The Gulf War - Iraq was left in severe debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of flooding the market with oil and driving down prices. As a result, on August 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and conquered Kuwait.

The UN immediately condemned the action, and a coalition force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf. Aerial bombing of Iraq began in January 1991, and a month later, the UN forces drove the Iraqi army from Kuwait in just four days. In the aftermath of the war, the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the Shiites in the south rose up in revolt, and Saddam Hussein barely managed to hold onto power. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off from much of the world.


Welcome to Pastreunited, here you will find hundreds of videos, images, and over 80 pages about all aspects of the 20th century. A great deal of the content has been sent in, other content is the work of numerous writers who have a passion for this era, please feel free to send in your memories or that of your family members, photos and videos are all welcome to help expand pastreunited's data base.

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Resisting foreign domination has deep roots in this part of the world. The Chechens, a distinct Muslim people with a unique language and culture, have survived attacks from numerous would-be conquerors in their 7,000-year history. Over the last 200 years, however, the gravest threat has been from Russia. Both Imperial and Communist Russia successfully annexed the Caucasus, and both met persistent Chechen resistance.

After the breakup of the USSR in 1991, Chechnya declared independence from Russia, only to be consumed by war three years later as Russia tried to regain control. The long and bloody war, which resulted in over 70,000 casualties, was finally brought to an end in 1996.

But the terms of the peace were indecisive: the belligerents decided to defer a decision about Chechnya's formal status until 2001. Chechnya considers itself independent. In 1997 it held internationally monitored democratic elections in which Maskhadov won the presidency, and changed the name of its capital from Grozny, a Russian name, to Djohar, a distinctly Chechen one. Despite Chechnya's de facto autonomy, the international community still considers the area Russian.

The First Chechen War occurred in a two year period lasting from 1994 to 1996, when Russian forces attempted to stop Chechnya from seceding. Despite overwhelming manpower, weaponry and air support, the Russian forces were unable to establish effective control over the mountainous area due to many successful Chechen guerrilla raids.

The Budyonnovsk hospital hostage crisis in 1995 shocked the Russian public and discredited Chechen guerrillas. Widespread demoralization of the Russian forces in the area and a successful offensive on Grozny by Chechen independantist forces lead by Aslan Maskhadov prompted Russian President Boris Yeltsin to declare a ceasefire in 1996 and sign a peace treaty a year later. The war was disastrous for both sides.

Most estimates give figures of between 3,500 and 7,500 Russian military dead, between 3,000 and 15,000 Chechen militants dead, and no fewer than 35,000 civilian deaths—a total of at least 41,500 dead. Others have cited figures in the range of 80,000 to 100,000. With the impending collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, an independence movement, initially known as the Chechen National Congress, was formed and led by ex-Soviet Air Force general and new Chechen President Dzhokhar Dudayev that rallied for the recognition of Chechnya as a separate nation.

This movement was ultimately opposed by Boris Yeltsin's Russian Federation, which first argued that Chechnya had not been an independent entity within the Soviet Union—as the Baltic, Central Asian, and other Caucasian States had—but was part of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and hence did not have a right under the Soviet constitution to secede; second, that other republics of Russia, such as Tatarstan, would consider seceding from the Russian Federation if Chechnya were granted that right; and third, that Chechnya was a major hub in the oil infrastructure of the Federation and hence its secession would hurt the country's economy and energy access.

In the ensuing decade, the territory was locked in an ongoing struggle between various factions, usually fighting unconventionally and forgoing the position held by the several successive Russian governments through the current administration. Various demographic factors including religious ones have continued to keep the area in a near constant state of war.


Fawlty Towers


'Fawlty Towers' is more than just a comedy, it's a work of genius. Not only did writers John Cleese and Connie Booth give the world the most unhinged sitcom hero ever, a brace of unforgettable comedy moments - 'Don't mention the war' anyone? - and a biting portrayal of loveless marriage, but they knew when to stop. There are only 12 episodes… and no afterthought Christmas specials"! "But don't take my word- the statistics prove it! 'Fawlty Towers' has the most laughs per minute of any British sitcom. It also has the longest scripts and running time.

If I were an American I'd say it gave more bang for your buck. But I'm not American". "Americans didn't do too well out of 'Fawlty Towers', with or without waldorfs. Nor did Germans, dodgy aristocrats, harassed chambermaids, travelling salesmen or incompetent builders. But spare a thought in particular for Spanish waiters and their pet hamsters.

They were top of the Fawlty hit list". "Farce doesn't normally work on television, but somehow in 'Fawlty Towers' it did. Basil attacking his car with a tree, found straddling Manuel in the hotel lobby, being hit on the head by a stuffed moose… all priceless television moments. Even the hotel sign 'Fatty Owls' had a sense of humour, even if it wasn't a perfect anagram".


The Gulf War


The Gulf War - Iraq was left in severe debt after the 1980s war with Iran. President Saddam Hussein accused Kuwait of flooding the market with oil and driving down prices. As a result, on August 2, 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and conquered Kuwait. The UN immediately condemned the action, and a coalition force led by the United States was sent to the Persian Gulf.

Aerial bombing of Iraq began in January 1991 (see also Gulf War), and a month later, the UN forces drove the Iraqi army from Kuwait in just four days. In the aftermath of the war, the Kurds in the north of Iraq and the Shiites in the south rose up in revolt, and Saddam Hussein barely managed to hold onto power. Until the US invasion in 2003, Iraq was cut off from much of the world. The

First Congo War takes place in Zaire from 1996 to 1997, resulting in Zairian dictator Mobutu Sese Seko being overthrown from power on May 16, 1997, ending 32 years of his rule. Zaire is renamed the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Second Congo War starts in 1998 in central Africa and includes 5 different cultures and 7 different nations. It goes on until 2003.

The First Chechen War (1994–1996) - the conflict was fought between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. After the initial campaign of 1994–1995, culminating in the devastating Battle of Grozny, Russian federal forces attempted to seize control of the mountainous area of Chechnya but were set back by Chechen guerrilla warfare and raids on the flatlands in spite of Russia's overwhelming manpower, weaponry, and air support.

The resulting widespread demoralization of federal forces, and the almost universal opposition of the Russian public to the conflict, led Boris Yeltsin's government to declare a ceasefire in 1996 and sign a peace treaty a year later. The Second Chechen War (1999 - ongoing) - the war was launched by the Russian Federation starting August 26, 1999, in response to the Invasion of Dagestan and the Russian apartment bombings which were blamed on the Chechens.

During the war Russian forces largely recaptured the separatist region of Chechnya. The campaign largely reversed the outcome of the First Chechen War, in which the region gained de facto independence as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. Kargil War (1999) - In May 1999, Pakistan sends troops covertly to occupy strategic peaks in Kashmir.

A month later the Kargil War with India results in a political fiasco for Nawaz Sharif, followed by a military withdrawal to the Line of Control. The incident leads to a military coup in October in which the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif is ousted by Army Chief Pervez Musharraf. War between ethnic-Albanian separatists and Yugoslav military and Serb paramilitary forces in Kosovo begin in 1996 and escalates in 1998 with increasing reports of atrocities taking place.

In 1999, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) led by the United States launched air attacks against Yugoslavia (then composed of only Serbia and Montenegro) to pressure the Yugoslav government to end its military operations against ethnic Albanian separatists in Kosovo due to accusations of war crimes being committed by Yugoslav military forces working alongside nationalist Serb paramilitary groups.

After weeks of bombing, Yugoslavia submits to NATO's demands and NATO forces occupy Kosovo and later UN peacekeeping forces to take control of Kosovo. The Yugoslav Wars (1991–1995) - The breakup of Yugoslavia beginning on June 25, 1991 after the republics of Croatia and Slovenia declared independence from Yugoslavia [disambiguation needed] which was followed by the subsequent Yugoslav wars.

The Yugoslav Wars would become notorious for numerous war crimes and human rights violations such as ethnic cleansing and genocide committed by all sides, especially by the Serbs. War in Slovenia (1991) - a brief military conflict between Slovenian TO (Slovenian Territorial Defence) and the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) following Slovenia's declaration of independence.

Croatian War of Independence (1991–1995) - the war fought in Croatia between the Croatian government, having declared independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and both the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Serb forces, who established the self-proclaimed Republic of Serbian Krajina (RSK) within Croatia. Bosnian War (1992–1995) - the war involved several ethnically defined factions within Bosnia and Herzegovina: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats as well as a smaller faction in Western Bosnia led by Fikret Abdic.

The Siege of Sarajevo (1992 - 1994) marked the most violent urban warfare in Europe since World War II at that time as Serb forces bombard and attack Bosniak controlled and populated areas of the city. War crimes occur including ethnic cleansing and destruction of civilian property.

