If you're going to San Francisco, be sure to wear some flowers in your hair... If you're going to San Francisco, Summertime will be a love-in there. On April 17, 1961, Twelve hundred Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs with the belief that they had American backup. President Kennedy decided against direct intervention and failed to provide air support for the exiles and they ultimately failed.

The Russians sent the first man into space on April 12, 1961 which alarmed all of America. NASA scrambled to catch up and finally sent the first American, Alan Shepard into space in May 1961. In October 1962, pictures from a spy plane showed Soviet missile silos being set up in Cuba. President Kennedy ordered a blockade of Cuba on October 23, 1962.

Premier Khruschev offered to remove the missiles from Cuba if the Americans removed their missiles from Turkey. On October 22, 1963, John F. Kennedy was shot and killed in a successful assassination attempt. Lee Harvey Oswald was accused of his murder but was killed by Jack Ruby before any trials could be had.

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Lyndon Baines Johnson became our 36th President after the death of JFK. LBJ was sworn in as President on November 22, 1963 and quickly built upon JFK’s beliefs. LBJ started the “Great Society” program in which he envisioned equality and total desegregation. He obtained enactment of the measures President Kennedy had been urging at the time of his death--a new civil rights bill and a tax cut.

Next he urged the Nation "to build a great society, a place where the meaning of man's life matches the marvels of man's labor." The Great Society program became Johnson's agenda for Congress in January 1965: aid to education, attack on disease, Medicare, urban renewal, beautification, conservation, development of depressed regions, a wide-scale fight against poverty, control and prevention of crime and delinquency, removal of obstacles to the right to vote.

Congress, at times augmenting or amending, rapidly enacted Johnson's recommendations. LBJ signed a civil rights law to “eliminate the last vestiges of injustice in America.” Before Johnson left office, the crisis in Vietnam arose and Johnson made strides towards peace after limiting bombing in North Vietnam.

Joan Baez

"Protest" didn't enter the mainstream vocabulary until the sixties when political messages began making their way out of coffee houses and hootenannies onto the airwaves. Music festivals doubled as peace rallies. Folk songs inspired the civil rights movement to question the authority whites. Protest songs challenged the student movement to question the authority of universities on political issues. Singers like Joan Baez encourages the women's movement to question patriarchal authority.

The sixties was brim full of artists like Bob Dylan questioning authority and fuelling the expansion of social consciousness. The Beatles were a major influence on Dylan who went from being a cultural rebel to a socially powerful voice for change. In the sixties, the role of Abbey Road as a training ground and the high standards maintained gave the studios an enviable reputation and attracted applications for work and training from engineers all over the world.

Hit records were being produced at the studios with alarming regularity. Shirley Bassey arrived from Cardiff’s Tiger Bay, Danny Williams recorded a version of Moon River which shot to No.1 in 1961. Helen Shapiro first visited Abbey Road as a teenage schoolgirl in 1961. Over the next three years she was to record 11 hit records in Abbey Road including two no.1’s, Walking Back To Happiness and You Don’t Know. In 1962 George Martin met four young men from Liverpool who were destined to change his life in the most remarkable fashion.

Ken Townsend agreed to stay behind at Abbey Road and work on a commercial test for Martin one evening, June 6 1962. Three months later The Beatles - John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr were back in Abbey Road and recording for real. They were signed up by George Martin and were about to make their first record. Love Me Do was the group’s first single.

The Beatles

Over the next seven years The Beatles were to make 90 per cent of their recordings in one or all of the rooms at Abbey Road. They went into the studios and didn’t come out until they’d finished. Ultimately The Beatles changed the recording schedule of Abbey Road. George Martin worked with The Beatles, aiming at releasing a single every three months and an album twice a year.

The results justified all the planning that took place. She Loves You, released in August 1963 reached the No.1 spot on two separate occasions, going on to become the biggest selling Beatles single of all time. In fact 1963 was a very good year for Abbey Road with 15 out of the 19 No.1’s of that year all recorded at the studios.

In 1964 The Beatles had released six singles and notched up four no.1’s to their credit but in 1965 George Martin decided to leave Abbey Road, although he continued to work as The Beatles producer. The list of artists who also entered Abbey Road during the 1960’s grew almost daily with Manfred Mann, Gerry & The Pacemakers, The Seekers, The Hollies, Cliff Bennett and The Rebel Rousers and Morecambe & Wise among the roll call.

Cilla Black had also come from Liverpool with Brian Epstein and 16 chart records including two No. 1’s Anyone Who Had A Heart and You’re My World. The Beatles had achieved many successes by June 1967 but there was one engagement which somewhat overawed them - the prospect of performing in front of an estimated 350 million people.

They had been invited to contribute to a worldwide satellite television link-up called ‘Our World’. The Beatles gathered in Studio One at Abbey Road to perform their song All You Need Is Love. 1968 will be remembered as a year of technological progress, pioneered largely due to the creative demands of The Beatles Sergeant Pepper album, done the year before. Acutely aware of the limitations which four track recording imposed, Ken Townsend invented a system whereby two four track machines could be linked together, and multitrack recording entered a new era.

The progression from four track to eight track was followed just as quickly by the introduction of 16 track and 24 track, all of which involved the use of EMI consoles which became the backbone of Abbey Road’s multitrack recording, which revolutionised the way records could be made from then on. In April 1969 The Beatles came together to record ‘Abbey Road’, their final album as a group.

After seven years they had made records which established them as the most successful pop group in the history of recording. This album became their best-selling work and put the name Abbey Road on the map once and for all.

The Rolling Stones

The sixties were a time of immense change in all areas of public and private life, often referred to as a social revolution global in scale. In the United States, for example, social change was wrought by the American civil rights movement, the rise of feminism and gay rights, invention of the microchip and formulation of Moore's Law, and even the rise of neo conservatism.

The "Sixties" has become synonymous with all the new, exciting, radical, subversive and/or dangerous (depending on one's viewpoint) events and trends of the period, which continued to develop in the 1970s, 1980s and beyond. In Africa the 60s were a period of radical change as countries gained independence from their European colonial rulers, only for this rule to be replaced in many cases by civil war or corrupt dictatorships.

Several Western governments turned to the left in the early-1960s. In the United States President John F. Kennedy was elected in 1960. Italy formed its first left of center government in March 1962 with a coalition of Christian Democrats, Social Democrats, and moderate Republicans. Socialists joined the ruling bloc in December 1963. Popular music entered an era of "all hits" as numerous singers released recordings, beginning in the 1950s, as 45-rpm "singles" (with another on the flip side), and radio stations tended to play only the most popular of the wide variety of records being made.

Also, bands tended to record only the best of their songs as a chance to become a hit record. The developments of the Motown Sound, "folk rock" and the British Invasion of bands from the U.K. (The Beatles, The Dave Clark Five, The Rolling Stones ,and so on), are major examples of American listeners expanding from the folksinger, doo-wop and saxophone sounds of the 1950s and evolving to include psychedelia music.

The rise of an alternative culture among affluent youth, creating a huge market for rock and blues music produced by drug-culture, influenced bands such as The Beatles, The Rolling Stones, The Grateful Dead, Jefferson Airplane, Janis Joplin, Jimi Hendrix Experience and The Doors, and also for radical music in the folk tradition pioneered by Bob Dylan, The Mamas and the Papas, and Joan Baez in the United States, and in England, Donovan was helping to create folk rock.

