The seventies were a time of inflation, oil crisis, the sexual revolution, and the invention of the waterbed. In the 1970s, you may have listened to some new rock and roll on the scene such as ABBA, or Elton John Michael Jackson The Bees Gees’ . Paul McCartney reinvented himself with a band called “Wings,” and produced songs such as “Jet” and the classic “Maybe I’m Amazed.” Also the age of dance clubs and discos emerged and all the glitter that went with it.

The 1960's were a time of upheaval in society, fashion, attitudes and especially music. Before 1963, the music of the sixties still reflected the sound, style and beliefs of the previous decade and many of the hit records were by artists who had found mainstream success in the 1950s, like Elvis Presley, Ray Charles, Dion, and The Everly Brothers. In 1963 and the years to follow, a number of social influences changed what popular music was and gave birth to the diversity that we experience with music today.

The assassination of President Kennedy, the escalation of the war in Vietnam and the forward-progress of the Civil Rights Movement all greatly impacted the mood of American culture and the music began to reflect that change.

The "British Invasion" also began around 1963 with the arrival of The Beatles on the music scene and the type of rabid fandom that followed them would change the way people would view and interact with music and musicians forever. In this section we will cover the history of the "British Invasion", Motown and R&B, Folk and Protest music, and the large amount of variation that emerged in Rock music throughout the sixties. sent in by jasper 1960.


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Seventies music alludes to tunes made all through the 1970s. Notably music recorded in the US and England. The music at the beginning of the 1970s was highly impacted by the 1960s tunes of groups such as Queen, the Eagles and Led Zepplin. When it comes to 70s music, a lot of people bring to mind disco and artists like the the Bee Gees and Gloria Gaynor, but there was a variety of stadium rock and soft rock developed during that era as well. 1970s music can also include rhythm and blues and soul songs in addition to southern rock and the beginnings of new wave and punk which extended in to the 80s.

As with many other intervals of music in the 20th century, there are a variety of different styles and developments frequently connected with 1970s music. A large amount of the rock music created in the 60s continued to build up and have an impact on new groups moving into the 1970s.

A number of these groups engaged in elaborate and theatrical attire and presentations of live music. Some of these acts include Queen, KISS and David Bowie. This type of 1970s music furthermore progressed into stadium rock, with performers like Boston and Styx creating music meant for vast stadium viewers.

The 1970s are gone, but many thousands of folks nonetheless love the music of that point in time. Especially the time honored rock and roll sounds of the 1970s and early 80s. Because of this, a number of tribute bands can be found to supply 1970s music enthusiasts concert events to relive those days. Among the most interesting tribute bands is BOSTYX.

Unlike the majority of tribute bands, BOSTYX pays homage to two exceptional classic rock bands: Boston and Styx. BOSTYX is both a Boston tribute band and Styx tribute band. BOSTYX combines the two big classic rock and roll bands Boston and Styx into a single amazing tribute show. Disco is, possibly, the most famous movement within 1970s music. This particular style progressed and developed throughout dance clubs and was written as a format for dance, instead of to share a particularly powerful message.


Disco soon gained fame and recognition, particularly with the release of Saturday Night Fever in 1977. At least as swiftly, though, disco grew into probably the most hated types of 1970s music in the US, and many artists who found fame with disco had hard times continuing achievements in to the 80s.

Southern rock and roll and country got quite popular in the 1970s, with artists such as Alabama, Lynyrd Skynrd and Willie Nelson crossing over into popular music lists. The 1970s was a landmark decade for punk and hard rock groups such as Black Sabbath, Motorhead and The Sex Pistols.

1970s music furthermore established a lot of music that became trendy in the 80s, with the new wave genre starting to build with bands including the Talking Heads and Devo. 1970s music included as well various other musical movements, among them sustained progress in folk music from performers including Bob Dylan and Joni Mitchell.

Soul and R&B were prominent with artists including Marvin Gaye and Stevie Wonder having much success. A number of musicians, such as George Clinton , mixed R&B influences with rock and synthesized styles to create music known as funk.



Nestled between the height of the second wave of feminism and the impending takeover of government by conservatives in 1980 stood a stretch of time in which Americans grappled with new choices and old stereotypes. It was here, in the mid-to-late 1970s, that punk was born.1 Starting in New York—a city on the verge of bankruptcy—and spreading to Los Angeles and London, women took to the stage, picking punk as their Trojan Horse for entry into the boy bastion of rock’n’roll.

It wasn’t just the music that these women were looking to change, but also traditionally held notions of gender as well. This thesis focuses on Patti Smith, Deborah Harry, and Tina Weymouth—arguably the first, and most important, female punk musicians—to demonstrate that women in punk used multiple methods to question, re-interpret, and reject gender.

On the surface, punk appeared just as sexist as any other previous rock movement; men still controlled the stage, the sound room, the music journals and the record labels. As writer Carola Dibbell admitted in 1995, “I still have trouble figuring out how women ever won their place in this noise-loving, boy-loving, love-fearing, body-hating music, which at first glance looked like one more case where rock’s little problem, women, would be neutralized by male androgyny.”

According to Dibbell, “Punk was the music of the obnoxious, permanently adolescent white boy—skinny, zitty, ugly, loud, stupid, fucked up.”3 Punk music was loud and aggressive, spawning the violent, almost exclusively-male mosh pit at live shows that still exists today.

Yet much of the punk ethos stood in contrast to rock music of the time, allowing women like Smith, Harry, and Weymouth their places in punk. The years preceding punk’s emergence were rife with political upheaval, particularly with regards to women’s rights. In 1963, Betty Friedan released the bestselling book The Feminine Mystique, re-introducing feminism to Americans.

What followed was a decade of social critique and change: the National Organization for Women formed in 1966, the Miss America pageant sparked huge protests in 1968, the radical feminist group Redstockings wrote their manifesto in 1969, the Equal Rights Amendment passed Congress in 1972, and the Supreme Court decided Roe v. Wade in 1973.

By the early-1970s, it seemed as if women were truly improving their position within society. Yet women’s position within rock music tells a different story. Rock, which began as a radical anti-establishment cultural expression, had become bloated by the 1970s. The public placed rock musicians on a pedestal, and the musicians themselves acted every bit the part by playing to huge stadium arenas and infusing their songs with long drawn-out solos. Copious amounts of drugs and easy access to sex with groupies led to an increasingly more decadent, less idealistic music scene.

What was once considered by listeners to be a counter-cultural movement became something controlled by mainstream culture and large corporations; by 1974, 81 percent of the U.S. market share of music was controlled by six companies.5 While the role of rock stars during this era changed, the role of women within the music scene did not.

The music industry never considered women to be viable producers of music, and relegated them to the positions of muse, mistress, groupie, or girlfriend. By the early-1970s, it was becoming clear to many participants in rock that the music had strayed from its original counter-cultural goal. Music journalist Patricia Kennealy-Morrison stated in 1970 that, “For all 4 Along with the rise of the rock star in the late-1960s and early-1970s came the rise of groupie culture, with Rolling Stone devoting an entire issue to them in 1969 and a film documenting their lives released in 1970. Anon.