The final fighting in Croatian and Bosnian wars ends in 1995 with the success of Croatian military offensives against Serb forces and the mass exodus of Serbs from Croatia in 1995; Serb losses to Croat and Bosniak forces; and finally the signing of the Dayton Agreement which internally partitioned Bosnia and Herzegovina into a Serb republic and a Bosniak-Croat federation.


Boris Yeltsin


Boris Yeltsin came to power with a wave of high expectations. On 12 June 1991 he was elected president of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic with 57% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president. However, Yeltsin never recovered his popularity after a series of economic and political crises in Russia in the 1990s. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in December 1991, Yeltsin, vowing to transform Russia's socialist command economy into a free market economy, endorsed price liberalization and privatization programs.

Due to the method of privatization, a good deal of the national wealth fell into the hands of a relatively small group of people. In August 1991, Yeltsin won international plaudits for casting himself as a democrat and defying the August coup attempt of 1991 by the members of Soviet government opposed to perestroika. The Yeltsin era was marked by widespread corruption, economic collapse, and enormous political and social problems. He either acted as his own prime minister (until June 1992) or appointed men of his choice, regardless of parliament.

His confrontations with parliament climaxed in the October 1993 Russian constitutional crisis, when Yeltsin called in soldiers to retake Russian White House, after his opponents had taken over the building. Later in 1993, Yeltsin imposed a new constitution with strong presidential powers, which was approved by referendum in December.

He left office widely unpopular with the Russian population as an ineffectual and ailing autocrat. By some estimates, his approval ratings when leaving office were two percent. Just hours before the first day of 2000, Yeltsin made a surprise announcement of his resignation, leaving the presidency in the hands of Vladimir Putin.



Beginning several months later than fighting in the republics of Slovenia and Croatia, the Bosnian civil war was the most brutal chapter in the breakup of Yugoslavia. On February 29, 1992, the multiethnic republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, where Catholic Croats, Orthodox Serbs, and Muslim Slavs lived side by side, passed a referendum for independence -- but not all Bosnian Serbs agreed.

Under the guise of protecting the Serb minority in Bosnia, Serbian leaders like Slobodan Milosevic (1941-) channeled arms and military support to them. In spring 1992, for example, the federal army, dominated by Serbs, shelled Croats and Muslims in Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital.

Foreign governments responded with sanctions (not always tightly enforced) to keep fuel and weapons from Serbia, which had (in April 1992) joined the republic of Montenegro in a newer, smaller Yugoslavia. Bosnian Serb guerrillas carried out deadly campaigns of "ethnic cleansing," massacring members of other ethnic groups or expelling them from their homes to create exclusively Serb areas.

Attacks on civilians and international relief workers disrupted supplies of food and other necessities just when such aid was most crucial: in what became the worst refugee crisis in Europe since World War II, millions of Bosnians (and Croatians) had been driven from their homes by July 1992.

Alarmed by ethnic cleansing and other human rights abuses (which Croats and Muslims also engaged in, though to a lesser extent than did the Serbs), the United Nations resolved to punish such war crimes. In early 1994 the fierce three-way fighting became a war between two sides.

In February and March the Muslims and Croats in Bosnia called a truce and formed a confederation, which in August agreed to a plan (developed by the United States, Russia, Britain, France and Germany) for a 51-49 split of Bosnia, with the Serbs getting the lesser percentage. Despite the Muslim-Croat alliance, the peace proposal, and an ongoing arms embargo against all combatants (an embargo criticized abroad for maintaining Bosnian Serb dominance in weaponry), the fighting did not stop.

In 1994 and 1995 Bosnian Serbs massacred residents in Sarajevo, Srebenica, and other cities that the United Nations had in May 1993 deemed "safe havens" for Muslim civilians. Neither NATO air strikes (beginning in April 1994) nor the cutoff of supplies from Serbia (as of August 1994) nor the cutoff of supplies from Serbia (as of August 1994) deterred the Bosnian Serbs, who blocked convoys of humanitarian aid and detained some of the 24,000 UN troops intended to stop hostilities.

Like their allies in Serbia, the Bosnian Serbs wanted to unite all Serb-held lands of the former Yugoslavia. By September 1995, however, the Muslim-Croat alliance's conquests had reduced Serb-held territory in Bosnia from over two-thirds to just under one-half -- the percentage allocated in the peace plan for the Serb autonomous region. On December 14, 1995, the leaders of Bosnia, Croatia, and Serbia signed the Dayton peace accords, officially ending the wars in Bosnia and Croatia after about 250,000 people had died and more than 3 million others became refugees.

NATO troops numbering 60,000 entered Bosnia to enforce the accords. In early 1998 about 30,000 NATO peacekeepers were still in Bosnia, which remained scarred by war and divided between the Muslim-Croat confederation and the Bosnian Serb region. Dozens of suspected war criminals had been indicted by the UN tribunal, including Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic (1945-) (who had resigned in June 1996), although many had not been arrested or tried.


Invasion of Kuwait


The Invasion of Kuwait, also known as the Iraq-Kuwait War, was a major conflict between the Republic of Iraq and the State of Kuwait which resulted in the seven-month long Iraqi occupation of Kuwait which subsequently led to direct military intervention by United States-led forces in the Persian Gulf War.

In 1990 Iraq accused Kuwait of stealing Iraq's oil through slant drilling, but some Iraqi sources indicate Saddam Hussein’s decision to attack Kuwait was made only a few months before the actual invasion suggesting that the regime was under feelings of severe time pressure.

The invasion started on August 2, 1990, and within two days of intense combat, most of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces were either overrun by the Iraqi Republican Guard or escaped to neighboring Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Iraqi forces invade Kuwait August 2 after Kuwait refuses demands by President Saddam Hussein that she pay compensation for allegedly drilling oil on Iraqi territory, cede disputed land, reduce oil output, and raise prices. Kuwait has rebuffed Iraqi demands that she forgive $15 billion in loans extended during the Iraq-Iran war.

The Bush administration has told Saddam Hussein that it has no treaty obligation to defend Kuwait and would not take sides (Saddam has interpreted remarks by U.S. ambassador to Iraq April Gillespie that Washington would not oppose him), but Washington, Moscow, Tokyo, London, Teheran, and Beijing unite in denouncing his move and the United Nations Security Council votes 13 to 0 August 6 to impose economic sanctions (Yemen and Cuba abstain). Iraq masses troops on the border of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh agrees to receive U.S. ground and air forces.

President Bush says Iraq's aggression "will not stand" and dispatches forces to Saudi Arabia August 7, risking his presidency. Iraq annexes Kuwait August 8 and proceeds to loot the country; Egypt, Syria, Morocco, and nine other Arab states vote August 10 to oppose Iraq with military force; Saddam Hussein calls for a "holy war" against Westerners and Zionists, gaining wide popular support among Arabs; he holds more than 10,000 foreigners hostage beginning August 18 but permits women and children to leave August 29 and releases all the others by early December as the standoff continues.

Kuwait's billionaire emir Sheik Jaber al-Ahmed al-Sabah, 64, has narrowly escaped capture and fled to Saudi Arabia; he addresses the United Nations General Assembly September 27, urging it to stand by the sanctions it has imposed. His relatives have acted swiftly to keep Kuwaiti funds abroad out of Saddam Hussein's hands. Bush ups the ante November 8 (2 days after the elections), committing far more U.S. forces to "Operation Desert Shield," but popular opposition grows to launching any offensive action.


national war on drugs 1990


Psychoactive chemical substances or simply ‘Drugs' are chemical substances that are consumed for pleasure or other recreational needs. Certain forms are also consumed for performance enhancement. But one of the dangerous characteristics of these is that they can cause addiction/habituation. These are just as harmful as tobacco, but to higher degree.

These are considered illegal in many countries and the governments started to take measures in preventing their usage by placing restrictions and coercive policies. Yet, the drug industry is thriving. The fact that it is a $ 60 billion-per-year industry which is patronized by 16 million American citizens just hints us about its prevalence and its economic muscle in the US alone. ‘War on Drugs' is a metaphorical term that is first used by President Nixon for the policy of his, to fight and control this illicit drug usage across the USA.

Though these anti-drug policies were put into place as early as 1914, it was however, as Nixon's July 14th, 1969 message puts it, ‘national war on drugs', which continue to exist till date. These policies have been bolstered up with billions of dollars over many decades. The results that the program yielded were highly debatable owing to the blurred complexions of its goals. The foundation on which the ‘war' was formulated per se attracted tremendous amounts of uproar.

The policy reckons that the whole gamut of drugs and its allied businesses can be looked solely through the prism of criminal law. But right at the beginning of the policy formulation, for example, the American Bar Association (ABA) and the American Medical Association (AMA) produced a joint report in 1961 expressing "dissatisfaction within the legal and medical professions concerning current policies which tend to emphasize repression and prohibition to the exclusion of other possible methods of dealing with addicts and the drug traffic.".