The Jimi Hendrix Experience release two albums in the United Kingdom (U.K.) during 1967 Are You Experienced and Axis: Bold as Love that innovate both guitar, trio and recording techniques.

The Beatles release the seminal 'concept' album Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band in June 1967. Bob Dylan releases the Country Rock album John Wesley Harding in December 1967, making the genre acceptable. The Monterey Pop Festival in 1967 was the apex of the so-called Summer of Love.

The Band releases the roots rock album Music from Big Pink in 1968. The Rolling Stones film the TV special Rock and Roll Circus in December 1968 which was never broadcast during its contemporary time. Considered for decades as a fabled 'lost' performance until released in North America on Laserdisc and VHS in 1995.

Features performances from The Who; The Dirty Mac featuring John Lennon, Eric Clapton and Mitch Mitchell; Jethro Tull and Taj Mahal. The Who release and tour the first rock opera Tommy in 1969. Captain Beefheart and his Magic Band release the avant garde album Trout Mask Replica in 1969. The Woodstock Festival, and four months later, the Altamont Free Concert in 1969.

The Goon Show

The Goon Show was a British radio comedy programme, originally produced and broadcast by the BBC Home Service from 1951 to 1960, with occasional repeats on the BBC Light Programme. The first series, broadcast between May and September 1951, was titled Crazy People; all subsequent series had the overall title The Goon Show. The show's chief creator and main writer was Spike Milligan.

The scripts mixed ludicrous plots with surreal humour, puns, catchphrases and an array of bizarre sound effects. Some of the later episodes feature electronic effects devised by the fledgling BBC Radiophonic Workshop, many of which were reused by other shows for decades after ward.

Many elements of the show satirised contemporary life in Britain, parodying aspects of show business, commerce, industry, art, politics, diplomacy, the police, the military, education, class structure, literature and film.

NBC began broadcasting the programme on its radio network from the mid-1950s.The programme exercised a considerable influence on the subsequent development of British and American comedy and popular culture. It was cited as a major influence by the Monty Python team, The Beatles and the American comedy team The Firesign Theater.

Christiaan Neethling Barnard was born in the town of Beaufort West, on the edge of the great Karoo, the dry and arid interior of South Africa, in 1922.His father was a preacher and there were 4 boys in the family. He did well at school , learned music and played sport, and decided on leaving school to study medicine at the University of Cape Town. The Barnard family was not wealthy but managed to secure a 3 year scholarship. He stayed with his older brother and walked to the University.

There was little money to spare and even less time for leisure. Another problem was language, as his mother tongue was Afrikaans, and he had to learn to express himself in English. After 6 years he graduated and did internship and residency at Groote Schuur Hospital and Peninsula Maternity. He then joined a colleague and moved to a small town, Ceres, and married Louwtjie. The seeds of his future career were sown when one of his patients delivered a baby boy with a heart defect which could not be remedied.

The baby died, causing him to think deeply about this and foresee the need for remedial surgery and the replacement of heart valves. In November Prof Schrire called Chris and told him that there was a suitable patient for a heart transplant. Louis Washkansky was suffering from gross heart failure with a short time to live and was prepared to take the chance.

One can say the rest is history. A series of events were set in motion which led to the first human heart transplant, a remarkable feat. A young woman, Denise Darvall, had been struck by a car and suffered severe brain damage. Her father did not hesitate when approached for permission to donate her organs. On 3 December 1967 the team emerged from 9 hours of operating and suddenly international attention was focused on Groote Schuur Hospital.

The first heart transplant could not have been achieved without the skill and support of a large team - Cardiologists, Radiologists, Anaesthetists, Technicians, Nurses, Immunologists, Pathologists, and in particular, Prof Val Schrire, head of the Cardiac Clinic. The original theatre where this transplant was performed has been turned into a museum in honour of these pioneers of medicine, and to the first donor and recipient. Professor Christiaan Barnard passed away in Cyprus, Greece on 2 September 2001 from an acute asthma attack.

Yuri Gagarin

1960 - The first working laser was demonstrated in May by Theodore Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories. 1961 - First human spaceflight to orbit the Earth: Yuri Gagarin, Vostok 1. 1962 - First trans-Atlantic satellite broadcast via the Telstar satellite.

1962 - The first computer video game, Spacewar!, is invented. 1963 - The first geosynchronous communications satellite, Syncom 2 is launched. 1963 - Touch-Tone telephones introduced. 1964 - The first successful Minicomputer, Digital Equipment Corporation&s 12-bit PDP-8, is marketed. 1965 - Sony markets the CV-2000, the first home video tape recorder. 1966 - The Soviet Union launches Luna 10, which later becomes the first space probe to enter orbit around the Moon. 1967 - First heart transplantation operation.

1967 - PAL and SECAM broadcast color TV systems start publicly transmitting in Europe. 1968 - First humans to leave Earth's gravity influence and orbit another world: Apollo 8. 1968 - The first public demonstration of the computer mouse, the paper paradigm Graphical user interface, video conferencing, teleconferencing, email, and hypertext. 1969 - Arpanet, the research-oriented prototype of the Internet, was introduced. 1969 - First humans to walk on the Moon: Apollo 11. 1969 - CCD invented at AT&T Bell Labs, used as the electronic imager in still and video cameras.

Baby Boom 1960s

In 1945, World War II ended. By 1946, American servicemen began returning home to start up the families they had had to put on hold for 4 years. Thus began the unusually large bubble in the population curve of America known as the Baby Boom, as gazillions of babies were born all of a sudden in the span of five to ten years.

Remember that all those babies born in 1946-1947 would be 18 in 1964-1965 (and eventually 22 and out of college, and into the marketplace in the early '70's, to kick off the Me Decade). What that means is that American society would suddenly find itself catering to a generation of young people in a way that had never occurred before.

Sixties rock finds its roots in several places, starting as far back as the big swing bands of the pre-war era that the 60's kids' parents listened to as youngsters: Glenn Miller, Benny Goodman, Count Basie, Tommy and Jimmy Dorsey, and Duke Ellington's bands are some of the most famous.

Except for Duke Ellington, all those bands were primarily dance bands, with big swinging backbeats. You can still hear some of their greatest hits today in such unusual places as the Chips Ahoy commercial (1,000 chips in every bag). There were also the smaller, "rhythm combo" groups, usually of only four or five players. Their tunes were popular on the jukeboxes of the day, but were not considered artistically important which is why we have mostly forgotten them today.

The recent Broadway show "Five Guys Named Moe," which highlights the career of Louis Jordan, tells about one of the most popular rhythm combos of the day. Nat King Cole also had a small jazz combo that had popular success, before he became a Sinatra-style pop ballad singer in the '50's.

Then there was Country & Western--especially what was called "Texas Swing," of which Bob Wills & the Texas Playboys was the king. Hank Williams Sr. was another important singer/songwriter of that era and genre. Over in Memphis there was Sam Phillips and his Sun Studios, where rockabilly and Elvis Presley were born. Besides Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, Carl Perkins, Johnny Cash and Roy Orbison all began their recording careers at Sun Studios.

Two other sources of modern rock'n'roll, absolutely essential to the sound we think of as 60's rock, were, first, the Blues. Blues began as the music of black sharecroppers in the poor cotton-farming region of the Mississippi Delta, and traveled north to Chicago with the sharecroppers as thousands of them moved north in search of a better life. It was in Chicago that the blues went from acoustic solo guitar music to electric guitar-electric bass-drums combos. Muddy Waters, Little Milton, B.B. King, and Howlin' Wolf were just a few of these important Chicago blues artists.

