Rock and roll as the name suggested twist the feet of almost everyone. Almost every music lover has a special love for rock ‘n' roll music especially when they are in very good and rocking mood. No doubt in the fact that right from our childhood to up till now, we do have a special love for rock ‘n' roll music.

The history of rock ‘n' roll put light on the fact that it started in the early 1950s and right from then itself genres of music arrived that have hit the music industry. History of rock music tells that it is loved by almost people of every age group. Rock music is mostly loved by the youngsters.

They always try to connect themselves with the different themes of music that come up with the changing times. The history of rock music can be easily traced back to the early 1950s. A big change in the lifestyle of Americans is observed after the World War II.

The soldiers who have participated in the world war had returned back to their homes and future a drastic change in the society was observed. Looking at this ongoing trend people who are working in discos and alleyways come up with the new style of playing music. They started mixing genres of music like blues, gospel music, country and classic western and many other tradition form of music all together.

This trend was chased by the British Invasion and Golden era. At that time rock n roll music has rapidly gained popularity all over the globe. People started talking about and connecting with this newly invented form of music. Huge appreciation of rock music can be heard everywhere in almost all parts of the world.

As a result, many musicians add their own creativity and personal taste to bring new revolution in the music industry forever. Soon a new variety of music has spread its wings to all across the Europe. The era witness various English musicians and rock bands like Cliff Richards, Elvis Presley and many others who serve their best in revealing this form of music to the music lovers located all over the world.



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In the 1950s, commercialized music, or pop music, started to become globalized, a process that has accelerated since the 1960s. However, the globalization of pop music is a phenomenon that American music spreads all over the world by pushing local music out of local market.

Since then, most of the globally distributed pop music is written and performed in English by American and Britain musicians. Pop music from other countries has not seen globalization, with a small number of exceptions. Moreover, American and British pop music is much popular than the local music from other countries, especially European nations.



A smoke-filled club, the Macomba Lounge, on the South Side of Chicago, late on a Saturday night in 1950. On a small, dimly lit stage behind the bar in the long, narrow club stood an intense African American dressed in an electric green suit, baggy pants, a white shirt, and a wide, striped tie. He sported a 3-inch pompadour with his hair slicked back on the sides.

He gripped an oversized electric guitar—an instrument born in the postwar urban environment—caressing, pulling, pushing, and bending the strings until he produced a sorrowful, razor-sharp cry that cut into his listeners, who responded with loud shrieks. With half-closed eyes, the guitarist peered through the smoke and saw a bar jammed with patrons who nursed half-empty beer bottles. Growling out the lyrics of “Rollin’ Stone,” the man’s face was contorted in a painful expression that told of cotton fields in Mississippi and the experience of African Americans in Middle America at mid-century.

The singer’s name was Muddy Waters, and he was playing a new, electrified music called rhythm and blues, or R&B. The rhythm and blues of Muddy Waters and other urban blues artists served as the foundation for Elvis, the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, Jimi Hendrix, Led Zeppelin, and most other rock-and-rollers. A subtle blend of African and European traditions, it provided the necessary elements and inspiration for the birth of rock and the success of Chuck Berry and Little Richard.

Despite their innovative roles, R&B artists seldom received the recognition or the money they deserved. Established crooners, disc jockeys, and record company executives, watching their share of the market shrink with the increasing popularity of R&B and its rock-and-roll offspring, torpedoed the new music by offering toned-down, white copies of black originals that left many African-American trailblazers bitter and sometimes broken. The blues were a creation of black slaves who adapted their African musical heritage to the American environment.

Though taking many forms and undergoing many permutations throughout the years, the blues formed the basis of jazz, rhythm and blues, and rock-and-roll. Torn from their kin, enduring a brutal journey from their homes in West Africa to the American South on slave ships, and forced into a servile way of life, Africans retained continuity with their past through a variety of ways, including music. Their voices glided between the lines of the more rigid European musical scale to create a distinctive new sound. To the plantation owners and overseers, the music seemed to be “rising and falling” and sounded off-key.

The music involved calculated repetitions. In this call-and-response, often used to decrease the monotony of work in the fields, one slave would call or play a lead part, and fellow slaves would follow with the same phrase or an embellishment of it until another took the lead. As one observer wrote in 1845, “Our black oarsmen made the woods echo to their song. One of them, taking the lead, first improvised a verse, paying compliments to his master’s family, and to a celebrated black beauty of the neighborhood, who was compared to the ‘red bird.’ The other five then joined in the chorus, always repeating the same words.” Some slaves, especially those from the Bantu tribe, whooped or jumped octaves during the call-and-response, which served as a basis for field hollers.

The slaves, accustomed to dancing and singing to the beat of drums in Africa, emphasized rhythm in their music. In a single song they clapped, danced, and slapped their bodies in several different rhythms, compensating for the absence of drums, which were outlawed by plantation owners, who feared that the instrument would be used to coordinate slave insurrections. One ex-slave, writing in 1853, called the polyrhythmic practice “patting juba.” It was performed by “striking the right shoulder with one hand, the left with the other—all the while keeping time with the feet and singing.”

In contrast, noted President John Adams, whites “droned out [Protestant hymns] . . . like the braying of asses in one steady beat.” African Americans used these African musical traits in their religious ceremonies. One writer in the Nation described a “praise-meeting” held in 1867: “At regular intervals one hears the elder ‘deaconing’ a hymn-book hymn which is sung two lines at a time, and whose wailing cadences, borne on the night air, are indescribably melancholy.”

The subsequent response from the congregation to the bluesy call of the minister, along with the accompanying instruments, created the call-and-response, the rhythmic complexity, and the minor-key sound common in African music. Such African-inspired church music, later known as spirituals, became the basis for the blues, when singers applied the religious music to secular themes.

Bluesman Big Bill Broonzy, who recorded nearly two hundred songs from 1925 to 1952, started as “a preacher—preached in the church. One day I quit and went to music.” Broonzy maintained that “the blues won’t die because spirituals won’t die. Blues—a steal from spirituals. And rock is a steal from the blues. . . Blues singers start out singing spirituals.”



It was T-Bone Walker, B.B. King once said, who “really started me to want to play the blues. I can still hear T-Bone in my mind today, from that first record I heard, ‘Stormy Monday.’ He was the first electric guitar player I heard on record. He made me so that I knew I just had to go out and get an electric guitar.” T-Bone Walker was born Aaron Thibeaux Walker to musical parents on May 28, 1910, in Linden, Texas. When he was two, his family moved to Dallas. Through his church choir and his street-singing stepfather, Marco Washington, he became interested in music.

He got his nickname T-Bone at an early age. His mother called him T-Bow, a shortening of his middle name Thibeaux, and it soon became T-Bone. By the time he was 10, T-Bone was accompanying his stepfather at drive-in soft-drink stands. Around the same time, he became the “lead boy” for Blind Lemon Jefferson, who was the most popular and influential country bluesman of the Twenties. From 1920 to 1923, Walker would lead Jefferson down Texas streets. While still in his teens, Walker, who was self-taught on guitar, banjo and ukulele, toured with a medicine show and with blues singer Ida Cox.