It is also suggestive that right after the "war on drugs" was launched, the professionals at the United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare railed against "treating drug abuse solely as a subject of criminal law rather than principally as an object of public health.

Although these inferences may tempt us to form a notion that the policy was founded with little rational beginnings, but more often than not, the real concern is about the policy's framework that circumscribes the problem to only one dimension, or rather for not perceiving it as a problem of Public Health, Human Rights and the likes, than about the rationality of its foundations.

American law enforcement agencies warn that smoking of methyl-amphetamine "Ice" threatens to become America's drug problem of the 1990's. Vets in Naples discover a kilogramme of heroin hidden inside a cow's stomach in an alleged bungled mafia smuggling operation. Lee Harris owner of London's oldest 'head shop', Alchemy, is sentenced to 3 months' imprisonment for selling items such as cigarette papers and pipes "believed to be used for the smoking of cannabis." Sentence later quashed on appeal.



Over the course of the 1990s, the goals were simplified to the reduction of drug use and drug-related consequences. The current administration's strategy places the emphasis on measures of use alone. It sets two two-year goals: a 10 per cent reduction in current use by adolescents (relative to use in 2000–2001) and the same for adults (relative to use in 2002). "Current use" means the percentage of the population reporting any use of an illicit drug within the previous month. The current strategy also characterizes education, treatment, and market disruption as national priorities.

The national strategy thus lays its consequence (adverse effects resulting from the use of drugs) reduction target on a reasonable expectation: lower drug consumption will lead to fewer adverse consequences. However, most of the current users are light-users and the consequences are usually attached to addicted users. So, the premise on which the strategy depends is flawed to some extent.

Therefore, a just policy framework is something like this: It is observed that marijuana has a lot of light users when compared to their addicted counterparts, whereas cocaine has larger fraction of addicted users. So, the policy's consequence reduction goal might thus imply an allocation of control effort which is cocaine focused, differing from that implied by use reduction which is marijuana focused, because there are so many more marijuana users than cocaine users.


Nelson Mandela


Nelson Mandela was released from prison in South Africa following the relaxation of apartheid laws. He'd served 27 years after being convicted of treason in 1964. When Mandela appeared at the prison gates with his wife Winnie, people danced in the streets and the world celebrated alongside them.

Later that year Mandela's ANC party suspended its 30 year old armed struggle against the country's minority white government. In return, President FW de Klerk promised to free political prisoners and consider the repeal of security legislation. The end of the oppressive apartheid regime had begun.


Young Nelson Mandela


Nelson Mandela, the man has always existed, even when locked away in a lonely cell on the rocky, battered and forgotten Robin Island, the world was somehow aware of this remarkable man. Personally, I cannot recall when I first became acquainted with him, he was just always there, a part of my life, like he was a part of everyone's life. Indeed, he was even more than that, he was a part of the global consciousness, all of us were aware of this man, this one man, who was still a thorn in the side of the truly monstrous apartheid regime of South Africa.

It always appeared quite ordinary that I, a small boy in the barren midlands of Ireland had a link with a man in a cell, on a rocky outcrop in the South Atlantic Ocean, that everybody seemed to love and respect, except of course his barbaric captors who were scared witless of him.

So, when I was seven, it didn't faze me that a young woman named Mary Manning, who worked as a cashier for a chain-store conglomerate called Dunnes Stores, refused to handle fruit from apartheid era South Africa.

She along with ten of her colleagues were suspended from work, they staged a picket which was to last almost three years. Miraculously, they won, the government caved in an banned the importation of South African goods.

What guts, what resolve, what courage these young people had, inspired by the strength of Mandela. Similarly, growing up in Ireland there were many songs about Mandela, in particular The Specials' Free Nelson Mandela which never left the radio waves in 1984. So, how was he so prevalent? Why was he cared about so much?

How did his star still shine? There were many other worthwhile causes in the world, which were forgotten about or indeed were never even known about in the first place, many other incarcerated freedom fighters even within South Africa that failed to even register.

So what made Nelson Mandela so different and indeed so impossible to simply forget? We need to go right back to the beginning, to where he, the man began. He was born in South Africa on 18 July 1918 in a small village named Mezvo in the territory of Transkei. His great-grandfather was King of the Thembu people, his father however fell foul of the colonial authorities and he was deprived of his position as Chief of Mezvo village. Mandela's father had four wives, with which he fathered thirteen children, Mandela been born to his third wife, Nosekini Fanny.

He was christened Rolihlahla Mandela, his English teacher later appropriating the Christian name Nelson upon him. He was educated in turn at Wesleyan mission school, Clarkebury Boarding Institute, the Wesleyan college in Fort Beaufort and Fort Hare University. I

t was at Fort Hare University that the young Mandela began to become involved in politics, arranging a boycott against university policies. He was suspended from the university for this action, so he re-located to Johannesburg to complete his studies at the University of Witwatersrand.

He graduated in 1942 with a degree in law, his time at Witwatersand had found him becoming more actively involved in politics, in 1942 he also joined the African National Congress (ANC). Under the leadership of Anton Lembede, young members like Nelson Mandela began the formidable task of transforming the ANC into a mass movement by expanding it's membership to include the millions of illiterate working people in the towns and countryside of South Africa.


They formed the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL), Mandela proved to be a highly efficient organiser and tireless worker and was soon elected to the Secretaryship of the Youth League in 1947. In 1948, the Afrikaner-dominated National Party won the all-white elections on it's platform of apartheid racial segregation thus encouraging the ANC to accept the ANCYL methods of boycott, strike and civil disobedience as official policy.

The party was becoming more militant, taking it's lead from the younger more radical members. On this wave of change, Mandela was elected to the National Executive Committee (NEC) in 1950. The ANCYL programme also included attainment of full citizenship, direct parliamentary representation for all South Africans, the redistribution of land, trade union rights, compulsory education for children and mass literacy for adults.

One can only but be so impressed at their ambition, in the face of seemingly insurmountable odds they stood firm and stamped out their rights, astonishing really. Mandela was appointed as National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Defiance Campaign that the ANC unleashed in 1952. The Campaign was designed to begin with a small core of radical volunteers, from whom it would spread like wildfire to involve more and more ordinary people, eventually culminating in a mass, national defiance.


Young Nelson Mandela


Mandela's role was to travel the country to organise resistance to discriminatory legislation, he was arrested, charged and convicted of contravening the Suppression of Communism Act, he was given a suspended sentence. In addition, he was prohibited from attending gatherings and was restricted to the confines of Johannesburg for six months.

During his confinement to the capital, Mandela along with Oliver Tambo opened a law practice, in which they represented thousands of people who were subjected to horrific treatment by the apartheid government, offering low cost legal counsel. The authorities demanded that they move their practice from the city into the middle of nowhere, citing land segregation legislation, it effectively meant that they would be abandoning their huge database of clients.

Of course, true to form, they refused to budge an inch, heroically standing by their beleaguered clients. The ANC began searching for methods to maintain contact with its membership without having to hold mammoth meetings, they required a system of powerful local and regional branches to whom power could be devolved, the task of organising such a system was handed to Mandela, who conceived of the M-Plan which was named after him. In the latter part of the 1950s, Mandela turned his attentions to the exploitation of labour, the pass laws, the segregation at universities and the Bantustan policy.

On 5 December 1956, Mandela was arrested along with one hundred fifty others and charged with treason, all were tried on what became known as the Marathon Treason Trial of 1956-1961, all received acquittals. Around this time, Mandela began to become more radicalised, the ANC was now illegal, the organisation had been driven underground and as a result many of it's members began to become more and more open to more militant means.

In 1961, Mandela became leader of the ANC'S armed wing, Umknonto we Sizwe (MK) and began to co-ordinate sabotage campaigns against military and government targets, he also organised paramilitary training and fund raised for the movement. As a result of these activities, Mandela was forced to go on the run, adapting many disguises to evade capture.

Working on a tip-off from the CIA, the South African authorities finally managed to locate him, he was arrested and sentenced to five years in prison. In 1963, he was brought before the Rivonia Trial, where along with ten other ANC leaders, he was tried on a list of charges including planning a foreign invasion of South Africa.

Mandela denied this charge but he admitted to resorting to violent tactics, outlining in an impassioned opening defence from the dock that the ANC had tried to lobby the government by constitutional means but it had been made clear to them through sustained brutality, the referendum establishing the Republic of South Africa and the banning of the ANC that they had no other choice but taking up arms. All with the exception of one were found guilty and sentenced to life imprisonment, Mandela was transported to the maximum security facility on Robben Island.

Conditions on the island were absolutely appalling; prisoners were assaulted at will by the all-white prison wardens and dogs were often set upon the inmates. All prisoners were set to hard labour in stone quarries, lime quarries and building projects. Mandela was classified as a D-Group prisoner and so was only allowed one visitor and one letter every six months.