Berry Gordy 1970s


One of the highlights of Detroit's musical history was the success of Motown Records during the 1960s and early 1970s. In the late 1950s the label originally known as Tamla Records was founded by auto plant worker Berry Gordy and became home to some of the most popular recording acts in the world. These included Marvin Gaye, The Temptations, Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross & The Supremes, Smokey Robinson & The Miracles, The Four Tops, Martha Reeves & the Vandellas, Edwin Starr, Little Willie John, The Contours and The Spinners.

However, before Motown became a major force, Detroit was already well on its way to being a R&B and soul hotbed. In 1955, the influential soul singer Little Willie John made his debut; while in 1956, the Detroit based R&B label Fortune Records enjoyed success with Nolan Strong & The Diablos. The Diablos, in the mid-to-late '50s were the hottest vocal group in Detroit, thanks to the group's hit songs "The Wind," "Mind Over Matter" and "The Way You Dog Me Around." Smokey Robinson noted in his biography that Strong's high tenor was his biggest vocal influence.

Strong is remembered on the 2010 album Daddy Rockin Strong: A Tribute to Nolan Strong & The Diablos - a tribute compilation that features current rock and roll bands covering Diablos songs. The album was compiled and released by The Wind Records and Norton Records. Also In 1956, notable blues and R&B singer Zeffrey "Andre" Williams recorded a string of singles for Fortune, including the song "Bacon Fat."

Knowing that he couldn't compete with the voice of labelmate Nolan Strong, Andre chose to talk-sing the song. In 1961, Nathaniel Mayer & Fabulous Twilights hit the charts with "Village of Love," which became one of Fortune's top selling singles. Mayer recorded a string of popular 45s for Fortune, even once performing on Dick Clark's American Bandstand. In 1959, The Falcons, (featuring Wilson Pickett and Eddie Floyd), released "You're So Fine", considered the first true Soul record.

Also that year, Jackie Wilson had his first hit with "Reet Petite", which was co-written by a young Berry Gordy Jr.. The Volumes had hit single in 1962 for Chex Records with the single "I Love You". That Same year singer/songwriter Barbara Lewis had a hit with the single "Hello Stranger.", while Gino Washington had cross-racial appeal and achieved Midwest hits in 1963 and 1964 with "Out of This World" and "Gino Is a Coward".

Several other Detroit artists became nationally known without the help of Motown. One such artists was Aretha Franklin. Other non-Motown acts included The Capitols with their 1966 hit "Cool Jerk" and Darrel Banks with "Baby Walk Right in." The following year, J.J Barnes had his biggest hit with "Baby Please Come Back Home." In 1967, longtime back room barbershop doo wop group The Parliaments, featuring George Clinton, scored a hit with "I Wanna Testify" for Revilot Records, and marked the beginning of funk in mainstream R&B.

Due to legal issues with Revilot Records, Clinton changed the name of The Parliaments in 1968 to Funkadelic and scored a hit with the song ""A New Day Begins." Then in 1970; after Clinton reclaimed the rights to their original name, he change the groups name once again to simply Parliament and had a minor hit with "The Breakdown.". However, with the constant name and lineup changes the group became known as simply P-Funk which is short for Parliament-Funkadelic.


Shake, Rattle & Roll


Rock music is often associated with heavy instrumentation, reverberating through a sound system, and played by hyperactive musicians wearing all-black garb. This kind of music has enjoyed over half a century of popularity with its strong beat and catchy melody. Rock music started in the 1940s and the 1950s as a fusion of rhythm and blues, gospel music, and country music. Originally known as rock and roll, as branded by disc jockey Alan Feed from Ohio, rock music combined influences resulted in simple blues-based style that was fast and danceable.

Instrumentation for rock music often include electric guitar, bass guitar, drums, and keyboards. Others add to their line-up reed instruments like the saxophone and the French horn. String instruments like the mandolin and the sitar are occasionally seen in the realm of rock music. Of all these instrumentations, it is the guitar that is considered to be the star of the show. Guitars come as solid electric, hollow electric or acoustic.

The electric guitar was played rock and roll style by early rock legends Chuck Berry, Link Wray and Scotty Moore. Texas blues guitarist Stevie Ray Vaughan played a fusion of blues and rock. As multitrack recording was developed by Les Paul along with electronic sound treatment by Joe Meek, it was not long after when rock music artists like Jackie Breston and Bill Haley came out with their first rock and roll records. Breston released his record Rocket 88 under recording label Sun Records.

And then several years after, Haleys Rock Around the Clock was launched and topped the charts of Billboard magazine in terms of record sales and airtime plays. Sun Records also produced rock and roll king Elvis Presleys first single labelled Thats All Right (Mama). Shake, Rattle & Roll of Big Joe Turner was also topping the Billboard R&B charts during this time. The fusioning of rock music extended into the 1960s and the 1970s, with rock music being combined with folk music to create folk rock, with blues to create blues-rock, and with jazz to create jazz rock.

Electrical instrument ambiance was incorporated into rock music to create the carefree psychedelic rock. Influences from soul, funk and latin music were integrated with rock music to pave way for subgenres as soft rock, heavy metal, hard rock, progressive rock, and punk rock. Rock music took a metallic turn in the 1980s and 1990s with the entry of rock bands like Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Queen, Aerosmith, Kiss, AC/DC and Black Sabbath. Hard rockers heightened the commercialization of rock and roll with albums and concerts being launched all over the country. Arenas and other similar big venues were used as a places to gather crowds and crowds of rock music fans.

Live performances in rock concerts had rock fans screaming and going wild over rock bands performing to full performance level complete with stage design and pyrotechnics. Some of the other developments in rock music are retro style grunge, theatrical glam rock (Lou Reed, Iggy Pop, and the New York Dolls), intense Britpop (John Lennon and the Beatles), indie rock and nu rock (Police, Duran Duran, Eurythmics, and the Culture Club).

Rock music has not been as popular with music critics at some point in time owing to its dark and overly loud metallic sound. But innovations and developments in look, style and sound has slowly developed a following for rock music not only in the young crowd but for the public in general as well. Rock music still manages to chalk up big hits in popular music.


Michael Jackson


Michael Jackson, possibly more than any other pop artist of the 20th Century, managed to bridge the gap in musical tastes between African American audiences and European American audiences. During his time at Motown, he internalized the goal, taught to all Motown artists by Berry Gordy, of crossing over and appealing to European American audiences.

Motown artists helped popularize R&B music among white listeners. However, none achieved the same level of crossover success as Jackson. This paper looks at the popular music conventions that Jackson drew from to appeal to diverse groups expressing a variety of musical tastes.

In so doing, he was able to communicate something essential and authentic that resonated among the many different people who came to appreciate and love his music. Michael Jackson certainly had a great influence on MTV videos. Before Thriller, videos were for promotion of an album or single, or were video tapings of live performances; Thriller turned videos into an entertainment medium like movies with the soundtrack provided by the song.