Castro 1960

From 1960 onwards, in the face of increasing hostility from the USA, Castro led Cuba into socialism and then Communism. Officials of the Batista regime were put on trial in ‘people’s courts’ and executed. The promised new elections were not held. The judiciary lost its independence when Castro assumed the right to appoint judges.

The free press was closed or taken over. Trade unions lost their independence and became part of government. The University of Havana, a former focus of dissent, and professional associations, all lost their autonomy. The democratic constitution of 1940 was never reinstated.

In 1960, the sugar centrales, the oil refineries and the foreign banks were nationalized, all US property was expropriated and the Central Planning Board (Juceplan) was established. The professional and property-owning middle classes began a steady exodus which drained the country of much of its skilled workers. CIA-backed mercenaries and Cuban émigrés kept up a relentless barrage of attacks, but failed to achieve their objective.

In March a French ship carrying arms to Cuba was sabotaged. At the burial of the victims, Castro first used the slogan, ‘Patria o Muerte’. Diplomatic relations were re-established with the USSR, North Korea and Vietnam, while China and Cuba signed mutual benefit treaties. Meanwhile, the USA cancelled Cuba’s sugar quota and put an embargo on all imports to Cuba.

At the beginning of 1961, the USA severed diplomatic relations with Cuba and encouraged Latin American countries to do likewise. This was the year of the Bay of Pigs invasion, a fiasco which was to harden Castro’s political persuasion. On 14 April 1961, some 1400 Cuban émigrés, trained by the CIA in Miami and Guatemala, set off from Nicaragua to invade Cuba with the US Navy as escort. On 15 April, planes from Nicaragua bombed several Cuban airfields in an attempt to wipe out the air force.

Seven Cuban airmen were killed in the raid, and at their funeral the next day, Fidel Castro addressed a mass rally in Havana and declared Cuba to be socialist. On 17 April the invasion flotilla landed at Playa Girón and Playa Larga in the Bahía de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs), but the men were stranded on the beaches when the Cuban air force attacked their supply ships.

Two hundred were killed and the rest surrendered within three days. The invaders’ aircraft also took a beating when 11 were shot down, including all the B-26 bombers flown from Nicaragua. A total of 1197 men were captured and eventually returned to the USA in exchange for US$53 million in food and medicine. In his May Day speech, Fidel Castro, who had personally taken control of the defence of Cuba, confirmed that the Cuban Revolution was socialist.


Carnaby-street hippie style of “swinging London,” certain mods began to emphasize the more proletarian aspects of the look, cutting their hair shorter and replacing dandified suits and expensive shoes with jeans and heavy boots. These no-frills “hard mods” prefigured the arrival of the first skinheads.

Whereas appreciation for black culture – above all American soul music but also Jamaican ska – had stood at the center of the mod way of life, the skinheads took the connection a step further; their reference point was a local symbol of cool, young Jamaican immigrants who modeled themselves on the authority-defying “rude boy” of the Kingston ghettos.

The clean, hard look of these transplanted “rude boys” fit nicely with the stripped-down elements of the hard mod style, and their evening wear echoed the earlier mod emphasis on expensive suits and nice shoes. But by far the most critical element in the symbiotic relationship between skinheads and black immigrants was music. Skinheads embraced the reggae music of Jamaican performers like Desmond Dekker as their own. Reggae artists and labels, in turn, actively courted the skinheads, producing songs and albums aimed at this young white audience.

The resulting genre – “skinhead reggae” – fueled the rise of the skinhead subculture while jump-starting the careers of many Jamaican performers in Britain. The identity of the original skinhead was thus constructed in dialogue with black immigrants and organized around music created by black performers. The decline of the original skinhead subculture by the early 1970s, and its rebirth later in the decade under the influence of punk rock, opened the way for new influences. Not only did fresh musical genres arise around which skinhead identity could coalesce – above all so-called “street punk,” or “Oi!” music.

Carnaby Street This street takes its name from Karnaby House, a large building on the east side of the street, erected in 1683 by Richard Tyler, the bricklayer responsible for the development of the eastern moiety of Six Acre Close, and by Pym, one of his associates. It is not known why the house was so called. The street was probably laid out in 1685 or 1686 and first appears in the ratebooks in 1687.

It was almost completely built up by 1690 with small houses, though there were also a number of stable buildings and a riding-house built on the site of the present Pugh's Place. The most conspicuous element among the early inhabitants were the Huguenot residents and more than one house in the street was noted in the ratebooks as being 'filled with french Protestants', who appear to have lived there rate-free. (fn. 117) Later, from 1700 to about 1721, one of the houses in the street was occupied by the girls' charity school which later moved to Boyle Street and is now the Burlington School, Shepherd's Bush.

All these first houses in Carnaby Street (described by Strype in 1720 as 'ordinary') were rebuilt in the 1720's as part of the redevelopment of the Lowndes property which followed the termination of the original building lease to Tyler and the grant of the freehold reversion of all the eastern moiety of Six Acre Close to William Lowndes in March 1722/3. Despite these large improvements Carnaby Street did not become a place of fashionable residence.

The eighteenth century inhabitants were undistinguished and in the nineteenth century the houses were nearly all in commercial occupation. A considerable amount of rebuilding took place in 1820–5, after the closure of Carnaby Market, when most of the property which Lord Craven had bought on the east side of the street between Ganton Street and Foubert's Place, was rebuilt by or under the supervision of Thomas Finden . The south end of the street has now been rebuilt with offices and warehouses in nondescript styles, and the first building of character is on the east side, in the station of the former St. James and Pall Mall Electric Light Company.

The southernmost part of this building is the earliest, a curious structure of yellow brick with red dressings, designed in a strange mixture of Victorian Gothic with Baroque details. To the north of Ganton Street on the east side are two much altered houses (Nos. 22 and 23) of early to mid eighteenth-century date, which were evidently not rebuilt after the closure of Carnaby Market; they are both four storeys high and two and three windows wide respectively. The rest of the east side of the street is occupied by two groups of buildings erected as part of the redevelopment of the market in the 1820's. On the west side there are a number of much altered Georgian buildings.


Stereo had almost completely replaced mono as the recording mode. Studios re-equipped with multi-track tape recorders, first 3-track (initially for film work) or half inch or one inch wide tape, then 4 track on one inch wide tape (later reduced to half inch). 8-track on one inch tape increased to 16-track on two inch tape. The maximum tape width has stayed at two inches but the number of tracks has increased still further to 24, 36 and even to 48 tracks.

Pre-recorded Music cassettes were released. Simple to use, the cassette format was to become very popular. However, during its first year on the market only 9000 units were sold. Philips did not protect its cassette as a proprietary technology but encouraged other companies to license its use. The pre-recorded 8 track cartridge appeared on the in-car entertainment market.

It was considered a convenient medium for this purpose because it could be inserted into the player with one hand and was a continuous loop. By 1968 around eighty-five different manufacturers had sold over 2.4 million cassette players world wide and in that year alone the cassette business was worth about $150 million. By the end of the decade, the Philips compact cassette had become the standard format for tape recording.

Vietnam Conflict peace protesters

The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the American War, occurred from 1959 to April 30, 1975. The term Vietnam Conflict is often used to refer to events which took place between 1959 and April 30, 1975.