The visits were only allowed last for a maximum of thirty minutes and letters were often held up for long periods and made almost entirely unreadable by the prison censors. There was no access to any reading material with the exception of the Bible.


Makana Football Association


Extraordinarily, the only thing that the prisoners had to keep them going and give them hope was football and the Makana Football Association. The Association set up a football league consisting of teams made up by the prisoners with the teams divided by their political affiliation. It created solidarity amongst the prisoners and indeed it proved to them that they could together run a federation under the harshest, most oppressive of regimes.

My God it taught them patience, they had to wait for fifteen years to be granted the right to use a proper football, they made football nets from the fishing nets that washed up on the rocky shore of the island. Astonishingly, Mandela locked away on this rocky outpost, flung into the South Atlantic Ocean and deprived of all access to the outside world, still managed to capture the world's imagination and ensure that the plight of South Africa was at the forefront of the world's thoughts.

In March 1982, Mandela and other senior ANC leaders were transferred from Robben Island to Pollsmoor Prison. The South African authorities made this move in an effort to remove the influence of these senior leaders from the younger generations of black activists, to eliminate the so called ‘Mandela University'. In

February 1985, Mandela was offered his freedom in return for renouncing armed struggle, he refused, stating ‘what freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people remains banned?' The South African government began secretive negotiations with Mandela in November of that year, they had tried everything to silence him and had failed as they realised that no progress of the nation could occur without the involvement of Madiba.

Mandela was released in February after almost three decades of incarceration, that same month, the ban on the ANC and other anti-apartheid groups was lifted. Mandela once again took up leadership of the ANC leading them into the country's first multi-racial elections in April 1994, with the ANC winning sixty-two percent of the vote.

On 10 May 1994, Mandela was inaugurated as South Africa's first black President. He reigned as President from May 1994 until June 1999, presiding over the transition from apartheid, winning international respect for his unyielding advocacy of national and international reconciliation. After his retirement as President, Mandela has fronted or represented many social and humanitarian organisations.


Gorbachev in the 90s


A referendum for the preservation of the USSR was held on March 17, 1991, with the majority of the population voting for preservation of the Union in nine out of fifteen republics. The referendum gave Gorbachev a minor boost, and, in the summer of 1991, the New Union Treaty was designed and agreed upon by eight republics which would have turned the Soviet Union into a much looser federation. Yeltsin stands on a tank to defy the August Coup in 1991.

The signing of the treaty, however, was interrupted by the August Coup — an attempted coup d'état against Gorbachev by hardline Communist Party members of the government and the KGB, who sought to reverse Gorbachev's reforms and reassert the central government's control over the republics.

After the coup collapsed, Yeltsin came out as a hero while Gorbachev's power was effectively ended. The balance of power tipped significantly towards the republics. In August 1991, Latvia and Estonia immediately declared restoration of full independence (following Lithuania's 1990 example), while the other 12 republics continued discussing new, increasingly looser, models of the Union.

On December 8, 1991, the presidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus signed the Belavezha Accords which declared the Soviet Union dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.

While doubts remained over the authority of the Belavezha Accords to dissolve the Union, on December 21, 1991, the representatives of all Soviet republics except Georgia, including those republics that had signed the Belavezha Accords, signed the Alma-Ata Protocol, which confirmed the dismemberment and consequential extinction of the USSR and restated the establishment of the CIS.


Ricky Martin


Ricky Martin, formerly of the boy group Menudo, struck out on his own last year with his english language self-titled debut album. Hordes and hordes of female followers lined up for hours at autograph sessions just to catch a glimpse of Ricky Martin. Other latin superstars such as Enrrique Iglasias, son of Jullio Iglasias, Marc Anthony, and Jennifer Lopez soon followed suit. On Saturday, 19 June 1999, HRH Prince Edward and Sophie Rhys-Jones were married at 5pm at St. George's Chapel, Windsor.

Following the wedding there was a reception at Windsor Castle. The Wedding Service was conducted by the Right Reverend Peter Nott, Bishop of Norwich. Speaking publicly for the first time since announcing the marriage and following a five-year courtship the 34-year-old prince said: "It's impossible for anybody else to understand why it has taken me so long. "But I don't think it had been right before and I don't think Sophie would have said yes. Hopefully the fact that she has said yes means I've got the timing right."


The Queen 1990


The Queen and France's President Francois Mitterrand have formally opened the Channel Tunnel during two elaborate ceremonies in France and Britain. At first the Channel Tunnel looked like it was going to be a financial disaster. A year after the official opening, the tunnel operator Eurotunnel announced a loss of £925m, one of the biggest in UK corporate history at the time.

To add to its woes, freight traffic was suspended for six months in 1996 after a fire broke out on a lorry in the tunnel. A scheme in which banks agreed to swap billions of pounds worth of loans for shares saved the tunnel from going under and in 1999, Eurotunnel was able to announce its first net profit - £64m. It still has huge debts - to the tune of £6.4bn in 2004. But it has become an accepted and popular mode of transport, not least among illegal immigrants trying to get into Britain from Europe.


World Trade Center bombing


The September 11 attacks (often referred to as September 11th or 9/11) were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States on September 11, 2001. On that morning, 19 al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners.The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners into the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing everyone on board and many others working in the buildings.

Both buildings collapsed within two hours, destroying nearby buildings and damaging others. The hijackers crashed a third airliner into the Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, just outside Washington, D.C. The fourth plane crashed into a field near Shanksville  in rural Pennsylvania after some of its passengers and flight crew attempted to retake control of the plane, which the hijackers had redirected toward Washington, D.C. There were no survivors from any of the flights.


Nearly 3,000 victims and the 19 hijackers died in the attacks. According to the New York State Health Department, 836 responders, including firefighters and police personnel, have died as of June 2009. Among the 2,752 victims who died in the attacks on the World Trade Center were 343 firefighters and 60 police officers from New York City and the Port Authority.

184 people were killed in the attacks on the Pentagon. The overwhelming majority of casualties were civilians, including nationals of over 70 countries. In addition, there was at least one secondary death – one person was ruled by a medical examiner to have died from lung disease due to exposure to dust from the World Trade Center's collapse.

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing occurred on February 26, 1993, when a car bomb was detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,500 lb (680 kg) urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device was intended to knock the North Tower (Tower One) into the South Tower (Tower Two), bringing both towers down and killing thousands of people. It failed to do so, but did kill six people and injured 1,042.

The attack was planned by a group of conspirators including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin and Ahmad Ajaj. They received financing from Khaled Shaikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle. In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj, Ayyad and Salameh.

The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property and interstate transportation of explosives. In November 1997, two more were convicted: Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb.


*September 11th* 2001

Not within our time frame, but worthy of showing, we must NEVER forget this awful moment in history.

*September 11th* 2001, the 11 of September, A plane crashed in to the world trade center. 18 minutes later, building two  Got hit by another, what do we do? It is no longer an accident, which we thought at first, This attack on our country is by far the worst. Thousands of people fear at this time, What has been done? A hostile crime. We do not understand what is in store, What will come next, war? As President Bush said, "make no mistake about it", We will resolve this, we shall stand united." We pray for the lives of others, Our Friends, Relatives, even Fathers or Mothers.

And as the world waits for what is to come, We will go on stronger by what has been done.  Early on the morning of September 11, 2001, nineteen hijackers took control of four commercial airliners en route to San Francisco and Los Angeles from Boston, Newark, and Washington, D.C. (Washington Dulles International Airport). At 8:46 a.m., American Airlines Flight 11 was crashed into the World Trade Center's North Tower, followed by United Airlines Flight 175 which hit the South Tower at 9:03 a.m.

Another group of hijackers flew American Airlines Flight 77 into the Pentagon at 9:37 a.m. A fourth flight, United Airlines Flight 93 crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania at 10:03 a.m, after the passengers on board engaged in a fight with the hijackers. Its ultimate target was thought to be either the Capitol (the meeting place of the United States Congress) or the White House.


In a September 2002 interview conducted by documentary-maker Yosri Fouda, an al Jazeera journalist, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and Ramzi Binalshibh stated that the fourth hijacked plane was heading for the United States Capitol, not for the White House. They further stated that al-Qaeda initially planned to fly hijacked jets into nuclear installations rather than the World Trade Center and the Pentagon, but it was decided not to attack nuclear power plants "for the moment" because of fears it could "get out of control".

Some passengers were able to make phone calls using the cabin airphone service and mobile phones, and provide details, including that several hijackers were aboard each plane, that mace or other form of noxious chemical spray, such as tear gas or pepper spray was used, and that some people aboard had been stabbed. Reports indicated that during two of the flights, the hijackers stabbed and killed aircraft pilots, flight attendants and in at least one case, a passenger.