However, the music became an accompaniment to the images, not unlike in opera and film. MTV provides a post-modern function in the way it reinforces or imposes narrative on the music. Although, the lyrics may suggest a narrative structure, the images in the video provide concrete images thereby interpreting the lyrics for the viewer; for example, the video for “Beat It” reinforces images of conflict and resolution even though the lyrics are about defeat and courage. In this case the images impose an interpretation on the song.

Disco is a style of pop music that was popular in the mid-1970s. Disco music has a strong beat that people can dance to. People usually dance to disco music at bars called disco clubs. The word "disco" is also used to refer to the style of dancing that people do to disco music, or to the style of clothes that people wear to go disco dancing.

Disco was at its most popular in the United States and Europe in the 1970s and early 1980s. Disco was brought into the mainstream by the hit movie Saturday Night Fever, which was released in 1977. This movie, which starred John Travolta, showed people doing disco dancing. Many radio stations played disco in the late 1970s.


 B.J. Thoma 1970


THE TOP 100 OF 1970

1 RAINDROPS KEEP FALLIN' ON MY HEAD - B.J. Thomas (Scepter) 2 I'LL BE THERE - The Jackson 5 (Motown) 3 I THINK I LOVE YOU - The Partridge Family (Bell) 4 BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATER - Simon & Garfunkel (Columbia) 5 (They Long To Be) CLOSE TO YOU - Carpenters (A&M) 6 I WANT YOU BACK - The Jackson 5 (Motown) 7 LET IT BE - The Beatles (Apple) 8 THE TEARS OF A CLOWN - Smokey Robinson & The Miracles (Tamla) 9 SOMEDAY WE'LL BE TOGETHER - Diana Ross & The Supremes (Motown) 10 VENUS - The Shocking Blue (Colossus) 11 ABC - The Jackson 5 (Motown) 12 WAR - Edwin Starr (Gordy) 13 SPIRIT IN THE SKY - Norman Greenbaum (Reprise) 14 WE'VE ONLY JUST BEGUN - Carpenters (A&M) 15 AMERICAN WOMAN - The Guess Who (RCA Victor) 16 MAKE IT WITH YOU - Bread (Elektra) 17 MAMA TOLD ME (Not To Come) - Three Dog Night (Dunhill) 18 BAND OF GOLD - Freda Payne (Invictus) 19 AIN'T NO MOUNTAIN HIGH ENOUGH - Diana Ross (Motown) 20 THE LOVE YOU SAVE - The Jackson 5 (Motown) 21 GET READY - Rare Earth (Rare Earth) 22 BALL OF CONFUSION (That's What The World Is Today) - The Temptations (Gordy) 23 CRACKLIN' ROSIE - Neil Diamond (Uni) 24 INSTANT KARMA (We All Shine On) - John Ono Lennon (Apple) 25 SPILL THE WINE - Eric Burdon & War (MGM) 26 WHOLE LOTTA LOVE - Led Zeppelin (Atlantic) 27 FIRE AND RAIN - James Taylor (Warner Bros.) 28 CANDIDA - Dawn (Bell)

29 SIGNED, SEALED, DELIVERED I'M YOURS - Stevie Wonder (Tamla) 30 WHICH WAY YOU GOIN' BILLY? - The Poppy Family (London) 31 ALL RIGHT NOW - Free (A&M) 32 GYPSY WOMAN - Brian Hyland (Uni) 33 THANK YOU (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin) - Sly & The Family Stone (Epic) 34 INDIANA WANTS ME - R. Dean Taylor (Rare Earth) 35 EVERYTHING IS BEAUTIFUL - Ray Stevens (Barnaby) 36 LOOKIN' OUT MY BACK DOOR - Creedence Clearwater Revival (Fantasy) 37 HITCHIN' A RIDE - Vanity Fare (Page One) 38 LAY DOWN (Candles In The Rain) - Melanie with The Edwin Hawkins Singers (Buddah) 39 HEY THERE LONELY GIRL - Eddie Holman (ABC) 40 PATCHES - Clarence Carter (Atlantic) 41 GREEN-EYED LADY - Sugarloaf (Liberty) 42 LOVE GROWS (Where My Rosemary Goes) - The Edison Lighthouse (Bell) 43 RIDE CAPTAIN RIDE - The Blues Image (Atco) 44 IN THE SUMMERTIME - Mungo Jerry (Janus) 45 JULIE, DO YA LOVE ME - Bobby Sherman (Metromedia) 46 RAINY NIGHT IN GEORGIA - Brook Benton (Cotillion) 47 THE RAPPER - The Jaggerz (Kama Sutra) 48 THE LONG AND WINDING ROAD - The Beatles (Apple)

49 TURN BACK THE HANDS OF TIME - Tyrone Davis (Dakar) 50 UP AROUND THE BEND - Creedence Clearwater Revival (Fantasy) 51 CECILIA - Simon & Garfunkel (Columbia) 52 LOVE ON A TWO-WAY STREET - The Moments (Stang) 53 DOES ANYBODY REALLY KNOW WHAT TIME IT IS? - Chicago (Columbia) 54 NO TIME - The Guess Who (RCA Victor) 55 25 OR 6 TO 4 - Chicago (Columbia) 56 DON'T CRY DADDY - Elvis Presley (RCA Victor) 57 O-O-H CHILD - The Five Stairsteps (Buddah) 58 TIGHTER, TIGHTER - Alive And Kicking (Roulette) 59 REFLECTIONS OF MY LIFE - The Marmalade (London) 60 COME AND GET IT - Badfinger (Apple) 61 HOUSE OF THE RISING SUN - Frijid Pink (Parrot) 62 JAM UP JELLY TIGHT - Tommy Roe (ABC) 63 VEHICLE - The Ides Of March (Warner Bros.) 64 SOMETHING'S BURNING - Kenny Rogers & The First Edition (Reprise) 65 (I Know) I'M LOSING YOU - Rare Earth (Rare Earth) 66 LOVE OR LET ME BE LONELY - The Friends Of Distinction (RCA Victor) 67 SOMEBODY'S BEEN SLEEPING - 100 Proof Aged In Soul (Hot Wax) 68 WITHOUT LOVE (There Is Nothing) - Tom Jones (Parrot) 69 THE LETTER - Joe Cocker (A&M) 70 HE AIN'T HEAVY, HE'S MY BROTHER - The Hollies (Epic) 71 SNOWBIRD - Anne Murray (Capitol) 72 PSYCHEDELIC SHACK - The Temptations (Gordy) 73 MA BELLE AMIE - The Tee Set (Colossus) 74 EASY COME, EASY GO - Bobby Sherman (Metromedia) 75 GIVE ME JUST A LITTLE MORE TIME - The Chairmen Of The Board (Invictus)


