuracy. Da Vinci's abilities are astonishing at any age the truth is.

His two most famous paintings of the Mona Lisa and of The last Supper have stirred strong waves of controversy through the creation of the Da Vinci Code Series. They have also been parts of influencing or aiding new movements, such as occurrence of the deformation of the Mona Lisa painting by Dada, in order to create a new piece which belonged to the Dada art movement as opposed to the classical art movement. Salvador Dali: Spanish painter, Salvador Dali, was the leader of the surrealist art movement, with his famous painting entitled The Persistence of Memory in 1931.

The painting featured an abysmal array of melting clocks, and was seen as a reflection of the internal and fearful clockworks of the male psyche. The nightmare like worlds that are created through Dali's paintbrushes display an abstract, nonsensical, and logically confusing world, and may present the viewer with a way of developing underlying subconscious awareness, of lost feelings and fears.

Andy Warhol: Andy Warhol is a leading figure or artist of the modern pop art movement. He is also one of the most influential and important artistic figures of the 20th century, and is generally associated with the proliferation of art imagery and mass imagery distribution. The nature of his modern art played a tremendous role in redefining the nature, social place, financial value, and general identity of what was considered to be art.

Warhol's pop art portrait of Marilyn Monroe and Jacqueline Kennedy employ the usage of multi-images and repetition in order to reinforce the concept of mass production and eradicate class differences through the means of obliterating distinctions.

The public distribution of unique paintings onto the hands of many, through the aid of the printing press, challenged many notions about art, its right to become reproduced numerously, and its scope of existence, and influence in general. Mark Rothko: Rothko was a famous American painter of the 1900's and an eager leader in the progression of the transient art movement of abstract surrealism.

He created a link between the present surrealism of his time and the abstractism of the future, and is regarded as a progressive mind and artist. His paintings speak of nothing less than unchallenged originality and completion, and are widely influencing the direction of modern abstract art today.



"There is no abstract art. You must always start with something. Afterward you can remove all traces of reality". These were the words spoken by child prodigy Pablo Picasso - a Spanish painter, sculptor, graphic artist and ceramist who is considered by many to be the 20th century's best art genius. No other artist of the modern period achieved the range of influence which Picasso reached over twentieth century abstract art. Picasso is in all probability best known for the part he played in pioneering and developing Cubism.

Picasso entered into marriage twice and was the father of four children, three of which were born outside wedlock. Born in Malaga, Spain on October 25, 1881, Pablo Picasso was the son of a painter by the name of Don José Ruiz Blasco. His mother's name was Doña Maria Picasso y Lopez. From a young age Picasso showed an exceptional talent for drawing.

His father, realizing Picasso's outstanding talent handed over his palette and brushes to him and swore to never again paint as long as he lived. In 1895 Picasso's family moved to Barcelona. Picasso - aged 14 - took only one day to pass the entrance examination for the higher class at the Barcelona School of Fine Arts. Picasso had his first exhibition in 1900 in Barcelona.

That same year, he went to Paris – where he settled in 1904 - and his creativity flourished. The period from 1900 to 1904 was known as his ‘Blue Period'. This period of Picasso's art is characterized by the utilization of different blue shades. These shades underlined the miserable lives of his subjects; he portrayed beggars, prostitutes and alcoholics.

The suicide of Carlos Casagemas, Picasso's friend; and Picasso's trip to Spain were the stimuli for his Blue Period. His abstract art works during this period included a portrait of Cassagemas after his death, The Frugal Repast (1904) and Portrait of Soler.

The years 1905 and 1906 saw Picasso shifting from the dark Blue Period to a cheery Rose Period, featuring pink and orange colours and with circus-associated subjects. Most of Picasso's abstract art paintings during the Rose Period were influenced by the affectionate relationship he had with Fernande Olivier.

Following numerous variations and studies, Picasso came out with ‘Les demoiselles d'Avignon', - his first Cubist work in 1907. African artefacts were the inspiration for this painting which critics considered to be only a copy of African ethnic art.