In 1929, he began recording acoustic country blues under the name Oak Cliff T-Bone. In 1934, he moved to Los Angeles. He said he began playing amplified guitar shortly thereafter. If that is true, then he was one of the first major guitarists to go electric. And, indeed, he pioneered the electric guitar sound that helped create the blues and thus influence all popular music that followed. In 1939, Walker joined Les Hite’s Cotton Club Orchestra. It was a rough-and-tumble big band whose alumni included Dizzy Gillespie and Lionel Hampton. With the Hite band, Walker perfected his flowing, hornlike guitar licks and his mellow blues vocals.

Over the next decade, he worked with both small groups and big bands, on the West Coast and on tours through the Midwest and all the way to New York. He first recorded as T-Bone Walker in 1942 /editor’s note: no earlier, but he made the great “Mean Old World” for Capitol that year/, and the following year /editor’s note: - no it was in 1947/ he had his biggest hit, “Call It Stormy Monday,” which as “Stormy Monday Blues” or just “Stormy Monday” /editor’s notee: he ususal Earl Hines/Billy Ecksinte mix-up/ has become one of the most frequently covered blues songs. Walker recorded for Black & White Records, the label that released “Stormy Monday,” until 1947. He recorded other classics for the label, including “T-Bone Shuffle” and “West Side Lady.”

In 1950, Walker signed with Imperial Records, where he remained until 1954. At Imperial, he cut “The Hustle Is On,” “Cold Cold Feeling,” “Blue Moon,” “Vida Lee” and “Party Girl.” He then moved on to Atlantic Records. He recorded sessions in 1955, 1956 and 1959, and they were finally released in 1960 on the album T-Bone Blues. Walker’s career began to slow down during the Sixties. He made an appearance at the American Folk Blues Festival in 1962, performing with Memphis Slim and Willie Dixon, among others. In 1968, he released the album I Want a Little Girl. And, in 1971, he won the Grammy Award for Best Ethic or Traditional Folk Recording for the album Good Feelin’. In 1973, Walker climaxed his recording career with the double album Very Rare.

It was produced by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller, and they assembled an all-star cast of jazz veterans and young studio pros to honor the great bluesman. The following year, Walker became inactive after he was hospitalized with bronchial pneumonia. He died from the disease on March 16, 1975. T-Bone Walker’s single-string solos influenced blues players like B.B. King and such rockers as Eric Clapton and Stevie Ray Vaughan. As Pete Welding wrote: “T-Bone Walker is the fundamental source of the modern urban style of playing and singing the blues. The blues was different before he came onto the scene, and it hasn’t been the same since.”



As we are all aware, we live our lives in our minds, which I suppose is a good thing. However; it dawned on me today, after a friend referred to me as an old geezer, that there was a time when my happy being lived somewhere else...a place where there were no Interstates, where you could not only distinguish between a Plymouth, a Ford, a Chevrolet, and a Cadillac, but you could also proclaim your knowledge as to what year and make each one was, where I could ride my bicycle up and down almost any street, and stop at almost any house, and the lady of the house was home, and would offer me a glass of water or milk, and maybe even a cookie to go with it.

Of course, those days had their dis-advantages for us kids then, because we knew everyone withing about a ten block radius, and of course, that meant they also knew us...and where we lived! Which meant that we didn't even consider doing anything we should not do, for we knew it would somehow get back to our parents...and we sure didn't want that to happen.

If we wanted to listen to some music, we had to go home, or to a friend's house, and put a "78", or a "45" on the record player, and pray like heck that we could hear our favourite singer or music between the scratchings.

Sometimes, we would pretend that we could sing and play a musical instrument as well as they did---but every once in awhile, some adult would bring our dreams crashing down by telling us to "Will you please stop all that yelling?" And who could forget where they were when Ed Sullivan had this young, vibrant "kid" on his show, and who would become, as far as I am concerned, the greatest singer that ever lived...none other than Elvis Presley! It wasn't too long after that when I turned sixteen, and I could drive.

There were "teen towns" in those days, and since I was lucky enough that my mother taught me how to dance, I ended up joining four of them. They all convened on different evenings of the week, and therefore, I could go dancing(and meet lots of those humanoids of the female persuasion) almost every night of the week. As time went by, two things began happening that made me realize that I was not getting any younger...people began calling me "sir," and my hair began disappearing.

To my regret, I also was not smart enough to purchase a mirror that would lie to me. Time kept marching on, and like everyone else, I went through trials and tribulations of various types and degrees...and so far, my happy form of DNA is still around being a pain in the _______(you fill in the blank space) to the rest of the world.

Looking back through the misty eyes of my past, for I am now in my Autumn years, I realized that I was no different than most other folks...I just wanted to survive, and find a little happiness each day.

A little older and hopefully a little wiser, I know now that there were several "anchors" that kept me going, that motivated me to constantly strive to improve myself, and thereby become a better individual...those anchors were my family, especially my son, and lots of beautiful music.

Yep, I said music! All those fantastic notes from all those absolutely wonderful inventions called musical instruments, playing in harmony with each other, was somehow always nearby to pierce deep down and throughout my entire essence, and somehow allow me to believe that there was always another time and other possibilities tomorrow.

There is music to make us laugh, to bring tears to our eyes, to scare us, to instill pride in us, to hate, to love, to dance a Cha Cha, A Jitterbug, a Twist, and a myriad of other dances...I love almost everyone of them, but my all time favorite throughout my life has always been a Waltz.

Its hard to improve upon having a lovely lady in my arms, and flowing around a floor, or especially under the stars on a desert by ourselves. One has no choice but to think of romance on such a beautiful occasion. However, I have to admit that for all the other times of my life, this old geezer craves that good old fashioned 1950s Rock and Roll, and Elvis Presley. (J. Marshall Wade)


1950s Jukebox dancer


The name jukebox is said to be derived from African languages. Some think that Juke comes from the African word jooy which means wicked. Others say that it comes from the word joog which means dance. Without live acts jukeboxes became one of the best things to get people up dancing for nearly a century now. People loved the music to be found on them and anybody who wants to pay for the privileged is in control of what everybody in the room is listening to.

The invention brought them closer to their favorite artists. The ones they like to know their songs by heart. Jukebox manufacturers were well aware that folk will always love to have the most well known and successful music on jukeboxes. The more successful the artist and his track are the more likely it is for them to be on the playlist and be selected over and over again. Making a jukebox with popular selections more profitable for the bar or cafe owners and for the rental agencies.

Many songs have been played on them over the years, and still lingered in the memories with the help of jukeboxes. Sadly it's said that their golden era is now over. Yet many public places still have them and you can play the most popular music on them and even sometimes find old favourites like Bohemian Rhapsody or Living On A Prayer.

To pick all time favourites that have been played as jukebox hits is a very difficult task as many songs are in the memories of a lot of people out there. Everybody would have their own personal list and often very different from anybody else's.

As full size bold and colourful jukeboxes are the most evocative of the 1950s the following is a list of some of the all time favourites that would have been selected danced, sung to and enjoyed in bars, diners and cafes all over the world during the 1950s.