The war was fought between the Communist-supported Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the United States supported Republic of Vietnam. It concluded with the defeat and failure of the United States foreign policy in Vietnam. Over 1.4 million military personnel were killed in the war (only 6% were members of the United States armed forces), while estimates of civilian fatalities range from 2 to 5.1 million. On April 30, 1975, the capital of South Vietnam, Saigon fell to the communist forces of North Vietnam, effectively ending the Vietnam War.

Neil Armstrong on the moon

The Soviet Union and the United States were involved in the space race. This led to an increase in spending on science and technology during this period. The space race heated up when Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin orbited the Earth and President Kennedy announced Project Apollo in 1961.

The Soviets and Americans were then involved in a race to put a man on the Moon before the decade was over. America won the race when it placed the first men on the Moon: Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, in July 1969.

Popular American movies of the 1960s include Psycho, Breakfast at Tiffany's, To Kill a Mockingbird, My Fair Lady, The Pink Panther, Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb; The Sound of Music; Doctor Zhivago, Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid; Bonnie and Clyde; Cool Hand Luke; The Graduate; Rosemary's Baby; Midnight Cowboy; Head; Medium Cool; 2001: A Space Odyssey; Easy Rider.

In Europe, Art Cinema gains wider distribution and sees movements like la Nouvelle Vague (The French New Wave); Cinéma Vérité documentary movement in Canada, France and the United States; and the high-point of Italian filmmaking with Michelangelo Antonioni, Federico Fellini and Pier Paulo Pasolini making some of their most known films during this period.

Notable films from this period include: 8½; L'avventura; La notte; Blowup; Satyricon; Accattone; The Gospel According to St. Matthew; Theorem; Breathless;Vivre sa vie; Contempt; Bande à part; Alphaville; Pierrot le fou; Week End; Shoot the Piano Player; Jules and Jim; Fahrenheit 451;Last Year at Marienbad;Dont Look Back; Chronique d'un été; Titicut Follies; High School; Salesman; La Jetée; Warrendale.

The sixties were about experimentation. With the explosion of light-weight and affordable cameras, the underground avant-garde film movement thrived. Canada's Michael Snow, Americans Kenneth Anger. Stan Brakhage, Andy Warhol, and Jack Smith. Notable films in this genre are: Dog Star Man; Scorpio Rising; Wavelength; Chelsea Girls;Blow Job; Vinyl; Flaming Creatures.

Apocalypse Now

The marriage of music and movies keeps the spirit of the sixties alive today. Movies about the era are incredibly popular. The Vietnam War is the topic most often considered, with movies like Apocalypse Now; Platoon; and Born on the Fourth of July. The influence of the counterculture and Civil Rights is common as well, as seen in movies like Across the Universe; Forrest Gump; and Malcolm X. The subject material of sixties movies is coupled with, and improved by, the music of the era. The integration of the music into a movie makes it seem more realistic and true to the time period.

Motown Record Corporation founded in 1960. It's first Top Ten hit was "Shop Around" by the Miracles in 1960. "Shop Around" peaked at number-two on the Billboard Hot 100, and was Motown's first million-selling record. The Marvelettes scored Motown Record Corporation's first US #1 pop hit, "Please Mr. Postman" in 1961. Motown would score 110 Billboard Top-Ten hits between 1961 and 1971. The Beatles went to America in 1964, spearheading the start of the British Invasion.

Bob Dylan goes electric at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival. The Beach Boys release Pet Sounds in 1966, ushering in the era of album orientated rock. Bob Dylan is called "Judas" by an audience member during the legendary Manchester Free Trade Hall concert, the start of the Bootleg recording industry follows, with recordings of this concert circulating for 30 years wrongly labeled as The Royal Albert Hall Concert before a legitimate release in 1998 as The Bootleg Series Vol. 4: Bob Dylan Live 1966, The "Royal Albert Hall" Concert.

First working laser

The history of computing hardware starting at 1960 is marked by the conversion from vacuum tube to solid state devices such as the transistor and later the integrated circuit. By 1959 discrete transistors were considered sufficiently reliable and economical that they made further vacuum tube computers uncompetitive. Computer main memory slowly moved away from magnetic core memory devices to solid-state static and dynamic semiconductor memory, which greatly reduced the cost, size and power consumption of computer devices.

Eventually the cost of integrated circuit devices became low enough that home computers and personal computers became widespread. When the first working laser was reported in 1960, it was described as "a solution looking for a problem." But before long the laser's distinctive qualities—its ability to generate an intense, very narrow beam of light of a single wavelength—were being harnessed for science, technology and medicine. Theodore Maiman made the first laser operate on 16 May 1960 at the Hughes Research Laboratory in California, by shining a high-power flash lamp on a ruby rod with silver-coated surfaces.

He promptly submitted a short report of the work to the journal Physical Review Letters, but the editors turned it down. Some have thought this was because the Physical Review had announced that it was receiving too many papers on masers—the longer-wavelength predecessors of the laser—and had announced that any further papers would be turned down.

But Simon Pasternack, who was an editor of Physical Review Letters at the time, has said that he turned down this historic paper because Maiman had just published, in June 1960, an article on the excitation of ruby with light, with an examination of the relaxation times between quantum states, and that the new work seemed to be simply more of the same. Pasternack's reaction perhaps reflects the limited understanding at the time of the nature of lasers and their significance.

Eager to get his work quickly into publication, Maiman then turned to Nature, usually even more selective than Physical Review Letters, where the paper was better received and published on 6 August. With official publication of Maiman's first laser under way, the Hughes Research Laboratory made the first public announcement to the news media on 7 July 1960.

This created quite a stir, with front-page newspaper discussions of possible death rays, but also some skepticism among scientists, who were not yet able to see the careful and logically complete Nature paper. Another source of doubt came from the fact that Maiman did not report having seen a bright beam of light, which was the expected characteristic of a laser.

I myself asked several of the Hughes group whether they had seen a bright beam, which surprisingly they had not. Maiman's experiment was not set up to allow a simple beam to come out of it, but he analyzed the spectrum of light emitted and found a marked narrowing of the range of frequencies that it contained.

This was just what had been predicted by the theoretical paper on optical masers (or lasers) by Art Schawlow and myself, and had been seen in the masers that produced the longer-wavelength microwave radiation. This evidence, presented in figure 2 of Maiman's Nature paper, was definite proof of laser action.

Shortly afterwards, both in Maiman's laboratory at Hughes and in Schawlow's at Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, bright red spots from ruby laser beams hitting the laboratory wall were seen and admired. Today, lasers are everywhere: from research laboratories at the cutting edge of quantum physics to medical clinics, supermarket checkouts and the telephone network.

East Coast DooWop

As the late fifties gave way to the early sixties, the rockabilly stars of the previous decade (the Everlys, Elvis, Roy Orbison) were still having hits, but the older pop-music stars were fading away as they struggled to find material that would click with this new and energetic generation of kids. Pop music gradually became controlled by new young "vocal"-groups, taking their power from a combination of the performer's charisma along with the songwriting talents of the production team, who operated behind the scenes.

Eventually rock artists came to be expected to write and even produce their own songs, becoming responsible for everything about how their records sounded--but that would have to wait for Marvin Gaye, Brian Wilson and Lennon & McCartney. In general there were four main pockets of early 60's pop: the East Coast DooWop and girl groups were singers and groups whose origins are in the street corner a cappella groups found in many urban centers.