The 9/11 Commission established that two of the hijackers had recently purchased Leatherman multi-function hand tools. A flight attendant on Flight 11, a passenger on Flight 175, and passengers on Flight 93 mentioned that the hijackers had bombs, but one of the passengers also mentioned he thought the bombs were fake. No traces of explosives were found at the crash sites, and the 9/11 Commission believed the bombs were probably fake.


On United Airlines Flight 93, black box recordings revealed that crew and passengers attempted to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning through phone calls that similarly hijacked planes had been crashed into buildings that morning. According to the transcript of Flight 93's recorder, one of the hijackers gave the order to roll the plane once it became evident that they would lose control of the plane to the passengers.

Soon afterward, the aircraft crashed into a field near Shanksville in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, at 10:03:11 a.m. local time (14:03:11 UTC). Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, organizer of the attacks, mentioned in a 2002 interview with Yosri Fouda that Flight 93's target was the United States Capitol, which was given the code name "the Faculty of Law".


Three buildings in the World Trade Center Complex collapsed due to structural failure on the day of the attack. The south tower (2 WTC) fell at approximately 9:59 a.m., after burning for 56 minutes in a fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175. The north tower (1 WTC) collapsed at 10:28 a.m., after burning for approximately 102 minutes.

When the north tower collapsed, debris that fell on the nearby 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC) building damaged it and initiated fires. These fires burned for hours and compromised the building's structural integrity, which led to the crumbling of the east penthouse at 5:20 p.m. and to the complete collapse of the building at 5:21 p.m.


The attacks created widespread confusion among news organizations and air traffic controllers across the United States. All international civilian air traffic was banned from landing on U.S. soil for three days. Aircraft already in flight were either turned back or redirected to airports in Canada or Mexico. News sources aired unconfirmed and often contradictory reports throughout the day. One of the most prevalent of these reported that a car bomb had been detonated at the U.S. State Department's headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Soon after reporting for the first time on the Pentagon crash, some news media also briefly reported that a fire had broken out on the National Mall.  Another report went out on the Associated Press wire, claiming that a Delta Air Lines airliner—Flight 1989—had been hijacked. This report, too, turned out to be in error; the plane was briefly thought to represent a hijack risk, but it responded to controllers and landed safely in Cleveland, Ohio


Indie rock


Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United Kingdom and the United States in the 1980s and earlier. The term is often used to describe the means of production and distribution of independent underground music, as well as the style of music that was first associated with this means of production.

Indie rock artists are known for placing a premium on maintaining complete control of their music and careers, releasing albums on independent record labels (sometimes self-owned and operated) and relying on touring, word-of-mouth, airplay on independent or college radio stations and, in recent years, the Internet for promotion.

Musicians classified as indie rock are typically signed to independent record labels, rather than major record labels, although there are many examples of indie musicians switching to major labels mid-career. This practice blurs the lines between indie and mainstream music and is often the subject of debate amongst fans. Indeed, some bands that have spent most of their careers on major labels are still occasionally referred to by the press as indie rock because of their sound or aesthetic. A variety of musical genres and subgenres with varying degrees of overlap are associated with indie rock.

Some of these include lo-fi, sadcore, C86, math rock, shoegaze/dream pop, jangle pop, indie pop, noise rock, noise pop, riot grrrl, post-hardcore, twee pop, post-punk revival, garage rock revival, dance-punk, indie folk, baroque pop, and indietronica. Indie rock is like pornography in a way: most people can't tell you exactly what it is, but they know it when they see it. Er, hear it.

It's loud and obnoxious (or quiet and polite), careless and sloppy (or meticulously composed), complex and pretentious (or simple and unassuming), and, to its fans, cooler and more relevant than any other style of music. It's impossible to list all of the bands who have been influential to indie rock -- doing so would require more space than we have here and would undoubtedly start some petulant silent feuds. One thing's for sure: it's cool.


Alan Freeman 1990


The UK Singles Chart is compiled by The Official Charts Company (OCC) on behalf of the British record industry. The full chart contains the top selling 200 singles in the United Kingdom based upon combined record sales and download numbers, though some media outlets only list the Top 40 (such as the BBC) or the Top 75 (such as Music Week Magazine) of this list. Around 6,500 British retail outlets contribute sales data, as well as most UK online digital download stores. Unlike charts in the United States, no airplay statistics are used for the official UK Singles Chart.

The chart week runs from Sunday to Saturday, with most UK singles being released on Mondays. The Top 40 chart is first revealed on Sunday afternoons by BBC Radio 1 (prior even to posting on the OCC’s own website), with the chart subsequently being printed in Music Week magazine (Top 75 only) on the following Monday, and the independent newsletter ChartsPlus (Top 200) on Wednesdays. It is also published online on various sites (generally Top 40 only).

Radio 1 broadcasts the Top 40, in reverse order, on Sundays from 16:00 to 19:00. Mark Goodier and Bruno Brookes are famous for having been the presenters of this chart show for many years, though few can rival Alan Freeman whose Pick Of The Pops formed the chart show throughout the 1960s and into the early 70s. Since October 2007, Reggie Yates has presented the chart show and, until September 2009, with Fearne Cotton.

Cotton was the first ever permanent female presenter of the Official Chart Show. A rival chart called The Big Top 40 Show, is based on downloads and commercial radio airplay, which is broadcast on 140 commercial local radio stations. According to the canon of The Official Charts Company, the official British singles chart is the New Musical Express chart from 1952 to 1960; the Record Retailer chart from 1960 to 1969; and the Official UK Singles Chart from 1969 on.

According to the Official Charts Company's statistics, as of 7 March 2010, 1,123 singles have topped the UK singles chart. The precise number is debatable due to the profusion of different competing charts during the 50s, 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, although the usual list used is that endorsed by the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles and subsequently adopted by The Official UK Charts Company.


Hubble Space Telescope


The $2 billion Edwin P. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was lifted into orbit by the space shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990. Weighing approximately 25,500 lb (11,000 kg) and measuring 43 ft (13 m) long by 14 ft (4 m) wide, or roughly the size of a school bus, HST is the most complex and sensitive space observatory ever constructed, and it has become astronomers' principal tool for exploring the universe. During its lifetime, the space telescope has required intermittent servicing.

In June 1990, just two months after HST was launched into orbit, astronomers discovered that there was a spherical aberration in one of the telescope's mirrors. In 1991, two of the craft's six gyroscopes failed, and a third failed on Nov. 18, 1993, causing additional problems. NASA successfully repaired the space telescope during the Dec. 2–13, 1993, mission of the Endeavour.

Crew members of the space shuttle Discovery made fresh repairs to the telescope during an upgrade mission in Feb. 1997 and installed two powerful new scientific instruments–the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS)–giving HST still sharper and more distant views of the universe. The Near Infrared Camera can see the universe at near infrared wavelengths more sensitively that any other existing or planned telescope. The third servicing mission by the crew of Discovery in Dec.

1999 extended the telescope's scientific power with new instruments and repaired its optics, solar arrays, gyros, and other components. A fourth servicing mission was carried out by astronauts aboard the space shuttle Columbia in March 2002. This time, the upgrades to the Hubble included a new power control unit, a powerful new camera, and solar array panels. A fifth servicing mission, scheduled for July 2003, was canceled after the Columbia space shuttle disaster. Without servicing, Hubble is expected to be out of commission by 2008.

After NASA announced that the telescope would not be repaired due to the risks to a human crew, outcry from scientists, politicians, and the public forced the agency to consider sending a robotic repair mission. In July 2004, a panel from the National Academy of Sciences urged NASA to save the Hubble, voicing a preference for a staffed mission.

The telescope repair mission has been put on the back burner as NASA is leaning toward President George W. Bush’s announced desire to see Americans on the Moon and Mars. Hubble is slated to be decommissioned in 2010 and replaced by the next-generation James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled to be launched in 2011. The new observatory will have a primary mirror that is 20 ft in diameter, compared to the Hubble's 8-foot reflector.


bugs bunny


An unnamed rabbit bearing some of the personality, if not physical characteristics of Bugs, first appeared in the cartoon short Porky's Hare Hunt, released on April 30, 1938. Co-directed by Ben Hardaway and an uncredited Cal Dalton (who was responsible for the initial design of the rabbit), this short had a theme almost identical to that of the 1937 cartoon, Porky's Duck Hunt (directed by Tex Avery), which had introduced Daffy Duck. Porky Pig was again cast as a hunter tracking another silly prey who seemed less interested in escape than in driving his pursuer insane; this short replaced the black duck with a small white rabbit.