Picture the guys dressed in jeans and white t shirts with their hair styled with plenty of grease to make a DA or Duck's Butt and the pony tailed girls wearing bobby sox and poodle skirts. We've got the 50s feel so let's select the tracks that would have been popular on the 50s rock and roll jukebox.

1 - Peggy Sue - Buddy Holly and the Crickets 1957 2 - Heartbreak Hotel - Elvis Presley 1956 3 - Johnny B. Goode - Chuck Berry 1958 4 - Whole Lotta Shakin' Goin' On - Jerry Lee Lewis 5 - All I Have to Do Is Dream - The Everly Brothers 1958 6 - Rock Around The Clock - Bill Haley & The Comets 1955 7 - Be Bop A Lu La - Gene Vincent 1956 8 - Blueberry Hill - Fats Domino 1957 9 - To Know Him Is To Love Him - The Teddy Bears 1958 10 - Sea Cruise - Frankie Ford 1959 That wasn't easy. I've had to miss out such as Great Balls Of Fire by Jerry Lee Lewis, Pat Boone's Aint That A Shame, The Great Pretender from the Platters and That'll Be The Day from Buddy Holly And The Crickets. That's rock and roll folks!


1950s Rock an roll

It is said that music is a reflection of times in which it is created. If this is true, then the 1950's music clearly shook the world with its rock and roll. As the affects of the Second World War began to die down, a new energy was infused into the artistic minds of the generation. The arena was fertile for the birth of a new genre which would change the face of music for all times to come.

The advent of rock and roll marked the coming out of a generation which had stood strong through the years and had endured the scathing effects of two world wars. The music was energetic and created a unique niche for itself in musical history. Music is the quintessential melting pot of world culture and ethnicities and the rock and roll style was a culmination of this mélange.

Strains of music from around the globe blended together to mark the commencement of an era which would see legends being born and history being made. Everything from the jazz to the blues and even gospel music were infused together to create one of the most enduring genres of musical history.

It was a golden age where musical gods like Elvis Presley ruled the music charts and the hearts of millions around the world. As time passed it became firmly cemented into mainstream music and its dominance continued through the next decade. The early years of the fifties saw a smooth transition from the soft music of the forties to the enigmatic vitality of rock and roll.

Bill Haley raced to the top of the billboard charts with his hit "crazy man crazy" and with it the new generation in music had begun. What followed were performers like Elvis Presley with records that sold out in no time. Carl Perkins and many others were an integral part of the movement which continued well into the sixties.

While there were numerous artists who held sway during the time, the world was quite singularly mesmerized by one man who has been unarguably given the title of King of Pop was Elvis. He was set to dominate the industry and his songs continued to top the charts.

He was able to make rock and roll appealing to all who heard it and his music inculcated the rhythm and blues style which was developed in the same time. Immemorial songs like "Jailhouse Rock", "Rock around the clock", "blue suede shoes" and "Don't be cruel" were some of the hits which dominated the billboard rating for a long time to come.

The contribution of rock and roll is more significant given the time in which it appeared. The fifties saw an increasing racial tension in the United States and the civil right movement was beginning to take hold. In such a time, black performers reaching out to a white audience and white performers including African American music style was essentially a landmark. It marked the change in perception and long before actual victory over segregation could be achieved, music had already bridged two cultures and given birth to a new age.


Carl Perkins


In 1953 Lucille Ball and her real-life husband, Desi Arnaz, were starring in one of the most popular shows on American television, I Love Lucy. In January, Ball had a baby—both in real life and on her show. Her pregnancy and the birth of her baby became a national event that captivated her audience.

A prefilmed segment of the show showed Lucy and her husband going to the hospital to have the baby, and the show was broadcast only a few hours after the real birth. More than two-thirds of the nation’s television sets tuned in, an audience of around 44 million viewers. Far fewer people watched the next day when television broadcast a presidential inauguration.

I Love Lucy was so popular that some people actually set up their work schedules around the show. Marshall Field’s, which had previously held sales on the same night the show was on, eventually switched its sales to a different night. A sign on its shop window explained, “We love Lucy too, so we’re closing on Monday nights.” A relatively new medium, television had swept the nation by the mid-1950s.


Lucille Ball and her real-life husband, Desi Arnaz


Although regular television broadcasts had begun in the early 1940s, there were few stations, and sets were expensive. By the end of the 1950s, however, the small, black- and-white-screened sets sat in living rooms across the country. Television’s popularity forced the other forms of mass media—namely motion pictures and radio—to innovate in order to keep their audiences. The Rise of Television Popularity During World War II, televisions became more affordable for consumers. In 1946 it is estimated there were between 7,000 and 8,000 sets in the entire United States.

By 1957 there were 40 million television sets in use. Over 80 percent of families had televisions. By the late 1950s, television news had become an important vehicle for information. Television advertising spawned a growing market for many new products. Advertising, after all, provided television with the money that allowed it to flourish. As one critic concluded, “Programs on television are simply a device to keep the advertisements and commercials from bumping loudly together.”

Televised athletic events gradually made professional and college sports one of the most prominent sources of entertainment. Comedy, Action, and Games Early television pro- grams fell into several main categories including comedy, action and adventure, and variety-style entertainment. Laughter proved popular in other formats besides the half-hour situation comedy. Many of the early television comedy shows, such as those starring Bob Hope and Jack Benny, were adapted from popular old radio shows.

Benny enjoyed considerable television success with his routines of bad violin playing and stingy behaviour. Television watchers in the 1950s also relished action shows. Westerns such as Hopalong Cassidy, The Lone Ranger, and Gunsmoke grew quickly in popularity.

Viewers also enjoyed police programs such as Dragnet, a hugely successful show featuring Joe Friday and his partner hunting down a new criminal each week. Variety shows such as Ed Sullivan’s Toast of the Town provided a mix of comedy, opera, popular song, dance, acrobatics, and juggling.

Quiz shows attracted large audiences, too, after the 1955 debut of The $64,000 Question. In this show and its many imitators, two contestants tried to answer questions from separate glass-encased booths. The questions, stored between shows in a bank vault, arrived at the studio at airtime in the hands of a stern-faced bank executive flanked by two armed guards. The contestants competed head-to-head, with the winner returning the following week to face a new challenger.


1950sPhilco television sets


In 1956 the quiz show Twenty-One caused an uproar across the nation after Charles Van Doren, a young assistant professor with a modest income, won $129,000 during his weeks on the program. The viewing public soon learned, however, that Van Doren and many of the other contestants had received the answers to the questions in advance.

Before a congressional committee in 1959, Van Doren admitted his role in the scandal and apologized to his many fans, saying, “I was involved, deeply involved, in a deception.” In the wake of the Twenty-One fraud, many quiz shows went off the air. Hollywood Adapts to the Times As the popularity of television grew, movies lost viewers. “Hollywood’s like Egypt,” lamented producer David Selznick in 1951. “Full of crumbling pyramids.” While the film business may not have been collapsing, it certainly did suffer after the war. Attendance dropped from 82 million in 1946 to 36 million by 1950.