With very rare exceptions, these groups did not write their own songs, but relied on their handlers to set up the recording sessions, pick the material, and produce the records. In fact, many of these behind-the-scenes people eventually became stars in their own right in the seventies.

The R&B and Soul scene included many talented people who often didn't receive the popularity of less-talented white groups, because of barriers and prejudices against buying "race" records. Later in the decade, after the British groups acknowledged their debt to soul music, and as the civil rights movement inspired black pride, the general American public rediscovered these performers.

Dale, the

The California scene was first dominated by instrumental surf groups like the Surfaris, the Crossfires, and Dick Dale & the Del-tones. Dale, the "King of Surf Guitar," in particular helped define how modern rock guitar solos would sound. Then the Beach Boys added vocal harmonies to the surf sound. This surf-&-drag, fun-in-the-sun sound was so popular that the style showed up all over the place, even in tv theme songs such as the Munsters and Hawaii Five-O.

But the real important stuff was happening in the recording studios, where young studio wizards like Brian Wilson, Phil Spector, and the team of Sloan & Barri began turning the studio itself into their instrument, looking for new sounds in a quest not for records but for productions. There were studio svengalis back east, too, including Bob Crewe and the team of Burt Bacharach & Hal David.

Modern artists like Prince, Lindsey Buckingham, and Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis who use synths and samplings, are rather like the spiritual descendants of those white suburban teenagers, taking their distinctive sound with them regardless of the particular artist they happen to be working with.

Troll dolls

Troll dolls, originally known as Leprocauns and also known as Dam dolls, Gonks, Wishniks, Treasure Trolls, and Norfins, became one of America's biggest toy fads beginning in the autumn of 1963, and lasting throughout 1965.

With their brightly colored hair and cute faces, they were featured in both Life Magazine and Time magazine in articles which commented on the "good luck" they would bring to their owners.

The troll doll is sometimes mistakenly referred to as a Kewpie doll. Trolls became fads again in brief periods throughout the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s, with as many as ten different manufacturers (such as Russ Berrie, Jakks Pacific, Applause, Hasbro, Mattel, Nyform, Trollkins and Ace Novelty) creating them. In 2003, the Toy Industry Association named Troll dolls to its Century of Toys List, a roll call commemorating the 100 most memorable and most creative toys of the 20th century.

Atom bomb exploding

Television became not only the chronicler of what was going on, but an active player in creating history during the 1960s. The impact of television rose dramatically in the 1960 presidential campaign. A tanned and relaxed looking John F. Kennedy debated a tired, gray appearing Richard Nixon, and the words of the debaters seemed less important than the contrasting images.

Dramatic television commercials—including one with an image of a child picking daisies and the atom bomb exploding—distinguished the 1964 campaign between Lyndon Johnson and Barry Goldwater. The war in Vietnam entered American homes via TV--as did the protests of anti-war youth. When protesters chanted "the whole world is watching" at the Democratic National Convention of 1968, they meant watching through the eyes of television.

Riots including the Detroit Riot of 1967 came to the eyes of Michiganians vividly and immediately. Television made its most significant impact in November 1963, when President John F. Kennedy was assassinated. Don Gardiner of ABC Radio in New York went on the air six minutes after the shots; television followed in four minutes. Almost every American who was alive and other than a babe in arms remembers where they were at that time. Television is an inseparable part of that memory and of many other memories of the decade.

Mini car
Ford Mustang

Let it be, let it be, whisper words of wisdom, let it be, croons The Beatles on someone's radio in the Sixties. In some other part of the universe, the Russians explored space and Martin Luther King Jr. led the Civil rights movement. On the same era, man landed on the moon, thus changing history books forever. The 1960s which is more popularly known as The Sixties is a time of complex political, cultural, arts and entertainment trends worldwide.

This period has been marked with revolt against the various barriers of class and age and the division of popular and high culture. Join me as we look back on the most memorable fashion trends, cars, music, films and games of the 1960s, the era which marked the dawn of the pop culture. 1. Fashion Trends Colorful coats, dyed artificial furs and attractive suits were usually worn by people as they stroll on the streets during the day. Beatle-inspired outfits, pants and boots are also getting more popular at this time. Hats were replaced by bandanas.

This was also the the time for growing hair and beards as the unisex hippies look had been gaining popularity. Class and sophistication had also been seen with memorable 1960s fashion icons such as US First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy and actress Audrey Hepburn. 2. Cars American companies built 93% of the cars sold in the US and 48% of the world sales in the 1960s. Some of the best 1960s cars include the Chevrolet Camaro, Pontiac GTO and ofcourse, the Ford Mustang. 3.

Music This period is the start of the British rock scene with The Beatles introducing soul, rhythm and blues, and surf music. Elvis hits UK and various artists have begun singing songs that range from RnB to Pop. Music has become a mirror of some of the movements during that time. 4. Films Some of the best loved classics were created in this era.

The popular 1960s movies include The Sound of Music, The Jungle Book, Mary Poppins, and 101 Dalmatians. 1960s games 5. Toys and Games Who doesn't enjoy a classic game of Twister. This classic 1960s game is still loved by everyone at present. Included in the famous 1960s toys are bowling games, Hands Down, and foldaway dollhouse.

Other sixties games include The Game of Life, Three Musketeers, and Lines of Actions. One of the biggest events that happened in this era is when Hassenfeld Brothers changed its name to Hasbro Industries, an American multinational toy and board game company famous for games like G.I. Joe, Sesame Street, Jurassic Park, Pokemon, Star Wars and Transformers.

One cannot help but look back and feel nostalgic as we think about the 1960s. It also can't be helped if at present a lot of the Sixties trends, especially in games and fashion, are making a comeback. At present, there are also websites such as 1967 that feature games for the vintage lovers. Truly, the 1960s is an era that is worth remembering.

movie palace

The theatre is a place where people may go to enjoy an opera, ballet, play or a movie. Other forms of entertainment have taken place for centuries but going to the theatre to see a movie first made it's mark in the early part of the 20th century. Throughout history, theaters have traditionally been places that people go to for entertainment. Of all of the forms of entertainment that take place in the theatres, movies are a newer art form. One of the first movie palaces was built in New York City in 1913. A movie theater was originally called a movie palace.

They were beautiful structures where silent films were shown and then later, films with sound. During this time, most theater productions were Vaudeville acts which were more expensive and harder to get seats than going to the movies.

The success of movie palaces were based on its low admission price and unreserved seating. Popcorn was first served in movie theaters in 1912 as a cheap and delicious snack. Between 1914 to 1922 there was an expansion of movie palaces. In 1907 a movie cost only five cents. This is actually where the name "Nickel"odeon came from when referring to movie palaces.

There were approximately 4,000 new theaters built in the United States built during this time. The drive-in theater was very popular during the 1950's and 1960's but they have now diminished to a few hundred around the United States.

The first multiplex for movies was built in 1963. This complex had two full screens and 700 seats. The first air conditioned movie theater was built in 1922. Many other venues were built to show movies. The first drive in theater was built in 1933 and was in the state of New Jersey. There are only a few drive-in movie theatres available today.

Drive-in movie theatres became very popular during the 1960's. Moviegoers would watch the films either in their cars or on top of the hood of their car .These were outdoor theaters were cars parked in front of an outdoor screen. They were provided with portable speakers to hear the sound or in some cases the sound came from an FM radio frequency. In 1905 in Pittsburgh, the first nickelodeon was built. This theater had five cent movies hence the name nickelodeon.