The rabbit introduces himself with the odd expression "Jiggers, fellers", and Mel Blanc gave the rabbit nearly the voice and laugh that he would later use for Woody Woodpecker. This cartoon also features the famous Groucho Marx line that Bugs would use many times: "Of course you know, this means war!" The rabbit developed a following from the audience viewing this cartoon which inspired the Schlesinger staff to further develop the character.

First incarnation of the rabbit debuts in Porky's Hare Hunt (1938) The rabbit's second appearance came in 1939's Prest-O Change-O, directed by Chuck Jones, where he is the pet rabbit of unseen character Sham-Fu the Magician. Two dogs, fleeing the local dogcatcher, enter his absent master's house. The rabbit harasses them, but is ultimately bested by the bigger of the two dogs. His third appearance was in another 1939 cartoon, Hare-um Scare-um, directed by Dalton and Hardaway.

This short, the first where he was depicted as a gray bunny instead of a white one, is also notable both for the rabbit's first singing role. Charlie Thorson, lead animator on the short, was the first to give the character a name. He had written "Bugs' Bunny" on the model sheet that he drew for Hardaway, implying that he considered the rabbit model sheet to be Hardaway's property.

In promotional material for the short (such as a surviving 1939 presskit), the name on the model sheet was altered to become the rabbit's own name: "Bugs" Bunny (quotation marks only used at the very beginning), evidently named in honor of "Bugs" Hardaway. In Chuck Jones' Elmer's Candid Camera the rabbit first encounters Elmer Fudd.


This rabbit has more of a physical resemblance to the present-day Bugs, being taller and having a more similar face. The voice for this rabbit, however, was not similar to the well-known Brooklyn-Bronx accent, but spoke in a rural drawl.

In Robert Clampett's 1940 Patient Porky, a similar rabbit appears to trick the audience into thinking that 750 rabbits have been born (however the design is of the earlier white rabbit). In his later years, Mel Blanc stated that a proposed name was "Happy Rabbit". Ironically, the only time the name "Happy" was used was in reference to Bugs Hardaway.

In the cartoon Hare-um Scare-um, the newspaper headline reads, "Happy Hardaway". Bugs Bunny emerges The official debut of Bugs Bunny in A Wild Hare (1940) Bugs' appearance in A Wild Hare, directed by Tex Avery and released on July 27, 1940, is considered the first appearance of both Elmer and Bugs in their fully developed forms.

It was in this cartoon that he first emerged from his rabbit hole to ask Elmer Fudd, now a hunter rather than a photographer, "What's up, Doc?" Animation historian Joe Adamson counts A Wild Hare as the first "official" Bugs Bunny short. It is also the first cartoon where Mel Blanc uses a recognizable version of the voice of Bugs that would eventually become the standard. Bugs' second appearance in Jones' Elmer's Pet Rabbit finally introduced the audience to the name Bugs Bunny, which up until then had only been used among the Termite Terrace employees.

However, the rabbit here is absolutely identical to the one in Jones' earlier Elmer's Candid Camera, both visually and vocally. It was also the first short where he received billing under his now-famous name, but the card, "featuring Bugs Bunny", was just slapped on the end of the completed short's opening titles when A Wild Hare proved an unexpected success.

He would soon become the most prominent of the Looney Tunes characters as his calm, flippant insouciance endeared him to American audiences during and after World War II. Bugs would appear in five more shorts during 1941: Tortoise Beats Hare, directed by Tex Avery and featuring the first appearance of Cecil Turtle; Hiawatha's Rabbit Hunt, the first Bugs Bunny short to be directed by Friz Freleng;

All This and Rabbit Stew, directed by Avery and featuring a young African-American hunter (based heavily on racial stereotypes) as Bugs' antagonist; The Heckling Hare, the final Bugs short Avery worked on before being fired and leaving for MGM; and Wabbit Twouble, the first Bugs short directed by Robert Clampett. Wabbit Twouble was also the first of five Bugs shorts to feature a chubbier remodel of Elmer Fudd, a short-lived attempt to have Fudd more closely resemble his voice actor, comedian Arthur Q. Bryan.


Robert Clampett


By 1942, Bugs had become the number one star of the Merrie Melodies series, which had originally been intended only for one-shot characters in shorts after several early attempts to introduce characters failed under Harman-Ising, but had started introducing newer characters in 1937 under Schlesinger. Bugs' 1942 shorts included Friz Freleng's The Wabbit Who Came to Supper, and the Robert Clampett shorts The Wacky Wabbit and Bugs Bunny Gets the Boid (which introduced Beaky Buzzard).

Bugs Bunny Gets the Boid also marks a slight redesign of Bugs, making his front teeth less prominent and his head rounder. The man responsible for this redesign was Robert McKimson, at the time working as an animator under Robert Clampett.

The redesign at first was only used in the shorts created by Clampett's production team but in time, it would be adopted by the other directors, with Freleng and Frank Tashlin the first to adopt this design. Upon his own promotion to director, McKimson created yet another version with more slanted eyes, longer teeth and a much larger mouth, which he (and, for the one Bugs Bunny cartoon he directed, Art Davis) used until 1949, when he started using the version he had designed for Clampett. Jones would come up with his own slight modification, and the voice as well would vary mildly between the units.

An alternate version of Bugs used by Robert McKimson and Art Davis between 1946 and 1949. Other 1942 Bugs shorts included Chuck Jones' Hold the Lion, Please, Freleng's Fresh Hare and The Hare-Brained Hypnotist (which restored Elmer Fudd to his previous size), and Jones' Case of the Missing Hare. He also made cameo appearances in Tex Avery's final Warner Bros. short, Crazy Cruise, and starred in the two-minute United States war bonds commercial film Any Bonds Today.

Bugs was popular during World War II because of his free and easy attitude, and began receiving special star billing in his cartoons by 1943. By that time, Warner Bros. was the most profitable cartoon studio in the United States. Like other cartoon studios, such as Disney and Famous Studios had been doing.

Warners put Bugs in opposition to the period's biggest enemies: Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and the Japanese. The 1944 short Bugs Bunny Nips the Nips features Bugs at odds with a group of Japanese soldiers. This cartoon has since been pulled from distribution due to its racial stereotypes.

Since Bugs' debut in A Wild Hare, he had appeared only in color Merrie Melodie cartoons (making him one of the few recurring characters created for that series in the Leon Schlesinger era prior to the full conversion to color, alongside Elmer's prototype Egghead, Inki, Sniffles, and Elmer himself - who was heard but not seen in the 1942 Looney Tunes cartoon Nutty News, and made his first formal appearance in that series in 1943's To Duck or Not To Duck).

While he did make a cameo appearance in the 1943 Porky and Daffy cartoon Porky Pig's Feat marking his only appearance in a black-and-white Looney Tune cartoon, he did not star in a cartoon in the Looney Tunes series until that series made its complete conversion to only color cartoons beginning with 1944 releases. Buckaroo Bugs was Bugs' first cartoon in the Looney Tunes series, and was also the last WB cartoon to credit Leon Schlesinger.


bugs bunny 1990


In 1997, Bugs appeared on a U.S. postage stamp, the first cartoon to be so honored, beating the iconic Mickey Mouse. The stamp is number seven on the list of the ten most popular U.S. stamps, as calculated by the number of stamps purchased but not used. The introduction of Bugs onto a stamp was controversial at the time, as it was seen as a step toward the 'commercialization' of stamp art. The postal service rejected many designs, and went with a postal-themed drawing.

Avery Dennison printed the Bugs Bunny stamp sheet, which featured "a special ten-stamp design and was the first self-adhesive souvenir sheet issued by the U.S. Postal Service." A younger version of Bugs is the main character of Baby Looney Tunes, which debuted on Cartoon Network (United States) in 2002.

In the action comedy Loonatics Unleashed, his definite descendant Ace Bunny is the leader of the Loonatics team and seems to have inherited his ancestor's Brooklyn accent and comic wit. Lexi Bunny who is Lola Bunny's confirmed descendant seems to be his second in command and likely love interest.

Danger Duck, a descendant of Daffy, has a similar relation with him to that between Bugs and Daffy - envy (jealousy in the extreme case) mixed with a grudging respect.


ENIAC


The volume and use of computers in the world are so great, they have become difficult to ignore anymore. Computers appear to us in so many ways that many times, we fail to see them as they actually are. People associated with a computer when they purchased their morning coffee at the vending machine. As they drove themselves to work, the traffic lights that so often hampered us are controlled by computers in an attempt to speed the journey. Accept it or not, the computer has invaded our life.

The origins and roots of computers started out as many other inventions and technologies have in the past. They evolved from a relatively simple idea or plan designed to help perform functions easier and quicker. The first basic type of computers were designed to do just that; compute!.

They performed basic math functions such as multiplication and division and displayed the results in a variety of methods. Some computers displayed results in a binary representation of electronic lamps. Binary denotes using only ones and zeros thus, lit lamps represented ones and unlit lamps represented zeros. The irony of this is that people needed to perform another mathematical function to translate binary to decimal to make it readable to the user.