76 I'LL NEVER FALL IN LOVE AGAIN - Dionne Warwick (Scepter) 77 JINGLE JANGLE - The Archies (Kirshner) 78 TRAVELIN' BAND - Creedence Clearwater Revival (Fantasy) 79 FOR THE GOOD TIMES - Ray Price (Columbia) 80 ARIZONA - Mark Lindsay (Columbia) 81 LOLA - The Kinks (Reprise) 82 MIDNIGHT COWBOY - Ferrante & Teicher (United Artists) 83 EVIL WAYS - Santana (Columbia) 84 THE WONDER OF YOU - Elvis Presley (RCA Victor) 85 MONTEGO BAY - Bobby Bloom (MGM/L&R) 86 MAKE ME SMILE - Chicago (Columbia) 87 (If You Let Me Make Love To You Then) WHY CAN'T I TOUCH YOU? - Ronnie Dyson (Columbia) 88 FOR THE LOVE OF HIM - Bobbi Martin (United Artists) 89 MY BABY LOVES LOVIN' - White Plains (Deram) 90 5-10-15-20 (25-30 Years Of Love) - The Presidents (Sussex) 91 EARLY IN THE MORNING - Vanity Fare (Page One) 92 NO MATTER WHAT - Badfinger (Apple) 93 LA LA LA (If I Had You) - Bobby Sherman (Metromedia) 94 GIMME DAT DING - The Pipkins (Capitol) 95 I JUST CAN'T HELP BELIEVING - B.J. Thomas (Scepter) 96 IT'S ONLY MAKE BELIEVE - Glen Campbell (Capitol) 97 DIDN'T I (Blow Your Mind This Time) - The Delfonics (Philly Groove) 98 GROOVY SITUATION - Gene Chandler (Mercury) 99 UP THE LADDER TO THE ROOF - The Supremes (Motown) 100 UNITED WE STAND - The Brotherhood Of Man (Deram)


Michael Jackson, possibly more than any other pop artist of the 20th Century, managed to bridge the gap in musical tastes between African American audiences and European American audiences. During his time at Motown, he internalized the goal, taught to all Motown artists by Berry Gordy, of crossing over and appealing to European American audiences.

Motown artists helped popularize R&B music among white listeners. However, none achieved the same level of crossover success as Jackson. This paper looks at the popular music conventions that Jackson drew from to appeal to diverse groups expressing a variety of musical tastes.

In so doing, he was able to communicate something essential and authentic that resonated among the many different people who came to appreciate and love his music. Michael Jackson certainly had a great influence on MTV videos. Before Thriller, videos were for promotion of an album or single, or were video tapeings of live performances;

Thriller turned videos into an entertainment medium like movies with the soundtrack provided by the song. However, the music became an accompaniment to the images, not unlike in opera and film. MTV provides a post-modern function in the way it reinforces or imposes narrative on the music. Although, the lyrics may suggest a narrative structure, the images in the video provide concrete images thereby interpreting the lyrics for the viewer; for example, the video for “Beat It” reinforces images of conflict and resolution even though the lyrics are about defeat and courage.

In this case the images impose an interpretation on the song. Disco is a style of pop music that was popular in the mid-1970s. Disco music has a strong beat that people can dance to. People usually dance to disco music at bars called disco clubs. The word "disco" is also used to refer to the style of dancing that people do to disco music, or to the style of clothes that people wear to go disco dancing. Disco was at its most popular in the United States and Europe in the 1970s and early 1980s. Disco was brought into the mainstream by the hit movie Saturday Night Fever, which was released in 1977. This movie, which starred John Travolta, showed people doing disco dancing. Many radio stations played disco in the late 1970s.


 Kool And The Gang


Funk music was the soundtrack of the mid 1970s, embraced by combos such as: Ronald Bell's Kool And The Gang, the most faithful to Sly Stone's model, from Funky Stuff (1973) to Celebration (1980); the vocal trio Labelle, featuring Patti LaBelle (Holt) and Nona Hendryx, who blended rhythm'n'blues and rock'n'roll and adopted a glam image for Bob Crewe's and Kenny Nolan's Lady Marmalade (1974); the Commodores, led by tenor saxophonist Lionel Ritchie, with the electronic instrumental Machine Gun (1974); drummer Maurice White's jazzsoul- rock fusion concept Earth Wind And Fire, with Shining Star (1975) and Serpentine Fire (1977),

Philip Bailey's effeminate falsetto, Larry Dunn's sleek keyboards, and a Stax-like horn section; the percussive Ohio Players, with Fire (1974) and Love Rollercoaster (1975); Harry Wayne Casey's and Richard Finch's exuberant K.C. And The Sunshine Band, from That's The Way I Like It (1975) to Baby Give It Up (1983), that coined the quintessential "Miami sound"; Larry Graham's Graham Central Station, with The Jam (1976), the sound of funk music to come;

Larry Blackmon's Cameo, the only veterans to dominate in two decades, from Funk Funk (1977) to Word Up (1986); and, in Britain, the Average White Band, with the instrumental Pick Up The Pieces (1974). Ex- Labelle vocalist Nona Hendryx fused funk, soul and hard-rock on her Nona Hendryx (? 1977 - ? 1977). Tina Turner, Ike's wife, who had been the sexy pillar of their revue, capitalized on a tiger-like vocal style with the solid funkboogie groove of Nutbush City Limits (1973). Betty Davis (Miles' wife), was sexually aggressive and vocally gruff on Betty Davis (? 1973 - summer 1973), featuring Sly Stone's rhythm section and the Pointer Sisters, and pioneered a look that bridged the psychedelic era and the disco era.


Motown


Rock music in Detroit in the 1960s was a different commodity than the established Motown sound. Although both musical styles shared a relation with African-American inspired rhythms and a great association with the youth culture, Motown was polished and professional, and the new rock music was rough and raw. Detroit rock artists, although different from Motown, were still able to maintain the success streak to both the radio audiences and the music industry due to Motown’s success.

The years 1965 to 1972 represented the era when Detroit rock music became a widespread success. These years have also been called the “season of rebellion,” which refers to one of the most pivotal shifts of American consumer musical tastes.

This shift of tastes, from Motown’s polished demeanour to the untamed cries of the young rock bands, directly influenced the music that was heard on radio and throughout the venues in Detroit. It was in this time period that the diversification toward rock and roll music occurred and, within Detroit, it was this time period that brought rock and roll, and its related political messages, into a national spotlight.

These years provided more than just the proliferation of a new style of music, rock and roll; these years were also the proving ground for the music industry to stay current and, ultimately, ahead of the quickly changing consumer music trends.

These new rock musicians represented a new evolving form of music that the record labels had not dealt with in the past. Many of the Detroit rock bands did not have the social graces that were expected of the Motown acts. These new Detroit artists with long hair and rowdy behaviour were not as easy to direct and influence. Rock music of the 1960s represented a product that the record labels were not versed in, but the success of these early rock artists proved a lucrative musical commodity.