The first permanent movie house was built in 1902 in California. This theatre was a storefront setup that was part of a factory building. They soon became very popular and spread throughout the United States. In Canada, the first large scale movie theater in the world was built. This was the first time multiple movies were shown in one facility. During the 1950's and 1960's, many theaters were built across the country due to their growing popularity. The screens became bigger and the facilities became more elaborate. The theaters were built to attract more patrons.

The theaters included more comfortable seats, air conditioning and stereophonic sound systems. The number of seats a theater could hold increased. As the popularity of the movie theaters continued to go, so did the size of the facilities. Multiple restrooms and concession counters were installed. The seats were built on an elevated floor to provide visibility for all seats. Large multi-plex theaters were built around shopping centers. The lobby sizes expanded to capacity other theater rooms within the complex. The theaters had stadium seating with multiple balconies.

Early computer

It's amazing to kids that there was life before Google. How old is the internet they may ask. Only from the 1960's, how did you survive without the internet? And what no Google. It used to be how did you live before TV or color TV and now it's "How did you survive before the internet?" Indeed it's becoming more common among teenagers and even some adults not to have a TV at all.

Either they can watch TV on their laptops or desktop computers while many of the most adventurous have given up and forsaken TV altogether in search of much more accurate, relevant and timely information readily available across the wide span of the internet and World Wide Web. Such are the trends of our modern era of communications, mass media and entertainment industries.

Still what is the history of the internet before the advent of Google? The interpret as a collection and connection of computers all connected together somehow began in the later years of the decades of the 1960's. You might think that the only major events that came out of that era of the 1960's were rock music and hippies yet another major contribution of that era was that is the foundation and early development of the internet - its system and backbone.

Yet in the beginning it was not even computer geeks who were involved. A collection of scientist of and from major academic institutions wanted to be able to link together to share and exchange information as well as work on projects in a somewhat more integrated fashion. Along with the impetus the military was working towards a system for command, control and communication that would be redundant and never go down in the event of nuclear war.

Nuclear war is seemed at the time was not improbable. Through the integration of the two lines of interest and development the internet evolved, somewhat in tandem. Somehow the scientists and academics never seemed to be able to or get around to asking the crucial question of the military backers of where and how electrical power would be readily available, to power the internet, in the event of a widespread or even limited nuclear war.

However do not imagine for a moment that the internet even paralleled or was even close to what we know today and take for granted in cruising and browsing the internet. There were no "Microsoft Windows" with all its pretty icons point and click, or the Apple Macintosh GUI (Graphic User Interface). The internet at that time was not for the faint of heart, when it came to technical matters or even "plugs and play".

Instead all those who tried to use the internet, and utilize and learn its vast powers and potential had to work with was even worse than simple text. Not only was the only means of interaction and entering data into the computer only text based - that is by typing, but in addition it all appeared as endless lines of words and text scrolling by.

Forget about pictures and a simple click of the mouse. Instead to navigate the computer the user had to type commands, exactly right and correct - absolutely perfectly in arcane often inane computer languages. Commands had to be entirely precise and accurate other wise the computer, its internet connection flow or both would halt dead in the water.

Its amazing how in such a relatively short time the internet as a standardized communication tool has come to become such an integrated as well as essential component in our daily lives, our personal and business communications and in our purchases of good and services. It's as if the growth of the internet has been on steroids and fed by oxygen.

first bikini ever made

Pretty much a holiday staple for every girl at some point in their lives, the bikini made its first appearance in the modern world on French beaches in the 1940s. Although there are archaeological indications that as far back as 1600 B.C women were wearing two-piece cloths, it was designers Jacques Heim and Louis Reard who both launched the striking modern two-piece in the summer of 1946. First came Cannes couturier designer Heim, catapulting his scintillating two-piece to fame by skywriting over Cannes beach that the world's smallest bathing suit was now available to buy.

He called his design the ‘Atome' after the recently discovered atom – this tiny bathing suit was designed to shock the world! However, only three weeks later another very revealing design of just two pieces of material was being showcased along the French Riviera by Louis Reard, a French mechanical engineer who was running his mother's lingerie business at the time. He too used a skywriter to disclose that he had invented the bikini – ‘smaller than the world's smallest bathing suit.' His was made of a mere 30 inches of fabric! Reard named his design the ‘Bikini' after Bikini Reef, a small island in the South Pacific where the U.S Military were carrying out tests for a new atomic bomb.

He thought this hot topic would be sure to get him noticed and in the end it was Reard who was known as the inventor of the smallest bathing suit in the world, although it would be at least another fifteen years before the bikini would really take off. The bikini was quite scandalous when it was first introduced. It was the summer after the end of World War II, and the revealing design – whilst nothing as small as the Brazilian bikinis we see today – certainly shocked the public.

It was only during the sexual revolution of the 1960s that bikini sales soared, and since then they really haven't stopped selling. From the more modest tankini, through to the micro bikini, Rio tanga phenomenon and body boosting liquid gels, the bikini symbolises an age of frivolity, freedom and sex appeal. The bikini has also had a knock on effect on beauty industries including waxing boutiques and tanning shops.

The bikini as an iconic movie image has also been evident since the 1960s, with one of the earliest and most acclaimed images being the illustrious shot of Ursula Andress emerging from the sea in the Bond movie "Dr No" in 1962. Other influential and famous images of movie stars in bikinis include Raquel Welch in "One Million Years BC" (1966), Brigitte Bardot in "God Created Woman" and more recently Halle Berry in her chic orange two-piece in the Bond movie, "Die Another Day" (2002).

Led Zeppelin

Rock and Roll music is arguable one of the most famous music not only in the United States but also in the whole world. Rock and roll music developed in the United States in the 1940s and the 1950s and can be traced to rhythm and blues, country music, folk and gospel music, and jazz music. From the United States, this music spread to the rest of the world leading to emergence of rock music. Led Zeppelin and the Hollies are some of the most famous bands in rock music.

They have made various contributions to the development of the rock and roll music. Led Zeppelin is remembered in the books of history as one of the most famous rock and roll band. Led Zeppelin was an English band that was formed by Jimmy Page who was a guitarist, Robert Plant a vocalist, Paul Jones who was a bass guitarist and keyboardist, and John Bonham who is remembered as a leading drummer. Led Zeppelin was the first heavy metal band.

The band is also remembered for introduction fusion of different rock genres including blues, folk genres, rock, reggae, soul, funk, Indian, country, Latin, and many others (MSNBC, 2008). Unlike other bands, Led Zeppelin did not release singles but preferred releasing a whole album. Although the band was disbanded in 1980 following the death of Bonham, it is still highly regarded for its achievement in music. The band sold more than 300 million albums in the world.

It was the biggest band of the 1970s. Led Zeppelin is charted among the 10 best bands in the world history. On the other hand, The Hollies was also an English pop band which came from Manchester and formed in 1960s. The band has been known for their vocal harmony style which was to be copied by other groups as well.

Unlike Zeppelin, The Hollies is one of the few English bands of 1960s that has remained together and continue to record new songs. The band was originally formed by Allan Clarke who led vocals, guitar and harmonica, Graham Nash leading guitar and vocals, Jeremy Levine a guitarist, Erick Haydock who led bass and Don Rathbone who was a drummer. However, the band has attracted other new members in the course of time.