By 1960, when some 50 million Americans owned a television, one-fifth of the nation’s movie theaters had closed. Throughout the decade, Hollywood struggled mightily to recapture its audience. “Don’t be a ‘Living Room Captive,’” one industry ad pleaded. “Step out and see a great movie!”

When contests, door prizes, and an advertising campaign announc-ing that “Movies Are Better Than Ever” failed to lure people out of their homes, Hollywood began to try to make films more exciting. Between 1952 and 1954, audiences of 3-D films received special glasses that gave the impression that a monster or a knife was lunging directly at them from off the screen.

Viewers, however, soon tired of both the glasses and the often ridiculous plots of 3-D movies. CinemaScope, movies shown on large, panoramic screens, finally gave Hollywood a reliable lure. Wide- screen spectacles like The Robe, The Ten Commandments, and Around the World in 80 Days cost a great deal of money to produce.

These blockbusters, how- ever, made up for their cost by attracting huge audiences and netting large profits. The movie industry also made progress by taking the “if you can’t beat ’em, join ’em” approach. Hollywood eventually began to film programs especially for television and also sold old movies, which could be rebroadcast cheaply, to the networks.

Like television, the films of the fifties for the most part adhered to the conformity of the times. Roles for single women who did not want families were few and far between. For example, each of Marilyn Monroe’s film roles featured the blond movie star as married, soon to be married, or unhappy that she was not married.

Movies with African Americans routinely portrayed them in stereotypical roles, such as maids, servants, or sidekicks for white heroes. Even when African Americans took leading roles, they were often one-dimensional characters who rarely showed human emotions or characteristics. African American actor Sidney Poitier resented having to play such parts: “The black characters usually come out on the screen as saints, as the other-cheek-turners, as people who are not really people: who are so nice and good. . . . As a matter of fact, I’m just dying to play villains.”


Charles Van Doren


While Americans of all ages embraced the new mass media, some of the nation’s youth rebelled against such a message. During the 1950s, a number of young Americans turned their backs on the conformist ideals adult society promoted. Although these youths were a small minority, their actions brought them widespread attention.

In general, these young people longed for greater excitement and freedom, and they found an outlet for such feelings of restlessness in new and controversial styles of music and literature. Rock ’n’ Roll In the early 1950s, rock ’n’ roll emerged as the distinctive music of the new generation.

In 1951 at a record store in downtown Cleveland, to play the music on the air. Just as the disc jockey had suspected, the listeners went crazy for it. Soon, white artists began making music that stemmed from these African American rhythms and sounds, and a new form of music, rock ’n’ roll, had been born.

With a loud and heavy beat that made it ideal for dancing along with lyrics about romance, cars, and other themes that spoke to young people, rock ’n’ roll grew wildly popular among the nation’s teens. Before long boys and girls around the country were rushing out to buy the latest hits from such artists as Buddy Holly, Chuck Berry, and Bill Haley and the Comets.

In 1956 teenagers found their first rock ’n’ roll hero in Elvis Presley. Presley, who had been born in rural Mississippi and grown up poor in Memphis, Tennessee, eventually claimed the title of “King of Rock ’n’ Roll.” While in high school, Presley had learned to play guitar and sing by imitating the rhythm and blues.



Oldies music celebrates the history, trivia and charts of the music of the fifties, sixties and seventies. It is still alive and well. In fact, many rap artists use oldies as their background music while the rapper sings his lyrics over the oldie song...which is called sampling. Oldies is a generic term commonly used in the United States and Canada to describe a radio format that usually concentrates on Top 40 music from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.

Oldies stations as we know them today did not really come into existence until the early 1970s. The music also overlaps with classic rock which focuses on the rock music of the late 1960s and 1970s as well as newer music in a similar style. The songs are typically from the R&B, pop and rock music genres but may also include country, movie soundtrack, novelty, and other types of popular music from around 1950-on.

Oldies music, which typically feature bands and artists such as Elvis Presley, Bill Haley, Little Richard, Pat Boone, Sam Cooke, the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Rolling Stones, the Rascals, the Association, the Temptations, the Who, Elton John, and Fleetwood Mac, cover a wide variety of styles including early rock and roll, rockabilly, doo-wop, surf rock, girl groups, the British Invasion, folk rock, psychedelic rock, baroque pop, soul music, Motown, and bubblegum pop. The music has some overlap with the classic rock format, which concentrates on the rock music of the late-'60s and '70s and also plays newer material made in the same style.

The Oldies return to the era of doo-wop harmonizers, crew cut folk trios, suited balladeers, and rock 'n' roll wildmen. The songs encompass a wide range of musical styles. They often get dismissed as too tame for sophisticated modern palates, but for some, that's the genre's biggest value -- it harks back to a time that now seems innocent. Oldies bands typically perform music of the 1950's and 1960's and are great for weddings, corporate events, private parties, and outdoor summertime concerts.



The rock ’n’ roll hits that teens bought in record numbers united them in a world their parents did not share. Thus in the 1950s rock ’n’ roll helped to create what became known as the generation gap, or the cultural separation between children and their parents. The Beat Movement If rock ’n’ roll helped to create a generation gap, a group of mostly white artists who called themselves the beats highlighted a values gap in the 1950s United States.

The term beat may have come from the feeling among group members of being “beaten down” by American culture, or from jazz musicians who would say, “I’m beat right down to my socks.” The beats sought to live unconventional lives as fugitives from a culture they despised.

Beat poets, writers, and artists harshly criticized what they considered the sterility and conformity of American life, the meaninglessness of American politics, and the emptiness of popular culture. In 1956, 29-year-old beat poet Allen Ginsberg published a long poem called “Howl,” which blasted modern American life.

Another beat member, Jack Kerouac, published On the Road in 1957. Although Kerouac’s book about his freewheeling adventures with a car thief and con artist shocked some readers, the book went on to become a classic in modern American literature.



While artists such as Jack Kerouac rejected American culture, African American entertainers struggled to find acceptance in a country that often treated them as second-class citizens. With a few notable exceptions, television tended to shut out African Americans. In 1956, NBC gave a popular African American singer named Nat King Cole his own 15-minute musical variety show.

In 1958, after 64 episodes, NBC canceled the show after failing to secure a national sponsor for a show hosted by an African American. African American rock ’n’ roll singers had more luck gaining acceptance.

The talented African American singers and groups who recorded hit songs in the fifties included Chuck Berry, Ray Charles, Little Richard, and the Drifters. The latter years of the 1950s also saw the rise of several African American women’s groups, including the Crystals, the Chiffons, the Shirelles, and the Ronettes. With their catchy, popular sound, these groups became the musical ancestors of the famous late 1960s groups Martha and the Vandellas and the Supremes.

Over time, the music of the early rock ’n’ roll artists had a profound influence on music throughout the world. Little Richard and Chuck Berry, for example, music transformed generations of rock ’n’ roll bands that were to follow him and other pioneers of rock. Despite the innovations in music and the economic boom of the 1950s, not all Americans were part of the affluent society. For much of the country’s minorities and rural poor, the American dream remained well out of reach.



After 60 years or so of rock and roll history, here be inflicted with certainly been several real sensations. The Beatles of way spring at once to mind. The Rolling Stones, dip Dylan, Bruce Springsteen, U2, and the catalog goes on. But Elvis was the first rock and roll sensation and remains the utmost of all. And with the intention of is rockabilly music's utmost aver to fame.