Priscilla Beaulieu Presley


Elvis’s professional life was spent touring the United States and performing in Las Vegas. After 1972 his performances became increasingly erratic, perhaps because he was divorced by his wife, Priscilla Beaulieu Presley, after five years of marriage. Elvis’s health deteriorated, in part because he gained a great deal of weight. It was his abuse of prescription drugs, however, that led to his death in Memphis on 16 August 1977. Oddly enough, Elvis’s death revived his fame.

Today he remains a hero to millions of people around the world. As a performer Elvis was most innovative at the beginning (between 1954-1958) and toward the end (1967-1972) of his career. He made his reputation mostly as a recording artist, but he was even more exciting in live performance; on stage, his famous smile, snarl, and gyrations, together with the unusual clothes he wore and his teasing personality, transformed demure young women as well as their middle-aged mothers into screaming hysterics.

Elvis’s career as a movie star mostly damaged his reputation as a musician. Although a few of his earliest films, including Jailhouse Rock, featured him as a successful actor or actor-singer, his later films were less successful and some were musical and financial disasters.

Ironically, Elvis actually improved as a singer throughout the 1960s and early 1970s. “Burning Love”, one of his few post-1960s hits, demonstrates his ever-increasing vocal skill as well as his lifelong dramatic ability to ‘put a song across’. After establishing himself in Las Vegas, Elvis employed larger and larger groups of instrumentalists and vocalists as accompanists. His successes during the early 1970s—based in part on his live performances with these ensembles, in part on his increasingly outrageous costumes— contributed to the rise of glam rock as a musical movement.



Glam rock emerged out of the English psychedelic and art rock scenes of the late 1960s and can be seen as both an extension of, and reaction against, those trends. Musically it was very diverse, varying between the simple rock and roll revivalism of figures like Alvin Stardust to the complex art rock of Roxy Music, and can be seen as much as a fashion as a musical sub-genre.

Visually it was a mesh of various styles, ranging from 1930s Hollywood glamor, through 1950s pin-up sex appeal, pre-war Cabaret theatrics, Victorian literary and symbolist styles, science fiction, to ancient and occult mysticism and mythology; manifesting itself in outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots.

Glam is most noted for its sexual and gender ambiguity and representations of androgyny, beside extensive use of theatrics. It was prefigured by the showmanship and gender identity manipulation of American acts such as The Cockettes and Alice Cooper.


 Marc Bolan


The origins of glam rock are associated with Marc Bolan, who had renamed his folk duo to T. Rex and taken up electric instruments by the end of the 1960s. Often cited as the moment of inception is his appearance on the UK TV programme Top of the Pops in March 1971 wearing glitter and satins, to perform what would be his second Top 10 hit and first #1 single "Hot Love". From late 1971, already a minor star, David Bowie developed his Ziggy Stardust persona, incorporating elements of professional make up, mime and performance into his act.

These performers were soon followed in the style by acts including Roxy Music, Sweet, Slade, Mott the Hoople, Mud and Alvin Stardust. While highly successful in the single charts in the UK, very few of these musicians were able to make a serious impact in the United States; Bowie was the major exception becoming an international superstar and prompting the adoption of glam styles among acts like Lou Reed, Iggy Pop, New York Dolls and Jobriath, often known as "glitter rock" and with a darker lyrical content than their British counterparts.


Gary Glitter


In the UK the term glitter rock was most often used to refer to the extreme version of glam pursued by Gary Glitter and his support musicians the Glitter Band, who between them achieved eighteen top ten singles in the UK between 1972 and 1976.

A second wave of glam rock acts, including Suzi Quatro, Roy Wood's Wizzard and Sparks, dominated the British single charts from about 1974 to 1976. Quatro directly inspired the pioneering Los Angeles based all-girl group The Runaways. Existing acts, some not usually considered central to the genre, also adopted glam styles, including Rod Stewart, Elton John, Queen and, for a time, even the Rolling Stones.

Punk rock, often seen as a reaction to the artifice of glam rock, but using some elements of the genre including makeup and involving covers versions of glam rock records, helped end the fashion for glam from about 1976.


Slade 1970


Slade are from the Black Country area of the West Midlands: Drummer Don Powell and bass guitarist Jim Lea were both born and raised around Wolverhampton, whilst lead guitarist Dave Hill was born in Devon but moved to Wolverhampton as a child. Lead singer Noddy Holder was born and raised in the nearby town of Walsall. In writings by and about Slade, the Trumpet public house in Bilston is mentioned frequently as a band meeting place, especially in their early days.

The group dominated the UK charts during the early 1970s. During the height of their success, Slade out-performed their chart rivals, such as Wizzard, Sweet, T. Rex, Suzi Quatro, Mud, Smokie, Gary Glitter, Roxy Music and David Bowie.

In the UK, they achieved twelve Top 5 hit singles from 1971 to 1974, six of which topped the chart. In total, Slade had seventeen Top 20 hits between 1971 and 1976 including six #1s, three #2s and two #3s. No other UK act of the period enjoyed such consistency in the UK Top 40 and Slade actually came the closest to matching The Beatles' twenty two Top 10 records in a single decade (1960s). Three of their singles entered the charts at #1 and they sold more singles in the UK than any other group of the 1970s.

By 1973 alone, "Merry Xmas Everybody" had sold over one million copies globally, and gained gold disc status. They toured Europe in 1973 and the US in 1974. Slade have released over thirty albums, three of which reached #1 on the UK Albums Chart. While Slade's attempts at cracking the United States market were largely unsuccessful, they left their mark on several US bands who cite Slade as an influence.

Kiss bassist Gene Simmons admitted that his band's early songwriting ethos and stage performance style was influenced by Slade. In his book, Kiss and Make-Up, Simmons wrote on page 85, "the one we kept returning to was Slade," and "we liked the way they connected with the crowd, and the way they wrote anthems... we wanted that same energy, that same irresistible simplicity. but we wanted it American-style".

Tom Petersson of Cheap Trick said on their From Tokyo to you DVD that his band went to see Slade perform, and that they used "every cheap trick in the book", thus inadvertently coining his group's name. Cheap Trick covered the song "When the Lights are Out" (the original appeared on Old New Borrowed and Blue) on their 2009 release, The Latest. Quiet Riot had US hits with their covers of "Cum On Feel the Noize" and "Mama Weer All Crazee Now".

The origins of Slade's influence on Quiet Riot dated back to the early 1970s, when Kevin DuBrow photographed Slade during their first Los Angeles appearances at the Whisky a Go Go. The 1970s saw the advent of two subgenres of rock - glam rock and punk rock. Both had their roots firmly in rock music but they were very different form each other. Punk rock was about rebellion and anarchy with bands like the Sex Pistols at the fore front of the movement. Glam rock was more experimental and saw the like of David Bowie lead the way. Make up, glitter and platforms were the style of choice. By the 1980s rock had evolved even further.