Some of their best songs like talking ‘bout you, Mr. Moonlight, You better move on, and others are listed to by many fans today From Brian Hyland singing "Itsy Bitsie Teenie Weenie Yellow Polka Dot Bikini" in 1960 through to women parading this saucy design on exotic Caribbean holidays and at poolside Las Vegas parties, the bikini has been titillating fashion circles for more than sixty years. Somewhat of a cultural icon, the timeless, effortless design of the two-piece is certainly here to stay.

Action Man In 1966

The kids of today might be longing to get a LeapPad Explorer or a Star Wars lightsaber for Christmas but what were the children of the 1960s hoping to unwrap? The answer to this can be found by looking at the Toy Retailers' Association (TRA) Toys of the Year list. The list was first started in 1965 when a James Bond Aston Martin car was the toy most likely to get present-loving kids shaken and stirred.

There were no toy websites for shoppers to look at in the 1960s but there were still lots of good toys around… 1966: Action Man In 1966 Action Man took his beret off to be crowned Toy of the Year – no one had ever marketed a doll for boys before and so the product's success took the toy world by storm.

The facial features on the early versions of Action Man were hand-painted. This meant that no two Action Men were ever quite the same; unfortunately some individuals had different-coloured eyes! In the late 60s, Action Man began to talk; issuing commands such as "Hold your fire until I give the order", "What's the password?" and "Give me some cover". I

nnovations such as the introduction of Eagle Eyes, a deep sea diver and space-pirate action figures have ensured that Action Man is still a force to be reckoned with today. 1967: Spirograph This geometric drawing toy ran rings (and many other shapes) around the opposition in 1967 – a year when psychedelic patterns were very much in fashion.

The innovation was invented by a British engineer named Denys Fisher and used plastic gears which children could adjust to produce different shapes on card or paper. Drawing toys based on gears had actually been around since the turn of the 20th century but none captured the public imagination as much as the Spirograph did.

It was so popular that in 1968 a version for pre-school children, the ‘Spirotot', was released. A lot of designers, architects and engineers found their vocation in life on the Christmas morning when they unwrapped a Spirograph! 1968: Sindy It is amazing to think that Sindy will be 50 in 2013 – she still looks as youthful as she appeared in 1968 and 1970 when she was Toy of the Year. Sindy's life has been dominated by her rivalry with Barbie – the American doll she was modelled on.

When Sindy hit the streets in 1963, her manufacturers emphasised just how modern she was; stressing that she had "a dog, skates and a gramophone". The slogan "the doll you love to dress" explains her appeal with fashion-conscious young girls. Accessories such as clothes, ironing boards, kitchenware and boyfriend Paul (who appeared in 1965 after Sindy had been single for two years) accounted for most of Sindy's sales success in the 1960s. More recent times have been tougher for Sindy.

When she packed her little suitcase and went off to try and crack the American market in the late 1970s she found Barbie blocking her way. Several re-launches followed – she learned to swim and her appearance was altered to try and make her look the same age as Barbie – but her rival's success grew as hers diminished. But now Sindy has gone back to doing what she does best.

Once again she looks younger than Barbie and is being marketed towards her original audience of pre-school-age girls (rather than Barbie's older fans). As she prepares to enter her sixth decade, the future is again looking bright for the "doll you love to dress". 1969: Hot Wheels It was a boy's toy's turn to win Toy of the Year in 1969.

Hot Wheels were made in America - die-cast model vehicles designed to run on plastic Hot Wheels race tracks. Evidence of how popular these cars have become can be found in the fact that collectors now refer to the first 16 Hot Wheels cars as the ‘sweet 16'. Taking scale into account, these cars could motor around their plastic tracks at speeds of 200mph – hot wheels indeed!

Kings Theatre, Southsea in 1969

As a child my first memory of visiting a theatre was at the Kings Theatre, Southsea in 1969 to see a Christmas Pantomine called Puss N' Boots. This opened up a whole new world and since, I have been to the theatre many times. One of the best shows I have seen was in London's West end to see a Musical play about Sir Winston Churchill.

The Special effects and drama was brilliant and Robert Hardy who played Winnie was excellent. Music hall and Variety Theatre was popular entertainment that featured successive acts by singers, comedians, dancers, and actors. The form derived from the taproom concerts given in city taverns in England in the 18th–19th centuries.

To meet the demand for entertainment for the working class, tavern owners often annexed nearby buildings as music halls, where drinking and smoking were permitted. The originator of the English music hall as such was Charles Morton, who built Morton's Canterbury Hall (1852) and Oxford Hall (1861) in London. Leading performers included Lillie Langtry, Harry Lauder (1870–1950), and Gracie Fields.

Music halls evolved into larger, more respectable variety theatres, such as London's Hippodrome and the Coliseum. Variety acts combined music, comedy acts, and one-act plays and featured celebrities such as Sarah Bernhardt and Herbert Tree. Before Music Hall was given its name, similar types of entertainment would have been going on for many centuries.

In essence, Music Hall brought together a variety of different acts which together formed an evening of light hearted entertainment. The origins of Music Hall are found in a number of institutions which provided entertainment in the populous towns and cities of Britain in the 1830s.

These were: - The backroom of the pub, where simple sing-songs gave way to the singing saloon concert. - Popular theatre, sometimes in pub saloons but mainly at travelling fairs. - Song & Supper Rooms, where more affluent middle class men would enjoy a night out on the town. - The Pleasure Gardens, where entertainment became more low brow as the years passed. By the 1850s, the tavern landlords had moved the entertainment function of pubs into purpose built halls; these new premises still retaining the traditional ambience of the inn.

The format of the evening was unchanged: a chairman would introduce song and dance acts onto a simple stage, whilst trying to keep order with a gavel. In all cases, eating, drinking and smoking continued throughout the performances. The audience, often exuberant with alcohol, both heckled and joined in with their favourite songs and performers.

The growth of the Halls was rapid and spread across Britain with the first great boom in the 1860s, so that by 1870, 31 large halls were listed in London and 384 in the rest of the country. This growth was not only in the number of halls, but also in the amenities and catering facilities. In addition, performers now became a professional workforce, appearing in London at several Halls each night and making frequent provincial tours. At its peak, music hall was the television of its day. Its stars were enormously popular in a way it is hard to believe nowadays.

They had their songs specially written for them, and permission would have to be sought if other performers wanted to sing them in public. After consolidation during the 1870s, music hall then started another period of expansion. The London Pavilion was restyled in 1885 and incorporated much from traditional theatre's ideas of house and stage design.

This lead to the era of the de-luxe hall or Variety theatre. Now there was fixed seating in the stalls and the performer was more distant from the audience. With the increase in costs from the introduction of safety regulations and the inflation of the star's fees, the music hall industry began to combine into a number of Syndicates. A number of nationwide chains such as Moss, Stoll and Thornton with their "Empires" and "Palaces" started to dominate the business.

Changes to licensing laws made a music and dancing licence a requirement. This allowed moral and social reformers the opportunity to challenge the style and operation of the halls; most notable in this respect was Mrs Ormiston Chant who campaigned against lax morals in the Empire, Leicester Square.

Later, there was the prohibition of drink in all new halls such that by 1909, of the 29 halls belonging to Stoll, only 8 held a drinks licence. With just a few proprietors controlling the majority of the halls, the owners attempted to extract the maximum work for minimum pay from the performers. This lead to the formation of the Variety Artists' Federation, which in 1907 organised the first music hall strike.