Certainly we may possibly have a discussion in this area secure records, digit lone songs, baby book sales, weeks on the charts, and other measures of musical accomplishment. And solely as certainly you can discover someone who will argue the top ended who was the biggest sensation. But in my attitude, thumbs down topic how you slice it, Elvis still remains the sovereign.

When Elvis really secure the vista with his first rockabilly recordings in 1954, rock and roll was either in its youth or not even born yet depending in the lead whom you have a discussion to. But in any case of whether Elvis was the initially rock and roller or not, he was certainly the cat who gave the extra composition its biggest shot of energy and mandatory it to explode in the lead the world's consciousness.

This is could you repeat that? Makes him rock's biggest sensation. Elvis was a complete leader. He took the people, blues, rhythm and blues, gospel, and other musical influence with the intention of he'd absorbed all through his childhood and from with the intention of mix fashioned something thumbs down lone had always heard previous to.

And Elvis was a complete architect. To energy along with his aggressive extra musical stylishness, he had treacherous skilled looks and a sensuality with the intention of quickly caused racket with "decent" American adults. Everything in this area Elvis made the fans energy wild pro him. And yet, despite all of this, he presented himself as a worried, humble, childish toddler who spoke quietly and respectfully. He was a extraordinary paradox indeed!

This incongruity single made him more interesting and made the fans love him all the more. With the momentum of screaming fans fueling his skyrocketing career, Elvis altered unquestionably everything in this area pop composition. He was exactly could you repeat that?

The kids of the 1950s looked-for and wanted. Their parents' pop composition solely would thumbs down longer be enough. Pie Page and Perry Como couldn't converse in to the kids. Elvis may possibly swing his hip solely some time ago and he had the kids--girls and boys alike--eating made known of the palm of his furnish.

Yes, the fans went crazy pro other bands. You can hardly even hear The Beatles Playing in recordings of the Shea Stadium concert, but by with the intention of calculate screaming girls by concerts were old news. Elvis had already on paper with the intention of script.

Elvis educated thousands of musicians how to play a role, move, and go on stage. Everyone wanted to be like Elvis. And all knew they by no means may possibly be. The sovereign was a sensation thumbs down doubt. He was so in each significance of the word. And he remains today--after 60 years of rock and roll--rock's utmost sensation always.


1950s the youth of the USA

In the 1950s the youth of the USA discovered ‘rock and roll’. This was a new type of music which spread across the USA and Europe. The music had a strong dance beat and electric guitar. Many adults hated the new music and young people would claim it belonged entirely to them.

Rock and roll was a mixture of white ‘country and western’ and black ‘rhythm and blues’. Many parents did not like the fact that ‘black’ blues music was often about what they considered to be immoral behaviour. The singer who best represented this new development in popular music was Elvis Presley.

His thrusting hips and tight trousers horrified parents and delighted teenagers. Some TV companies would only film Presley from the waist up.Rock and roll evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and quickly spread to the rest of the world. Its immediate origins lay in a mixing together of various popular musical genres of the time, including rhythm and blues, gospel music, and country and western.

In 1951, Cleveland, Ohio disc jockey Alan Freed began playing rhythm and blues music for a multi-racial audience, and is credited with first using the phrase "rock and roll" to describe the music. There is much debate as to what should be considered the first rock & roll record.

One leading contender is "Rocket 88" by Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats (in fact, Ike Turner and his band The Kings of Rhythm), recorded by Sam Phillips for Sun Records in 1951. Four years later, Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" (1955) became the first rock and roll song to top Billboard magazine's main sales and airplay charts, and opened the door worldwide for this new wave of popular culture.

Rolling Stone magazine argued in 2004 that "That's All Right (Mama)" (1954), Elvis Presley's first single for Sun Records in Memphis, was the first rock and roll record. But, at the same time, Big Joe Turner's "Shake, Rattle & Roll", later covered by Haley, was already at the top of the Billboard R&B charts. Other artists with early rock and roll hits included Chuck Berry, Bo Diddley, Fats Domino, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Gene Vincent.

The 1950s saw the growth in popularity of the electric guitar, and the development of a specifically rock and roll style of playing through such exponents as Berry, Link Wray, and Scotty Moore. It also saw major developments in recording technology such as multitrack recording developed by Les Paul, the electronic treatment of sound by such innovators as Joe Meek, and the Wall of Sound productions of Phil Spector. All these developments were important influences on later rock music.


Bill Haley


Rock and roll may have helped the cause of the civil rights movement because both African American teens and white American teens enjoyed the music. However, by the early 1960s, much of the initial musical impetus and social radicalism of rock and roll had become dissipated, with the growth of teen idols, an emphasis on dance crazes, and the development of lightweight teenage pop music.

The early 60's did see the rise of the Motown sound. From 1961 to 1971, Motown had 110 top 10 hits, and artists such as Stevie Wonder, Marvin Gaye, The Supremes, The Four Tops, and The Jackson 5, were all signed to Motown labels. All five of these Motown artists have been inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

In the United Kingdom, the trad jazz movement brought visiting blues music artists to Britain. Lonnie Donegan's 1955 hit "Rock Island Line" was a major influence, and helped to develop the trend of skiffle music groups throughout the country, including John Lennon's The Quarrymen.

Britain developed a major rock and roll scene, without the race barriers which kept "race records" or rhythm and blues separate in the US. Cliff Richard had the first British rock 'n' roll hit with "Move It", effectively ushering in the sound of British rock. At the start of the 1960s, his backing group The Shadows was one of a number of groups having success with instrumentals.

While rock 'n' roll was fading into lightweight pop and ballads, British rock groups at clubs and local dances, heavily influenced by blues-rock pioneers like Alexis Korner, were starting to play with an intensity and drive seldom found in white American acts.


Marvin Gaye


Louis Armstrong was one of America’s great musical geniuses—equally outstanding and innovative as trumpeter, singer, and entertainer. He was also the leader of fine bands and composed tunes that highlighted his talents and capabilities. Almost single-handedly he transformed jazz from a music born and nourished in African American communities into a stellar art form enjoyed, respected, and performed all over the world. Scholar and music educator David Baker has delineated the following contributions and innovations by Louis Armstrong: .

He was the first great jazz soloist–improviser.He established the concept of improvisation as an integral part of a jazz solo. More than anyone else, he is responsible for jazz becoming an individual improviser’s art rather than a collective group improvisation. United States and Europe as jazz’s first popular entertainer. • He was one of the first to popularize “scat” singing. • He extended the role of the soloist by his virtuoso style, and he pioneered a wide range of dramatic effects and ices, including the terminal vibrato. • He extended the octave range of the trumpet and expanded the instrument’s technical possibilities. • By 1950 he was America’s best-known entertainer.

Louis Armstrong influenced virtually every player and singer who followed him.He established the jazz tradition of thinking in terms of vocally conceived lines, and he sang just as he played.