One of the main forms of rock in the 1980s was soft rock. Power ballads were en vogue and big hair was the order of the day. Bands like Chicago and Mr Mister were setting the tone. There was also a darker, more aggressive rock on the scene with bands like Black Sabbath gaining coverage. Towards the end of the decade we saw more American rock bands - particularly shoe-gaze rock bands - come into the scene. The term shoe-gaze was coined from the way the lead singer of such bands would perform on stage, usually staring at his feet!


ABBA 1970


ABBA was a Swedish pop music group formed in Stockholm in 1972, consisting of Anni-Frid "Frida" Lyngstad, Björn Ulvaeus, Benny Andersson and Agnetha Fältskog. They became one of the most commercially successful acts in the history of popular music, topping the charts worldwide from 1972 to 1983. ABBA sold over 375 million records worldwide, making them the fourth best-selling popular music artists in the history of recorded music.

They still sell two to three million records a year. ABBA was the first pop group from a non-English-speaking country to enjoy consistent success in the charts of English-speaking countries, including the UK, the US, Canada, Ireland, South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. As well as reaching the top of the charts in different countries like Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Peru among others, the band also released a compilation of their hit songs translated into Spanish.

During the band's existence, Fältskog and Ulvaeus were a married couple, as were Lyngstad and Andersson - although both couples later divorced. At the height of their popularity, both relationships began suffering strain that led ultimately to the collapse of first the Ulvaeus-Fältskog marriage (in 1979) and then of the Andersson-Lyngstad marriage in 1981. In the late 1970s and early 1980s these relationship changes began manifesting in the group's music, as they produced more introspective lyrics with different compositions.


John Lennon, the dream was over


During the 1960s, popular music underwent a qualitative change, through the work of The Beatles, Bob Dylan and their successors. This new and ambitious music was closely associated with the various youth and "counter-cultural" movements of the decade which with varying degrees of clarity opposed aspects of advanced capitalist society. 

But, by 1970, very little remained of this "rock revolution". According to the former Beatle John Lennon, the dream was over. For all the advocacy of alternative life-styles and Utopian idealism, the power structure remained intact. One of the few Marxist accounts of this decline suggested that it was the success of the music and the "cultural revolt of proletarian youth" which explained the impasse in which it found itself.

On the sexual and cultural front, in opposition to the authoritarianism of the family and school, the battle had largely been won. But the "latent general rejection of a complete life-situation" (which the writer considered to be concealed within the cultural revolt) could "only be released into consciousness by the passage to politics proper.

Nothing guarantees that British pop music will make this transition. Its eclipse will perhaps already be visible tomorrow." The first half of the 1970s seemed to justify this pessimism. Most of the dominant trends in pop music showed a regression from the achievements of the 1960s. At one pole was the exploitative "teenybopper" music, purveyed by well-drilled "idols" for pubescent children.

At the other, the experimental musicians of the 1960s adopted a pretentious and apolitical stance of 'artistic quality" which usually meant the use of electronic instruments and poetic verses about elves or spaceships. In between were the empty bombast of "heavy rock" and what came to be called "glamrock". This genre was a curious mixture of apocalyptic imagery and a kind of "Orwellian" social criticism, epitomised in the erratic career of David Bowie and his fascination with the paradoxes of stardom.


Sex Pistols


Punk groups, however, have produced songs about unemployment (Career Opportunities, Right To Work), the Notting Hill carnival (White Riot), the monarchy (God Save The Queen) and general expressions of an apocalyptic rebellion (Anarchy In The UK, London's Burning). Since many of these songs have not been broadcast as a result of formal or covert censorship, it is worth dealing in some detail with the most prominent of them.

God Save The Queen was released as a recording by the Sex Pistols at the height of last year's Jubilee euphoria. In a harsh, staccato style, the song expressed a cynical and critical view of the monarchy. The words veered from overstatement calculated to outrage ("God save the Queen/And her fascist regime/Made you a moron/A potential H-bomb") to succinct irony ("God save the Queen/ Cos tourists are money . . .").

The song ends on the repeated line "No future in England's dreaming", an accurate diagnosis of the surfeit of regressive nostalgia involved in the whole Jubilee process. The phrase "N.F.—No Future" was later taken up in anti-fascist propaganda, while a National Front publication described Sex Pistols' singer Johnny Rotten as a "gormless ethno-masochist".

Rotten, whose real name is John Lydon, was born in London of Irish parents. Despite radio censorship, and the refusal of multiple retailers such as Boots and W. H. Smith to stock it, the record sold over 200,000 copies and featured in the hit parade.

The abnormal, "underground" conditions which surrounded it must have added to the attention with which the record was heard by those who managed to acquire a copy. The whole episode was probably the most effective political intervention by a song since the "protest" era. It's worth noting also that the choice of the same title as the national anthem was an especially effective blow against ruling class propaganda.


The Bee Gees


The Bee Gees, the veteran Australian brothers led by songwriter Barry Gibb, who had been stars of the Sixties (A Message To You, 1968), converted to keyboards-oriented funk music with Jive Talking (1975) and You Should Be Dancing (1976), and then scored the soundtrack for the film Saturday Night Fever (? 1975/? 1977 - nov 1977), that, thanks to Staying Alive and Night Fever, launched a world-wide fad for disco-music.

The Tramps were among the first soul groups to benefit from the new fad, thanks to Disco Inferno (1977), written by veteran Philadelphia keyboardist Ron Kersey. Chic (a quintet led by black virtuoso bassist Bernard Edwards and guitarist Nile Rodgers) promoted the most abused stereotype: minimalist funk rhythm propelled by machine-like drumming (Tony Thompson) and embellished with strings and female singers. Their classic formulation of the dogma can be found in Dance Dance Dance (1977), Le Freak (1978) and Good Times (1979), three anthems of the sociopolitical decadence of the era.

Rodgers went on to become one of the most distinctive producers of dance music. The female aspect was much more relevant in disco-music than it had ever been in rock music. Several of the early disco singles were sung by women, establishing a primacy that would endure through the years. The female gay iconography owed a lot to Jamaican model Grace Jones, whose glacial, androgynous, futuristic, panther-like looks and monotonous vocals redefined the concept of elegance for the disco masses. I Need A Man (1977) was the hit that created the cult.

She represented the terminal point of a disease that had spread from the Lulu of the expressionists to Marlene Dietrich to decadence-rock. The prototypical "disco divas" were Gloria Gaynor, who pioneered the extended mix with the Isaac Hayes cover Never Can Say Goodbye.


House music


The sampling styles, electric keyboards, and sound systems that House music, techno, electro, and hip hop musicians use owe their existence to the pioneers of analogue and sample based keyboards like the Moog and Mellotron that enabled a wizardry of sounds to exist, all available at the touch of a button or key. Since the new millennium however,"house music" is known to most people as Hardcore. Although most people perceive house music to have originated from Donna Summer's "I Feel Love", fully formed electronic music tracks actually came before house.