In 1912, music hall gained a level of respectability with the first Royal Command Performance. The London County Council, after a series of fires in theatres and music halls finally banned eating and drinking in the auditorium in 1914. From that time, the music halls simply had to be run on the same lines as theatres. After this, music hall became known by its earlier name of Variety and, with the coming of cinema and later radio, became extinct by the time of World War II.

Russia and the West had harboured mutual suspicions of one another since before the Bolshevik revolution. Russia had aggressively sought territory from European states during the long demise of the Ottoman Empire. In the mid-twentieth century the anti-Russian role that in the past been had played by Britain, France and Austria was now adopted by the US. The seeds were sown during the inter-war years - Western intervention in the Russian civil war and the view that had been adopted by many in the West that Nazism would be a bulwark against Bolshevism increased Stalin's hostility to the Western democracies.

What cemented this resentment was the fact that the West had dithered for so long to open a second front, leaving the Russians to face the full brunt of the Reich's armies, indeed many considered it to be intentionally done in order that the Germany and Russia would destroy one another. In turn the West were deeply suspicious of Russia's belligerent expansive policies and Stalin's treatment of Poland caused this divide to open even further.

Poor old Poland, if you look at a map of Europe over the past centuries you will see that it has moved about quite a lot, parts have been chopped off and parts have been added on. In the post World War II talks, Stalin insisted that Eastern Poland, seized as part of the Nazi-Soviet Pact in 1939 should remain Russian territory, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed and compensated Poland with former German territories in the West.

But Stalin also wanted the type of government that he chose to be in power in Poland, hence his refusal to help the Poles who rose in the Warsaw Rising in 1944. In January 1945 Stalin recognised the Communist dominated Lublin committee as the government of Poland as opposed to the elected body. Later that year at the Yalta conference it was agreed that the Lublin committee would be expanded to include non-communists in a Provisional Government. However, by mid-1945 all key posts were held by Communists and in a dubious election in 1947, the Communists won an overwhelming majority.

winston churchill

This process was repeated in other Eastern European countries and as the Red Army liberated Bulgaria, Rumania, Czechoslovakia and Hungary communist governments were installed. Of course another bone of contention was what to do with Germany, the Allies could not agree over this issue, showing a tremendous lack of trust in one another. They divided up Germany so that East became moulded in the image of Russia while the West followed the West.

Churchill was to define the climate of time and indeed the guts of the century when he famously declared ‘From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the continent'. No direct confrontation had yet occurred but that was all to change in Greece.

During the occupation of Greece in the Second World War the communist resistance movement (EAM) trained a guerrilla army (ELAS) with the intention of achieving a communist revolution similar to Tito's in Yugoslavia. After British forces liberated Athens in October 1944 the ELAS and the nationalist forces clashed, a truce was called in February 1945 which left some two-thirds of the country in the hands of the communists.

However, the communists fared badly at the subsequent elections in March 1946, Stalin intervened supporting a Communist rising which resulted in a renewal of the civil war. Britain could no longer support the non-communist Greek government, they pleaded to the American administration for support, who at the behest of Under-Secretary of State Dean Acheson formulated the Truman Doctrine. It was not specifically related to Greece, it was so much more than that, it illustrated that the US was finally abandoning its isolation replacing Britain as the strong power in the Middle East and the Mediterranean.

The Truman Doctrine was not confined just to Europe, indeed American involvement in South-East Asia stemmed from the Doctrine. A consequence of it was the Marshall Plan which was enunciated by General George C Marshall, US Secretary of State with a view to stopping shortages of food, fuel and raw materials which he believed would make Europe an easy prey for communism. Although Eastern bloc countries were invited to partake in the Plan, it was only the Western European states that accepted, enthusiastically creating the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC) to help in the administration of the Plan.

It proved to be a major success, with industrial production rising by twenty-five per cent in two years. Despite the evident benefits of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan, Czechoslovakia, the only Eastern European country to have retained a democratic government, joined the Soviet Bloc in 1948.

The Czechs were still disgusted with the West since the Munich sell-out of them in 1938, preferring to side with the Russians who had liberated them in 1945. However, the majority of the government was non-communist but the communists originally worked well in the system, initiating a programme of land reform and nationalisation of major industry thus making them popular with the masses.

However, the communists began purging the police force of non-communists and taking over positions of power and the non-communist foreign minister Jan Masaryk was found dead in suspicious circumstances. Eventually, the communists launched a coup d'etat, seizing power and probing a long red finger into the heart of the Western democracies.

On 25 June 1950, the North Korea launched a surprise attack that swiftly saw the capture of Seoul, overrunning nearly all of the South with the exception of the important port of Pusan. The UN found their hands were tied because of the Russian boycott so the vast majority of troops rallied to defend the South were American.

The American offensive was highly successful, regaining all territory by October 1950. They pushed on invading the North causing the Chinese to enter the war who succeeding in rolling the American forces all the way back into the South and capturing Seoul. The war now settled into a battle of attrition, peace talks began in 1951, an agreement reached in 1953 settled on the 38th parallel dividing North and South and thus returning everything very much to the way it was before the war.

To achieve this over four million Korean citizens had perished. Similarly, at the 1954 Geneva Conference Vietnam was divided along the 17th degree of latitude with the North been under the control of the communist Ho Chi Minh government.

It was seen universally as a breakthrough and a series of conferences were held throughout the rest of the fifties which led to something of a thaw in the Cold War. However it was far from a total melting as the Russian invasion of Hungary and the invasion of Suez by Britain and France attested to.

The thaw completely ended in May 1960 when a US spy plane was shot down over Russia, the crisis escalated into the Russian premier's demand that the Allies completely withdraw from Berlin, which the Allies regarded as an attempt to incorporate the entire city into East Germany. Indeed, the situation in Berlin had become worrying for the communists as tens of thousands of people arrived in reception centres in the West during 1960.

This had the effect of disgracing the supposedly socialist showpiece of East Berlin and clearing it of vast numbers of skilled personnel. Reacting to this, the East German army closed all crossings from East Berlin to the West on 13 August 1961 and in subsequent weeks erected the now infamous Berlin wall. Paradoxically, the Wall contributed to a peaceful co-existence as it removed Berlin from being one of the most dangerous issues in the Cold War, the conflict once again moved to different arenas, one of which was Cuba. In 1959, Fidel Castro's communist forces overthrew the dictatorship of Batista.

In an attempt to kick-start the economy, many American owned industries were nationalised, a move which seriously aggravated the US. They refused to purchase Cuba's main export, sugar which was in turn bought by Russia, bringing Castro closer to Moscow resulting in Russia building missile sites in Cuba which could threaten American cities. On 16 October, American spy planes procured aerial photographs showing ballistic missiles with atomic warheads which were on their way to Cuba.

US President Kennedy ordered a blockade to prevent the ships arriving reaching Cuba, after a tentative stand-off where the whole world was held in the balance, the Russians eventually withdrew, the world had come to the brink of nuclear war. Throughout the sixties the Cold War was marked by the Soviet Union and the US doing their utmost to retain their respective spheres of influence. In 1965, US President Lyndon Johnson landed troops on the Dominican Republic with a view to preventing what the US administration styled as another Cuban revolution.

In 1968, the Soviets crushed the Prague Spring of Czechoslovakia. Again in 1965, Johnson sent troops to South Vietnam to bolster the faltering anti-communist government becoming embroiled in the region for a decade. From the seventies there was an easing of tensions, a détente between the two old foes. The rise of China, Japan and Western Europe and the rise of African nationalism coupled with the disunity of the communist alliance augured a new international political world.

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