The renewed interest in 1950s music within the rock culture of the late 1960s pre-dates, and may have helped spur, the 1950s revival that surfaced in American popular culture a few years later, exemplified by Happy Days (premiered 1974) on television, Grease (1972) on the Broadway stage, and American Graffiti (1973) in the movies.3 Although it often idealized and distorted the music and culture of the 1950s, the rock and roll revival that began in the late 1960s was nevertheless a genuine exploration of rock’s history by its creators and fans.

The generation of rock musicians who came to prominence in the 1960s and early 1970s began mostly as rock and roll musicians, learning their craft by emulating the sounds they heard on rock and roll records, before contributing to the development of rock music. For them, the rock and roll revival entailed a return to their earliest musical experiences as both listeners and players.

Lennon, in particular, conveyed a strong sense that by playing rock and roll songs, he was digging down to the bedrock of his own artistic identity. On the recording of The Plastic Ono Band’s set at Toronto, Lennon introduces the group by saying ‘‘We’re just gonna do numbers that we know, you know, ’cause we’ve never played together before.’’

The implication is that rock and roll songs like ‘‘Blue Suede Shoes,’’ ‘‘Money,’’ and ‘‘Dizzy Miss Lizzie’’ are so basic to the vocabulary of rock that any randomly assembled group of rock musicians should be able to play them without rehearsal.


Louis Armstrong


On his album Rock ’n’ Roll, a collection of cover versions of well-known songs from the 1950s, John lennon recorded in 1973–1974 and released in 1975, Lennon reiterates this point in explicitly autobiographical terms by associating the songs with his own youth and formation as a musician. Among the many credits listed on the album’s back cover is the statement: ‘‘Relived by: JL.’’ The front cover reproduces a photograph of Lennon in Hamburg, Germany, taken when he was 22 years old.

Lennon is seen leaning against the side of an arched entryway, looking at passers-by through hooded eyes. He is dressed in the uniform associated with the British working-class subculture of rockers: black leather jacket, black jeans, and leather boots.

This photograph evokes the historical moment in the very early 1960s when many British groups, including The Beatles, found work as cover bands, churning out versions of rock and roll songs in the disreputable clubs on Hamburg’s Reeperbahn.

The songs John decided to cover on Rock ’n’ Roll were not just any old oldies. They represented his own personal musical history. John sang Buddy Holly’s ‘‘Peggy Sue’’ on Rock ’n’ Roll. The name ‘‘Beatles’’ had been inspired by Buddy Holly’s Crickets and ‘‘That’ll Be the Day’’ was the first song John learned to play on the guitar in 1957. He had sung many other Buddy Holly songs: ‘‘It’s So Easy’’ as Johnny and the Moondogs in his first TV appearance in 1959, and ‘‘Words of Love,’’ which the Beatles recorded in 1964.


John lennon


The contribution of Blues music to the development of many other genres of music is very significant. Blues was originally grown out of the hardships endured by many generations of African Americans, and first arose from the rural Mississippi region, around about the time of the dawn of the 20th century.

The style developed from work shouts (known as arhoolies), and became the vocal narrative style that we associate with blues music today. Jazz, rock music and country and western are just some of the styles that owe a lot of their progression from the original blues. The style of music known as the blues developed from work shouts (known as arhoolies), and became the vocal narrative style that we associate with blues music today. Jazz, rock music and country and western are just some of the styles that owe a lot of their progression from the original blues.

The contribution of Blues music to the development of many other genres of music is very significant. Blues was originally grown out of the hardships endured by many generations of African Americans, and first arose from the rural Mississippi region, around about the time of the dawn of the 20th century. There was by the 1920's a very particular style to Blues music, based around a three-line stanza. The stanza contained just one line of verse, repeated, and then finished with a final line of rhyming verse.

Industry was progressing, and by the 1920's Blues music was also developing - affecting the everyday lives of people involved. The style at this time included a repeating blues chord progression, which then formed the basis for the harmony. Although there were variations, the usual rule of thumb was a 12-bar pattern utilizing the 3 major chords of a scale. The text was set to a 12-bar chorus, and typically was between four and eight stanzas in length. The melody is formed, typically, by flattened third, fifth and seventh notes of the major scale.

This then forms the 'bent' notes that give Blues music its distinctive sound - enforcing the notes to have that bittersweet emotional impact that so many of us love. For the majority of blues music the focus is on the vocals - contradicting the fact that performers will often improvise instrumental solos over the Blues chord progressions. Country Blues Country blues arose from the Southern rural experience, particularly influenced by the impact of emancipation, and are often referred to as 'Delta Blues' (in tribute to the Mississippi Delta were they first originated.

Many itinerant musicians (the majority of which were men), travelled from one community to the next, singing songs that focused on freedom, sex, love, and the general sorrows of life. Classic Blues African Americans began to migrate, mainly looking for work. Areas such as Memphis and New Orleans began to become more populated, and these people brought their own brand of music with them. As they settled in these areas, it led to Blues music becoming much more urban-orientated.

The music evolved as their way of life evolved. Male or female vocalists began to appear more regularly, and there was now the addition of a single piano.

The popularity of this kind of music grew exponentially. The music industry as a whole started to take note, and more and more compositions and marketing arrangements emerged, as people began to take notice. In actual fact, what would become known as Classic Blues became so popular that many songs were released with the word 'blues' in the title to capitalize on this, even though they bared little or no relation to the style of music.

The audience also grew, and Blues became more mainstream. Throughout the country as a whole, Blues music could now be heard in dancehalls and barrooms. Electric Blues The appetite for Blues music grew and grew. The center of the Blues music world which had always been clustered around Memphis and New Orleans began to shift. Soon, cities such as Chicago were emerging as the central point for the music.

The end of the Second World War brought a new revival into the genre, and artists began to develop the music, primarily through adding a bit of extra emphasis on the bass drums and cranking up the guitar sounds. Artists like Elvis and Bill Haley began to incorporate the Blues methods into their own unique brand of rock n roll. By the 1950's this style was no longer centered around the African American community, and was universally practiced across all races.

Although this incorporation into different genres still exists today, Blues music in its own right is still going strong, with top-selling artists still maintaining the original styles. The influence of Blues music on much of the music industry as a whole is undoubted, and yet it is still evolving, and still producing exceptional music that stirs the soul of those who listen to it. Liam Gibson;



Sha Na Na also enact personae based on subcultural identities with overtones of class and, in their case, race and ethnicity, but in a spirit very different from Lennon’s. Although Sha Na Na play the music of such African-American rhythm and blues artists as the Coasters, and there was an African-American performer (Denny Greene) in the group’s original line-up, their performances revolve primarily around two stylistic reference points: the rock and roll purveyed by white southerners such as Elvis Presley and Jerry Lee Lewis, and New York doo-wop as practiced largely by working-class Italian-American singers.

Although several members of Sha Na Na typically wear gold lame´ suits associated with Elvis onstage, their visual image otherwise does not correspond to that of the earlier performers they emulate. The other main costume Sha Na Na uses is a black leather jacket-jeans-and-T-shirt outfit comparable to British rocker attire but associated in the United States primarily with the greaser.