Early American Sci-Fi films and the BBC Soundtrack to popular television series Doctor Who stirred a whole generation of techno music lovers like the space rock generation during the 1970s, influenced by the psychedelic music sound of the late 1960s and bands such as Pink Floyd, Soft Machine, Amon Duul, Crazy World of Arthur Brown, and the so-called Krautrock early electronic scene (Tangerine Dream and Klause Schulze).

Shunned by many as a "gimmick" or "children's music", it was a genre similar and parallel to the Kosmische Rock scene in Germany. Space rock is characterized by the use of spatial and floating backgrounds, mantra loops, electronic sequences, and futuristic effects over Rock structures. Some of the most representative artists were Steve Hillage's Gong and Hawkwind. Kraftwerk's 1970 classic "Ruckzuck" mixed live instruments with electric that culminated in a monotonous epic of bass, wild drums and strange sound effects.


Pink Floyd's 1971 album, Dark Side of the Moon, was highly influential on acid house with steady beats and Moog flurries. The mid-1970s saw a spattering of techno- inspired music usually through ambitious producers wishing to experiment with Moog and Mellotron type keys on more conventional rock bands such as the Steve Miller Band's 1975 track "Fly like an Eagle" which was later heavily sampled by Nightmares on Wax in 1990.

The late-1970s saw disco utilise the (by then) much developed electronic sound and a limited genre emerged, appealing mainly to a gay and/or black audience, it crossed-over into mainstream American culture following the hit 1977 film Saturday Night Fever.

As disco clubs filled there was a move to larger venues. "Paradise Garage" opened in New York in January 1978, featuring the DJ talents of Larry Levan (1954 - 1992). Studio 54, another New York disco club, was extremely popular. The clubs played the tunes of groups like The Supremes, Anita Ward, Donna Summer and Larry Levan's own hit "I Got My Mind Made Up". Drugs including LSD, poppers and quaaludes boosted the stamina of the clubbers.

The disco boom was short-lived. There was a backlash from Middle America, epitomised in Chicago radio DJ Steve Dahl's "Disco Demolition Night" in 1979. Disco returned to the smaller clubs like the Warehouse in Chicago. Opened in 1977 the Warehouse in Chicago was a key venue in the development of House music.

The main DJ was Frankie Knuckles. The club staples were still the old disco tunes but the limited number of records meant that the DJ had to be a creative force, introducing more deck work to revitalise old tunes.

The new mixing skills also had local airplay with the Hot Mix 5 at WBMX. The chief source of this kind of records in Chicago was the record-store "Imports Etc." where the term House was introduced as a shortening of Warehouse (as in these records are played at the Warehouse). Despite the new skills the music was still essentially disco until the early 1980s when the first drum machines were introduced. Disco tracks could now be given an edge with the use of a mixer and drum machine. This was an added boost to the prestige of the individual DJs.


The Rocky Horror Picture Show


The Rocky Horror Picture Show is the 1975 film adaptation of the British musical stageplay, The Rocky Horror Show. The film is a parody of science fiction and B-movie horror films. Director Jim Sharman collaborated on the screenplay with Richard O'Brien, who wrote both the book and lyrics for the stage.

The film introduces Tim Curry and features Susan Sarandon and Barry Bostwick along with cast members from the original Kings Road production presented at the Royal Court Theatre, London, in 1973. In its day it was a highly provocative, though comedic, portrayal of gay, transgender culture, a symbol of LGBT themes, as well as for underground sexual quirks.

Still in limited release 35 years after its premiere, it has the longest-running theatrical release in film history. It gained notoriety as a midnight movie in 1977 when audiences began participating with the film in theatres. Rocky Horror is the first film from a major Hollywood studio to be in the midnight movie market.

The motion picture has a large international following and is one of the most well known and financially successful midnight movies of all time. In 2005, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". P F Able.


Hip Hop culture i


Hip Hop culture is defined by the five key elements also known as the 5 pillars of hip hop which include Rapping, DJing, Breakdancing, Graffiti and Beatboxing. There is some debate over exactly when and where Hip Hop started but most historians agree that Hip hop began in the Bronx of New York City during the 1970s. The term rap is often used synonymously with hip hop, but hip hop actually denotes the entire subculture. Rapping, also referred to as MCing or emceeing, is the vocal style in which the artist speaks lyrically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized beat. The Origins Hip Hop Originated in New York City during the 1970's. Spoken word poetry artists such as Gil Scott-Heron, The Last Poets, and Jalal Mansur Nuriddin had a significant impact on the the budding hip hop culture of the 1960s and 1970s.


Hip hop became a distinct genre during the 1970s when block parties became increasingly popular in New York City particularly the Bronx. The music that came out of these block parties was influenced by the African-American, Jamaican and Latino population in the Bronx. Block parties incorporated DJ's who played popular genres of music, especially funk, disco and soul music. DJ's, realizing its positive reception, began isolating the percussion breaks of popular songs.

A major player and one of the originators of the technique was the the Jamaican-born DJ Kool Herc. Turntablist techniques, such as beat mixing/matching, scratching (seemingly invented by Grand Wizard Theodore) and beat juggling eventually developed creating a beat that could be rapped over. From there Hip Hop in its most contemporary form was born. Hip Hop blew up in the 1980's and quickly became the prominent genre of that era. In the early 1990's Gangsta Rap became the favored sub-genre of hip hop fans worldwide.

In the late 1990's and early 2000's Club Rap became the most prominent sub-genre of hip hop. Current Hip Hop Currently hip hop is in a state of crisis. Nas has been quoted saying "hip hop is dead". The genre of rap has been in the mainstream for so long that it has became pop music. While artists are forced to conform to a style of music that limits subject matter to booty booze and benjamin's there are rappers known as Underground Rappers who stay true to the roots of counter culture hip hop.

Mainstream Hip Hop Mainstream hip hop is defined by not only the sound of the music but the success of the artist. Certain mainstream artists like Gnarles Barkley and The Roots are quite famous but maintain to stay true to hip hop roots of content, artistic expression and rhymes.

Underground Hip Hop Underground hip hop not only refers to the style of rap that is against mainstream pop music but also currently describes the other elements of hip hop. Breakdancing, DJ'ing, Graffiti Art and Beatboxing are also considered Underground Hip Hop.

Hip Hop Fashion Hip Hop Fashion is one of the fastest growing sub genres of the fashion industry. With major labels like Stüssy, Rockawear, New Era and Nike pumping out massive amounts of product and promotions it is hard to watch tv, walk down the street or visit your favorite website without seeing hip hop fashion.


Brian Eno


Brian Eno (b. 1948) is a contemporary British musician and artist whose public creative career began in 1972 with his synthesizer playing for the rock group Roxy Music. Through securing a niche in the music industry and by building up an audience for his progressive rock music, Eno has been able to diversify his creative efforts considerably. He is a prime example of a new type of composer who has drawn freely on the resources of many types of music and ideas about music.

These include a variety of popular genres such as rhythm and blues and rock’n’roll, progressive rock, punk, and new wave, as well as African, Middle Eastern, and oriental styles. Also notable among his influences are minimalism, experimental new music, post-Cage avant-garde ideas, and electronic music.