One of the first computers was called ENIAC. It was a huge, monstrous size nearly that of a standard railroad car. It contained electronic tubes, heavy gauge wiring, angle-iron, and knife switches just to name a few of the components. It has become difficult to believe that computers have evolved into suitcase sized micro-computers of the 1990's.

Computers eventually evolved into less archaic looking devices near the end of the 1960's. Their size had been reduced to that of a small automobile and they were processing segments of information at faster rates than older models. Most computers at this time were termed "mainframes" due to the fact that many computers were linked together to perform a given function.

The primary user of these types of computers were military agencies and large corporations such as Bell, AT&T, General Electric, and Boeing. Organizations such as these had the funds to afford such technologies. However, operation of these computers required extensive intelligence and manpower resources. The average person could not have fathomed trying to operate and use these million dollar processors.

The United States was attributed the title of pioneering the computer. It was not until the early 1970's that nations such as Japan and the United Kingdom started utilizing technology of their own for the development of the computer. This resulted in newer components and smaller sized computers.

The use and operation of computers had developed into a form that people of average intelligence could handle and manipulate without to much ado. When the economies of other nations started to compete with the United States, the computer industry expanded at a great rate. Prices dropped dramatically and computers became more affordable to the average household.  Like the invention of the wheel, the computer is here to stay.


S-A-S


When war loomed in the Gulf in late 1990/early 1991, Britain committed a large number of forces, including the 22nd Special Air Service. Initially brought into the Gulf without a clear role, the SAS feared that the much-touted high-tech air war might mean a quite war for them. Their traditional role of reconnaissance had largely been assigned to U.S. Special Forces.

The human shield crisis seemed like a promising way into the conflict at first but it soon became clear that any attempt to rescue the hundreds of Western civilians held by Saddam Hussein would most likely end in failure and not go ahead. Besides, it wasn't long before the crisis was ended with the release of all the hostages.

It was through the efforts of Sir Peter de la Billiere, commander of UK Forces and an Ex-SAS officer, that the SAS were finally given something to get their teeth into. de la Billiere had been lobbying for the use of Special Forces behind Iraq lines. Mindful of the Regiment's beginnings in the Deserts of Africa during World War 2, he persuaded his U.S. counterpart, Norman Schwarzkopf of the need for small fighting columns of SAS forces operating deep behind Iraqi lines, hitting targets of opportunity and generally making a nuisance of themselves. 'Stormin Norman' was distrustful of special operations forces, questioning what the SAS could do that an F16 couldn't and was equally as concerned about diverting resources to rescue an special ops that went wrong.

With the air campaign now underway, the SAS were ordered to prepare to move across the border from Saudi Arabia into Southern Iraq, where they were to have carte blanche to attack and harass Iraqi forces at will. For the SAS it was a dream assignment, although soon the focus of their missions would significantly narrow.


Saddam


Many controversial questions still surround the Gulf War. Still debated are: "Was U.S. Involvement Justified?" - "Was the war won in the air or on the ground?" - Yet the most weighty question remains: "Did the Coalition forces quit too soon?" In the negotiations following the close of active campaigning the Iraqis were allowed to withdraw many of their units relatively intact. Saddam Hussein was allowed to remain in power in Iraq.

Had the ground campaign been taken to its logical conclusion, the Iraqi war machine would have been quickly dismantled (trapped as it surely would have been by the Allied left hook.) Yet President Bush and other Allied leaders had more to consider than military matters.

Politically the coalition was beginning to differ on whether total defeat of Iraq was a wise move. Iraq had been the only power to stand in the way of the Iranian war machine making a conquest of all of Arabia burring the Iran/Iraq war.

Many felt it would not be wise to completely humiliate a buffer between Iran and Arabia. Second, as evil as Saddam was perceived to be in much of the Western World, he was perceived as a hero by many in the Middle East, for example the Palestinians and Jordanians.

Thus Saddam's complete destruction, besides upsetting the balance of power in the Middle East, might antagonize other pro-western Middle-Eastern states. Finally, there is a certain brotherhood that Arabs feel for one another, even when arrayed as enemies on a battlefield.

Even an aggressor, as Iraq had surely been during this conflict, could not morally be crushed. As it was, Saddam would prove to be further trouble down the road, repressing his own people, violating peace agreements and continuing work on weapons of mass destruction. Yet twenty/twenty hindsight does not reflect poorly on the wisdom of President Bush in ending the campaign when he did. US war aims were achieved: Kuwait was liberated from Iraq and relative peace has settled into the region. Militarily, the Gulf

War was the most efficient campaign in US history; relatively few lives were lost. Schwarzkopf's campaign can be favorably compared with campaigns by the greatest strategists in Military history...out-shining perhaps even Lee at Chancellorsville.

Logistically, the buildup and prosecution of the campaign could easily compare with Winfield Scott's capture of Mexico City via Vera Cruz during the Mexican/American war. Schwartkopf's campaign was swift and decisive.

Much of this was due in no small part to the support he received from Collin Powell and President Bush who put every resource available at Schwarzkopf's disposal. In the end, this was a popular war that secured economic advantages for the Western World - ensuring our way of life was not threatened by a shortage of the free flow of natural resources. It confirmed the value of air power and air superiority on the battlefield. Finally, it proved that armed aggression never prevails in the face of a free alliance of nations determined to see justice done.


first mobile phones


What began as two-way communications with taxi cabs and police cruisers has grown into one of the most popular, as well as one of the most dependent, means of communication available today, regardless of the brief history of cellular phones in the United States.

From the very first mobile phones that were installed in cars to the micro devices that are smaller than the palm of a person's hand, cellular-phone history tracks the technology of radio wave communications. At first mobile phones were installed into cars and only those who had the financial means were able to afford to get them installed.

Later, the next-generation models were equipped with a plug that can be inserted into a car's cigarette lighter and were dubbed as "bag phones" and could be transported from vehicle to vehicle. This beginning step in the history of cell phones pushed the industry to transform cellular phones into devices that could be carried in your shirt pocket.

At Bell Labs and engineer first thought of the idea of making available towers that would carry the singles from each respective telephone in the squares in which they were placed, called cells, required the user of the cell phone to stay within the particular cell from which the call originated or they would lose single strengthened and consequently the call would end abruptly.

It was not until the year 1970 that the next step in the history of cell phones took place with the advent of the call hand off system giving a call the ability to be transferred from cell to cell without any loss of signal strength. Computing in the first years of the new millennium is continuing the trend of the 1990s.

The small are getting smaller, the powerful are getting more powerful, and they're all getting smarter. computing has become not only increasingly personal in the last two years, but also pervasive.

The term pervasive computing describes the emerging trend toward numerous, casually accessible, often invisible computing devices, frequently embedded in the environment and connected to an increasingly ubiquitous network structure. The devices themselves have begun to merge. You can buy a cell phone that's also a camera and a PDA.

You can install a refrigerator that can download your e-mail and tell you when the milk is going bad. Experts say all these trends will soon have computers melding with the environment until you won't know you're using computers at all. They'll be your microwave, your front door, your jacket. Once they cease to be intrusive, they'll become truly helpful.


O. J. Simpson


Although the 1995 criminal trial of O. J. Simpson for the murders of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman has been called a "a great trash novel come to life," no one can deny the pull it had on the American public. If the early reports of the murder of the wife of the ex--NFL football star (turned-NBC-sports-announcer) hadn't caught people's full attention, Simpson's surreal Bronco ride on the day of his arrest certainly did--ninety-five million television viewers witnessed the slow police chase live. The 133 days of televised courtroom testimony turned countless viewers into Simpson trial junkies.

Even foreign leaders such as Margaret Thatcher and Boris Yeltsin eagerly gossiped about the trial. When Yeltsin stepped off his plane to meet President Clinton, the first question he asked was, "Do you think O. J. did it?" When, at 10 A.M. PST on October 3, Judge Ito's clerk read the jury's verdict of "Not Guilty," 91% of all persons viewing television were glued to the unfolding scene in the Los Angeles courtroom.

On April 17, 1995 Timothy McVeigh reportedly picked up a 20-foot Ryder truck from Elliott's Body Shop in Junction City. The truck was filled with roughly 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) of ammonium nitrate, an agricultural fertilizer, and nitromethane, a highly volatile motor-racing fuel-a mixture also known as Kinepak or ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil).

At 9:02 a.m. on April 19, 1995, the truck exploded in the street in front of the Alfred P. Murrah federal building. About 90 minutes later, McVeigh was stopped by an Oklahoma state trooper for driving a vehicle without a license plate, who then arrested him on a firearms charge. Two days later he was charged in the bombing. His friend Terry Nichols was arrested in Kansas, and formally charged with the bombing on May 10.