(Sha Na Na emphasizes that association by referring to the ‘‘grease’’ they use to maintain 1950-style hairdos, which they comb continuously during their performances.) Neither the greaser outfit nor the gold lame´ suit has any specific relationship to the doo-wop that makes up the largest part of Sha Na Na’s repertoire, because doo-wop singers, both black and white, generally wore evening wear when performing.

Unlike Lennon’s rocker image, Sha Na Na’s greaser look refers neither to the performance practices associated with the music they perform nor to the typical appearance of its audiences but, rather, to a stereotypical ‘‘Italian-Americanicity’’ that has no basis in lived experience.


Sha Na Na


A very important innovation that took place in the mid 1950’s that changed the sound and feel of the drum was the advent of the synthetic drum head. All recordings made before 1957 feature the sound of drums with calfskin heads. After Remo Beli invented the plastic head, most drummers switched due to the difficulty in keeping calf in tune. On a hot, humid day, the tuning of the drum would be lower because of the moist air affecting the heads.

During the winter when it was dry, the heads would become very tight forcing the player to wet the heads in order to play on them. Calf tends to respond with a slower rebound with a stick and can feel softer and less abrasive than plastic.

With calf, if the temperature and humidity are just right, you can get a thud sound from the bass drum that is unrivaled. Brushes also sound great when played on calf heads. The sounds of the wire as they sweep across the head feel different than plastic. The heads, if cared for, tend to last longer too. The 1950’s also saw new developments and improvements in hardware design.

In 1959, Rogers Drum Company developed a tom holder with a ball and socket design called the Swiv-O-Matic permitting a player greater flexibility when positioning mounted toms on the bass drum. The nylon tip drum stick was also invented in the late 1950’s by Joe Calato. This advance helped a player increase their stick definition producing an articulate sound on a thinner, low pitched cymbal.

Like plastic drum heads, some drummers switched to nylon tip sticks while others continued using wood on calf skin heads. Buddy Rich for example loved the sound and consistency of plastic heads but preferred the sound of wood tip sticks. Mel Lewis loved calf skin heads and used them on his snare drum and bass drum but favoured nylon tip sticks on his thin K Zildjian Cymbals.


Remo Beli drums


Between the 1930s and 1950s the music of Hollywood musicals was popular culture; its stars were the idols and dreamboats of audiences; its annerisms were the art of the people. Today, musicals can look like so much fluff and silliness. They can seem absurdly dated next to the codes of irony and cynicism that dominate contemporary movies and current pop culture.

If this is so, however, the loss is ours. As out of date as some musicals may seem, there is still something wonderful in the pure joy and spectacle of movies like The Wizard of Oz (Victor Fleming, 1939), Meet Me in St. Louis (Vincente Minnelli, 1944), An American in Paris (Vincente Minnelli, 1951), or Singin’ in the Rain (Stanley Donen and Gene Kelly, 1952). In many ways, it’s good that classic Hollywood musicals aren’t made anymore.

A big, bright, and unrelentingly joyful new musical would look naïve today. This said, if we stand back from our own time just long enough to re-enter the world of song and dance, spectacle and excitement, brought to life in the classic Hollywood musical, there is much pleasure to behold. Aside from the western, the musical may be the most characteristically American genre in the history of film.

Other national cinemas have made contributions to the genre, but none have rivalled Hollywood for invention, wit, and audience appeal. For many, the musical began with the coming of sound to motion pictures.

The Jazz Singer (1927), the first fully synchronized sound picture, was essentially a musical masked as a dialogue picture. And yet, while it had ten songs, The Jazz Singer was not a musical in the true sense of the term. Critics may argue the point, but the first all-talking, all-singing, all-dancing, fully formed musical was MGM’s The Broadway Melody (1929), a film which also established the “backstage” musical, the kind of movie where the lives and loves of stage performers provide the perfect pretext for having actors launch into production numbers.

That MGM would produce the first musical is appropriate given that the studio was responsible for producing some of the most accomplished and successful pictures in the history of the genre.



In the latter half of the 1950s, concerns that Australia’s teenagers, and especially working-class teenagers, were becoming delinquent reached a crescendo. Law-abiding citizens observed with concern bodgies and widgies congregating in milk bars and on street corners.

Violence and sexual license were their hallmarks, they believed, with alarmist and sensationalist media reports having established and fuelled these understandings. Without recourse to reliable statistics, many people embraced the opinion that a substantial proportion of the country’s teenagers were uncontrollable.

Some advocated punishments such as sending ‘bodgies to the Nullarbor to work on a rail gang’ (Perth Daily News, 7 October, 1957), sending them ‘to sea under a tough [navy] skipper’ (Perth Daily News, 16 November, 1957) and inflicting harsh corporal punishment upon them. Others, however, were more concerned about the adoption of preventative measures.

Parental alcohol consumption and gambling, lack of discipline, high wages and youthful access to unsuitable comics, horror picture shows, and after 1956, rock and roll music were among the factors that generated delinquency, they suggested.

Their views, popularized by sensational press reports, contributed to a ‘moral panic’ throughout the Australian community. Australian newspaper editors have consistently promoted juvenile delinquency as a subject of concern. In the mid and late 1950s however, this concern reached a fever-pitch of irrationality.

In 1954 New York psychiatrist Fredric Wertham identified horror comics as an undesirable influence upon the social adjustment of youth. His book, Seduction of the Innocent was widely read. Like many of the ‘so-called’ causes of juvenile delinquency, the concern was not entirely without foundation.

As Mark Finnane related, in Australia, ‘at their worst, comics were pornographic, displayed excessive violence against women and ‘coloured races’ and interfered with the healthy psychosexual development of their readers’. (Finnane, 1998: 49-53). By 1955, all states except Western Australia had passed laws that effectively limited the availability of c’, (Openshaw and Shuker, 1987: 9-10; Brown,1995:189) however in the years following, concerned adults believed that many of the non-offending comics that children bought encouraged juvenile delinquency.


moral panic


During the early 1950s, the popularity of rhythm and blues music spread. It became very popular among young white people. They listened to this music on radio stations that broadcast across the country late at night. Some teenagers began buying rhythm and blues records as a form of rebellion. This music was very different from the music that was popular with most of their parents.

The music was exciting, and it had a very strong rhythm and beat. Some of the songs had words which suggested sexual themes. In other cases, the singers made sexually suggestive gestures or movements while they were singing. Some adults strongly objected to rhythm and blues music.

They did not think young people should listen to it. Alan Freed had a radio show in Cleveland, Ohio in the early 1950s. He is said to be the first person to use the expression "rock and roll" to describe rhythm and blues music. Alan Freed was one of the first to play rock and roll music on his radio show, and he organized the first rock and roll concert in Cleveland in 1952.

Songs by black performers like Fats Domino and Little Richard soon became popular with teenagers. These singers recorded their records in the southern city of New Orleans, Louisiana. Some early rock and roll music was created in the southern United States city of Memphis, Tennessee. In Memphis, a white record producer called Sam Phillips produced records by local black musicians.