Eno has combined music with visual art in the form of video and sculptural installations, has lectured on musical subjects extensively, and is the author or co-author of a number of written materials. Although he has performed live, his primary arena of operation is the recording studio, which he has called his “real instrument.” In addition to the knobs and switches of the mixing board and multi-track tape recorder, Eno plays keyboards (primarily synthesizer), guitar (primarily electric), electric bass, and a variety of percussion instruments, he is also a singer.

The scope of Eno’s musical activity is impressive. Between 1972 and 1988 he released eleven solo albums that range stylistically from progressive rock to what he has called “ambient” music – a gentle music of low dynamics, blurred edges, and washes of sound color, produced primarily through electronic means. As a songwriter he developed a technique of lyric writing based in part on the procedures of phonetic poetry.

It is on his solo albums that we may observe the unfolding of Eno’s musical personality in its purest form, in the role of composer he has been keenly interested in working with the traditionally neglected or at least downplayed realms of timbre (tone colour) and texture, and in the process of pursuing that interest has been of seminal importance in the development of the “new age” or “space music” genre. Timbre is a term that refers to the color of sound itself: it is what makes the same note played on a violin, a trumpet, or a xylophone sound different.

This aspect of musical sound can be thought of as “vertical,” since it depends to a large extent on the harmonics, or barely audible frequencies, that are stacked up “vertically” on top of the primary heard note itself. The vertical harmonic spectrum determines the color of the sound, and the way our ears and mind interpret the harmonic spectrum determines whether we hear the characteristic sound of a guitar or a flute, or whether we hear the vocal syllable “ooh” or “aah,” for example.


Adam and the Ants


An alternative to Punk  type of music appeared in London called The New Romantics. They could be identified by their Big hair and make up – both Men and Women. It was often associated with the New Wave music scene that had become popular during that time. It has seen several revivals since then, and continues to influence popular culture. Developing in London nightclubs such as Billy's and The Blitz, the movement was associated with bands such as Visage, Culture Club, Adam and the Ants, Ultravox, Duran Duran, Japan and Spandau Ballet.

Other artists, such as Brian Eno and Roxy Music had significant influence on the movement. The term New Romantic was coined by Richard James Burgess in an interview with reference to Spandau Ballet. As a whole, the movement was largely a response to the ethos and style of early punk rock, which had been enjoying widespread popularity around this time. Although punk initially had great appeal as a vehicle of self-expression and entertainment, by the final days of the 1970s, some had felt that it had lost its original excitement and degenerated into an overly political and bland movement instead.

The New Romantic image ultimately sought to contrast with the austerity of punk as a whole by celebrating artifice in music and culture as opposed to rejecting it. New Romantic music is influenced by many genres such as Disco, Rock, R&B and early electronic pop music. Since the New Romantic movement began in and was largely based in nightclubs, a great amount of the music associated with the movement was meant to be suitable for dancing.


Glam rock acts of the 1970s such as David Bowie (whose 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes" was influenced by and considered a New Romantic anthem, Roxy Music and Brian Eno have been cited as major influences on the music and image, the bands. Kraftwork, a German band pioneering electronic music, also heavily impacted many of the artists. Since each of the bands associated with the movement took a different approach to their music, it is difficult to define what constitutes New Romantic music.

Contrasting with the punk rock which was popular at the peak of the movement, New Romantic music tends to be elaborate and highly stylized. The musical structures are usually consistent with those of pop music, as are the lyrics, which are often very emotional, which deal with themes such as love, dancing, history, the future and technology.

The lyrics of New Romantic music also tend to be far more apolitical than those of punk rock or other songs written in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Many of the bands featured synthesizers and electronic drums or drum machines in their music, often alongside bass and lead guitar.

While some bands such as Ultravox or Duran Duran consciously synthesized rock and electronic elements, others such as Culture Club or Spandau Ballet drew greater influence from R&B and soul music while still employing electronic instrumentation, albeit to a lesser extent.

Some bands, such as Visage, made music that was almost entirely electronic; often many early British electronic bands such as the Human League and Depeche Mode have been connected to the New Romantic movement, although some sources, sometimes including the individual members of such bands, deny the association. During the last 25 years the New Romantic's music scene has been active and in the charts on a regular basis – Duran Duran is an example as a group who still release new music.


David Bowie


During the late 1970's Punk Rock became popular and those of us who were fans of Disco ignored punk rock as a passing fad. In the late 1970's and early 1980's as an alternative to Punk a new type of music appeared in London called The New Romantics. They could be identified by their Big hair and make up – both Men and Women.

It was often associated with the New Wave music scene that had become popular during that time. It has seen several revivals since then, and continues to influence popular culture. Developing in London nightclubs such as Billy's and The Blitz, the movement was associated with bands such as Visage, Culture Club, Adam and the Ants, Ultravox, Duran Duran, Japan and Spandau Ballet. Other artists, such as Brian Eno and Roxy Music had significant influence on the movement.

The term New Romantic was coined by Richard James Burgess in an interview with reference to Spandau Ballet. As a whole, the movement was largely a response to the ethos and style of early punk rock, which had been enjoying widespread popularity around this time.

Although punk initially had great appeal as a vehicle of self-expression and entertainment, by the final days of the 1970s, some had felt that it had lost its original excitement and degenerated into an overly political and bland movement instead. The New Romantic image ultimately sought to contrast with the austerity of punk as a whole by celebrating artifice in music and culture as opposed to rejecting it.

New Romantic music is influenced by many genres such as Disco, Rock, R&B and early electronic pop music. Since the New Romantic movement began in and was largely based in nightclubs, a great amount of the music associated with the movement was meant to be suitable for dancing.

Glam rock acts of the 1970s such as David Bowie (whose 1980 single "Ashes to Ashes" was influenced by and considered a New Romantic anthem, Roxy Music and Brian Eno have been cited as major influences on the music and image, the bands. Kraftwork, a German band pioneering electronic music, also heavily impacted many of the artists.

Since each of the bands associated with the movement took a different approach to their music, it is difficult to define what constitutes New Romantic music. Contrasting with the punk rock which was popular at the peak of the movement, New Romantic music tends to be elaborate and highly stylized.

The musical structures are usually consistent with those of pop music, as are the lyrics, which are often very emotional, which deal with themes such as love, dancing, history, the future and technology. The lyrics of New Romantic music also tend to be far more apolitical than those of punk rock or other songs written in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Many of the bands featured synthesizers and electronic drums or drum machines in their music, often alongside bass and lead guitar.

While some bands such as Ultravox or Duran Duran consciously synthesized rock and electronic elements, others such as Culture Club or Spandau Ballet drew greater influence from R&B and soul music while still employing electronic instrumentation, albeit to a lesser extent.

Some bands, such as Visage, made music that was almost entirely electronic; often many early British electronic bands such as the Human League and Depeche Mode have been connected to the New Romantic movement, although some sources, sometimes including the individual members of such bands, deny the association.


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