Ötzi the ice man


Carbon dating tests show that the well-preserved body of a prehistoric human hunter found in an Alpine glacier last year is 5,000 to 5,500 years old, scientists reported yesterday. The first scientifically established age for the frozen corpse is more than 1,000 years older than original estimates.

It means the man lived and presumably froze to death well before the Bronze Age replaced the late Stone Age in Europe. "Now we know he's not from the Bronze Age, but much older," said Dr. Werner Platzer, head of the anatomy department at Innsbruck University in Austria, who is directing research on the mummified corpse. "That's very important.

It means, I believe, that this is the only corpse we have from the Stone Age." Unusual Post-Mortem The tests on bones and skin tissue were conducted by scientists at Oxford University in England and a Swiss physics institute in Zurich.

The results were announced by Innsbruck University, which is keeping the body in cold storage and supervising one of the most unusual post-mortems in history. Ötzi was found by two German tourists from Nuremberg, Helmut and Erika Simon, on 19 September 1991. The body was at first thought to be a modern corpse, like several others which had been recently found in the region.

Lying on its front and frozen in ice below the torso, it was crudely removed from the glacier by the Austrian authorities using a small jackhammer (which punctured the hip of the body) and ice-axes using non-archaeological methods. In addition, before the body was removed from the ice, people were allowed to see it, and some took portions of the clothing and tools as souvenirs. The body was then taken to a morgue in Innsbruck, where its true age was subsequently ascertained.


Hubble Space Telescope


The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was carried into orbit by the Space Shuttle Discovery in April 1990. It is named after the American astronomer Edwin Hubble. Although not the first space telescope, the Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile, and is well-known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy.

The HST is a collaboration between NASA and the European Space Agency, and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

There is no other space telescope that has brought humanity a key understanding of the beauty in our universe than the one and only Hubble Space Telescope. The Hubble Space Telescope a space telescope with many achievements, and facts. As you read this article, you will learn some interesting facts about the Hubble Space Telescope that orbits Earth. ::: Why Is The Hubble Space Telescope Called Hubble? ::: This is a question that many people have, and want to know why it is called the Hubble Space Telescope. Well the Hubble name is not a scientific term!

Though it is attributed with someone import in the field of science. And that is Edwin Hubble. Edwin Hubble an American astronomer was a doctor who confirmed that the universe is indeed expanding. Edwin Hubble who was born 1889 and lived to 1953, is an important part of what has become the big bang theory. The big bang theory being that the universe started with literally a big bang (13.7 billion years ago), and expanded to what we have today. ::: Key Dates For The Hubble Space Telescope ::: The Hubble Space Telescope was launched on 24 April 1990.

The cost was $1.5 billion US dollars, and required the help of hundreds of people to make it so. Having launched the Hubble Space Telescope on the 24 of April 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope was deployed the next day on April 25 1990. The designated amount of time for the mission was 20 years; which makes the Hubble Space Telescope to come to decommissioning about the year 2010. The Hubble Space Telescope also has had some important servicing missions. Servicing mission 1 began on December 1993. The second servicing mission - servicing mission 2 began on February 1997.

The third servicing mission - called Servicing mission 3A, began on December 1999. And the last servicing mission for the Hubble Space Telescope was on February 2002, and was called Servicing mission 3B. ::: Some More Amazing Facts About The Hubble Space Telescope ::: The Hubble Space Telescope moves at a speed of 5 miles per second, around the planet Earth! It only takes the Hubble Space Telescope 97 minutes to make 1 revolution around the planet Earth.

And the Hubble Space Telescope has a speed of 17,500 mph! Nothing on land and sea can approach those speeds, currently that we know of. The Hubble Space Telescope can look at everything, within its limitations, but it can not view the Mercury or the Sun. The first image that the Hubble Space Telescope took a picture of, was a star cluster. On the 20th of May 1990, less than a month of being deployed, the Hubble Space Telescope took a picture of Star Cluster NGC 3532. The NGC 3532 star cluster got its nickname "The Wishing Well Cluster" because the twinkling stars in this Open Cluster resembles silver coins shimmering at the bottom of a Wishing Well.

The Hubble Space Telescope has given us so many beautiful pictures of the objects in our universe. With so many discoveries, it is a shame that the Hubble Space Telescope will be decommissioned over the next few years. However, NASA is planning on a new project that will surpass the Hubble Space Telescope, though this is one that will not be taking optical pictures.


hubble telescope 1990


It has been seventeen years since the launch of the Hubble Telescope. The cost to the United States and the European Union was originally projected at about 500 million dollars. The program's costs are now estimated to be over 5 billion dollars. The Hubble's costs were criticized prior to its launch and the early problems with the telescope's imaging system further hurt the public's initial perception of the project. However, the problems of the Hubble mission have long been corrected.

In addition, the early critics were wrong as the cost of the project has provided an incredible return on money spent. The ongoing Hubble mission has provided a source of information to the world's scientific community that could not have been obtained through any telescope on Earth. Indeed, over the last decade, the Hubble Telescope has delivered hundreds of amazing pictures from the farthest reaches of the Universe. One reason that the cost of the Hubble is so high is that it is the only telescope ever designed to be serviced in orbit 330 miles above the Earth by astronauts.

To date, there have been four servicing missions, with a fifth and final mission event planned for September 2008. In the launch of the fifth space shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope, seven astronauts are scheduled to repair and improve the observatory's capabilities. The mission will make the telescope operational through the year 2013. Of course, the reason for the final mission and the extension of the Hubble Telescope's capability is the incredible scientific success of the project over the last fifteen years. Hubble does not travel to stars, planets, and galaxies.

It snaps pictures of them as it orbits the Earth. The pictures that the Hubble Telescope has stored and transmitted to Earth have resolved some long standing problems in astronomy. It has also created questions that require scientists to produce new theories of explanation. Consider that the Hubble Telescope has looked through space to provide pictures of regions where gas, dust, and other materials combined to form stars thousands of years ago.

These star forming areas are called nebula by scientists. The remaining materials after a star is born are believed to further expand and form planets. Pictures provided by the Hubble Telescope have given scientists an improved understanding of the processes inside a nebula. Hubble has provided incredible pictures from space of the Ant Nebula, Eskimo Nebula, Cats Eye Nebula, Cone Nebula, Perfect Storm Nebula and Triffid Nebula. The Hubble Telescope has also greatly expanded scientists understanding of black holes. Scientists have theorized that black holes have a deep and profound connection with galaxies.

Work conducted with the Hubble indicates that black holes are probably common to the centers of all galaxies. Hubble has also established that the masses of the nuclear black holes and properties of the galaxies are closely related. Hubble is responsible for the dating of the age of the Universe at 12-14 billion years. This is a much closer date than the 10 to 20 billion year range that scientists estimated prior to the Hubble launch. While Hubble helped to refine estimates of the age of the Universe, it also cast doubt on theories about its future.

Astronomers used the telescope to observe distant supernovae and uncovered evidence that, far from decelerating under the influence of gravity, the expansion of the Universe may in fact be accelerating. This acceleration was later measured more accurately by other ground-based and space-based telescopes which confirmed Hubble's finding, but the cause of this acceleration is currently very poorly understood. The ultimate legacy of Hubble may well be the Hubble Deep Field and the Hubble Ultra Deep Field images. The images of distant galaxies, around ten billion years ago, were a result of Hubble's unmatched sensitivity at visible wavelengths to create images.

These images have generated many scientific papers and provided a new window into the development of the Universe. Hubble also teamed up with a fleet of X-ray, gamma-ray, and visible-light observatories in a quest to analyze the sources of gamma-ray bursts. Gamma-ray bursts may represent the most powerful explosions in the Universe since the Big Bang. Before 1997 astronomers were stumped: although they had observed more than 2,000 "bursts," they couldn't determine whether these fireballs occurred in our galaxy or at remote distances.

Hubble images showed clearly that the bursts actually reside in far away galaxies rife with star formation. The Hubble has given us pictures of merging galaxies, asteroids, new galaxies, the rings around Uranus, and other planets. It has given scientists insights into star formation and star death. The Hubble Deep Field has produced pictures of distant galaxies nearly ten billion years ago. Hubble has produced information on Black Holes, Gamma-Ray bursts, as well as other scientific mysteries of the Universe. To date, the Hubble's contribution to astronomy and science has been astounding.

The understanding of the origins and functions of the Universe increase with each picture. In 2008, astronauts will install upgraded equipment which will would boost the telescope's observing capability by at least a factor of 10. Pictures from the Hubble Telescope will continue until the year 2013. After 2013, the James Webb Telescope will replace the Hubble in space. Until then, scientists and astronomers throughout the world should continue to be amazed by the pictures transmitted by the Hubble Telescope as it continues to picture space through time.


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