In the following years Picasso along with his new artist friend Georges Braque explored the prospects of Cubism. Picasso's abstract art phase from 1908 to 1911 was an Analytic Cubism phase. He and Braque created landscape Cubist paintings using neutral colours and monochromatic browns. The Analytic Cubism phase was followed by the Synthetic Cubism phase which lasted up to 1919.

Picasso produced his most celebrated art work ‘Guernica' during his surrealist and neoclassical phase. For many, this large work done while the Spanish Civil War was in progress; was a depiction of the inhumanity, despair and violence of war.

Picasso was one of the participants in a sculpture exhibition held in 1949, at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. His final works incorporated a variety of styles and were more expressive and colourful. Pablo Picasso passed away, aged 91, on the 8th of April, 1973 in Mougins, France.



Art is an inborn talent which will create a man somewhat dissimilar from others. An artist may be the person who brings the most current look to their works by employing their own talent. In a lot of the cases nature is the correct teacher that your influences your designers within performing the artwork by means of an exceptional manner and outlook.

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It gets a part of education which offers a matter of just the thing recreation to students. Besides academic studies, special education classes are available inside society for arts that could get better the special skills in talented ones. Artist database can be found inside internet that help to choose the foremost gifted instructor on this area.

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Andy Goldsworthy


The Twentieth Century had produced many renowned artists who include Painters, Musicians, Instrumentalists, Rock Artists and Sculptors. It has been a decade since the new century was born and many magnanimous and versatile artists have already started to conquer the mindsets of masses. These include artists from US, Europe, Russia, India and Australia. Beginning with Sculptors, the name of Andy Goldsworthy is significant.

He was born in 1956 in Cheshire, UK and is a Photographer and Environmentalist too. He is accredited with producing site-specific sculptures and land arts situated in natural and urban settings. David Hockney, born in 1937 is another leading British artist and has been voted the UK’s most popular living artist.

Another name to worth mentioning is Lucian Freud who was born in1922and is possibly Britain's greatest living painter and portrait artist. All his works are protected by international copyright laws until at least 70 years after his death. Antony Gormley is another sculptor who has explored the human image using his own body as a subject, tool and material over the course of the last 25 years.

His work has been exhibited extensively both in the UK (such as the Whitechapel, Tate Modern, Hayward Galleries, British Museum and White Cube) and abroad. Gormley was awarded with the Turner Prize in 1994, South Bank Prize for Visual Art in 1999 and Bernhard Heiliger Award for Sculpture in 2007.

In US, the name of Chuck Thomas Close as a modern painter tops the list. He is known for his self portraits and portrait paintings. Other popular artists from US of international repute are Kiki Smith, Stacy Brown, Irvin Bomb, Kimberly Conrad, Rebecca Darlington, Marcus Jansen, Ray Yano, M.E.Whitehill, Karen Jacobs, Iwaski and Michael Khandros. Indian contemporary art in the break of 21st century is as varied as it had never been before.

From the elitist business houses and royal families, it has now entered the drawing room of the middle class buyers and from domestic market, it is now traveling offshore to fetch immense; often astronomical prices. Some of world famous artists of this century are M.F. Hussein, Jatin Das, Satish Gujral, Ghulam Mohammed Sheikh and A Ramachandran.

Russia too continues it’s legacy of artistic richness. Prominent and World famous Russian artists include Alyona Dergiliova, Ilya Kaverznev, Ekaterina Moré, Nataliya Ivanovna Duritskaya, Nikolay Tretyakov. Marc Riboud, Georges Rousse, Pierre Toutan Dorbec, Bettine Rheims, Ange Leccia and Sophie Calle are World famous French photographers who have been successfully able to transform photography into an art.

Popular French artists of 21st century include many heavy weights like Patrick Mimran, Y Liver, Jeylina Ever, Andre Vanden Busshe who is both a sculptor and a Painter. Dominique Sanson (who currently lives in Spain), Jacques Pellegrin and Zaven Pare, Gilles Rouaut, grandson of the famous French artist, George Rouaut are the promising artists from France. From Italy, the land of Picasso, many new artists have come up like Carlo Maria Mariani, Francesco Clemente and Sandro Chia. Popular German artists include Markus Lupertz, Gerhard Richter and Anselm Kiefer.


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