One day, an eighteen-year-old truck driver came to his studio to record a song for his mother. The young man was Elvis Presley. Phillips produced Presley's first real record in 1954, a song called "That's All Right."Bill Haley and his Comets recorded "Rock Around the Clock" in 1954. It was not popular at first. Then it was used in a movie about rebellious teenagers, called "The Blackboard Jungle". The movie caused a lot of debate on the origin of rock and roll. It also made the song a huge hit. "Rock Around the Clock" became a song of teenage rebellion.

The song was recorded in April, Elvis' that's all right was recorded in July. However, Cecil's Gant's 'We're Gonna Rock' recorded in mid 1950 is a song that many people have forgotten that was an early influence on rock n roll. Its lyrics and music were like those that would be in later songs. The drums and bass guitar would be similar to rock and roll songs that would be made later. Many other rock and roll singers became popular in the 1950s.

They included Buddy Holly, Jerry Lee Lewis, Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley. Each performer created his own kind of rock and roll. Chuck Berry's music was a mixture of country and rhythm and blues. In 1955, his song "Maybellene" was one of the most popular songs in the country. Before Bill Haley, Hank Williams Sr recorded "Move It On Over" in 1947, however similar version of the song was recorded by blues artist Jim Jackson called "Kansas City Blues". The melody is similar to both "Move It On" and "Rock Around Clock", but latter has different tonal subtleties, chords key progressions.


Alan Freed


“For some of us, it began late at night: huddled under bedroom covers with our ears glued to a radio pulling in black voices charged with intense emotion and propelled by a wildly kinetic rhythm through the after-midnight static. Growing up in the white-bread America of the Fifties, we had never heard anything like it, but we reacted, or remember reacting, instantaneously and were converted. We were believers before we knew what it was that had so spectacularly ripped the dull, familiar fabric of our lives.

We asked our friends, maybe an older brother or sister. We found out that they called it rock & roll. It was so much more vital and alive than any music we had ever heard before that it needed a new category: Rock & roll was much more than new music for us.

It was an obsession and a way of life.” Robert Palmer “Rock and roll is the most brutal, ugly desperate, vicious form of expression it has been my misfortune to hear. it is written and sung for the most part by cretinous goons [and] by means of its imbecilic reiterations and sly – lewd – in fact plain dirty – lyrics … it manages to be the martial music for every sideburned delinquent on the face of the earth.” Frank Sinatra “It used to be called boogie-woogie, it used to be called blues, used to be called rhythm and blues … It’s called rock now.”

Chuck Berry “Rock ‘n’ roll, man, it changed my life. It was like the Voice of America, the real America, coming to your home.” Bruce Springsteen It’s only rock ‘n’ roll but I like it – so the song goes. But is it only rock ‘n’ roll? Clearly rock music has been a continuing thread in the fabric of post-World War II American culture.

Rock ‘n’ roll has not merely mirrored the enormous social and cultural upheavals of the mid- to late-20th century, it has shaped them as well. “Race music” – the music that shocked many white Americans in the ‘50s – yielded to provocative sounds that provided the musical soundtrack for “the sixties,” fueling the civil rights, anti-war, and other social protest movements of the turbulent era.


Wilson, Keppel and Betty


Wilson, Keppel and Betty? It is a complicated story, and like many of the tales of the stars of music hall and variety, shrouded in contradictions and myth, but I think I have untangled a basic story. Jack Wilson was born in Liverpool on January 29th, 1894. At a young age he emigrated to the United States where he made his stage debut as a high kicking dancer in 1909 in Bristol, Connecticut, before he journeyed to Australia and joined Colleano’s Circus.

He served in the Royal Navy during the First World War. Joe Keppel was a year younger, and was born on May 10th 1895 in County Cork, Ireland. As with Wilson, he emigrated to the United States at an early age, and made his stage debut in 1910 as a tap dancer with the Van Arnheim Minstrels in Albany. During the First World War he was with the RAF.

How the duo met is uncertain, and it may have been in Australia before the war, but what is certain is that they teamed up with Colleano’s Circus in Australia after being demobbed, and that they then travelled to the United States via Japan before launching their full stage career together in New York in March 1919, as a comedy acrobatic and tap dancing act.

In Wilson’s words, they were ‘“hoofers” of the “Wooden Shoe” era, playing everything from a medicine show to curtain raiser to Jewish drama’. Through hard work, diligence and skill they eventually made their way up the theatrical ladder to ‘big time Vaudeville’ in the late 1920s. In 1928 they teamed up with a dancer from Kansas.

Her name was Betty Knox, and she had formerly been a stage partner of Jack Benny. They first appeared as a trio in Des Moines, Iowa, and began to develop what was to become their famous ‘Cleopatra’s Nightmare’ sand dance routine, using Luigini’s celebrated ‘Ballet Egyptien’ ballet music, originally arranged for them by Hoagy Carmichael. They used the band parts for three decades.

Quite how and why they came up with such an act we do not know, but there was a tradition of sand dancing in the music halls, and the discovery of Tutankhamen’s tomb in 1922 had created a fashionable interest in all things Egyptian. They played at America’s top vaudeville venue, the Palace New York, in May 1932, where they were spotted by Harry Foster, who booked them for four weeks at the London Palladium, where they first appeared on August 2nd 1932, third top act to Layton & Johnstone and Roy Fox and His Band.

They were a sensation, British audiences instantly recognising the unique comedy of their po-faces, the mixture of elegance and stylee in their dancing, and the slightly risqué routines. So popular were they that they decided to settle in England, and became an established feature of British variety shows for three decades. They were chosen for the Royal Variety Performance in 1934, and were to be invited back again in 1945 and 1947.


The Mills Brothers


1950s hits .... .A-Razz-A-Ma-Tazz" - Georgia Gibbs • "All My Love (Bolero)" - Patti Page • "Are You Lonesome Tonight?" - Al Jolson • "Ballin' The Jack", recorded by o Georgia Gibbs o Danny Kaye • "Be My Love" - Mario Lanza • "Bewitched" - Doris Day • "Black Lace" - Frankie Laine • "Boo-Hoo" - Guy Lombardo • "A Bushel And A Peck" - Perry Como & Betty Hutton • "Can Anyone Explain? (No, No, No!)" - The Ames Brothers • "Chattanoogie Shoe Shine Boy" - Red Foley • "Cry Of The Wild Goose" - Frankie Laine • "Daddy's Little Girl" - The Mills Brothers • "Dear, Dear, Dear" - Frankie Laine • "Dream a Little Dream of Me" - Frankie Laine • "A Dreamer's Holiday" – Buddy Clark • "Enjoy Yourself" -

Guy Lombardo (Kenny Gardner) • "Goodnight, Irene" - The Weavers sell four million copies • "Harbor Lights" - Sammy Kaye • "Here Comes Santa Claus" - Andrews Sisters • "L'Hymne à L'Amour (Hymn To Love)" - Édith Piaf • "I Can Dream, Can't I?" – The Andrews Sisters • "I Love You For That" - Patti Page & Frankie Laine • "I Wanna Be Loved" - The Andrews Sisters • "If I Knew You Were Comin' I'd've Baked a Cake" - Eileen Barton • "I'm Movin' On" - Hank Snow • "It Isn't Fair" - Sammy Kaye (Don Cornell vocal) • "Let's Go West Again" - Al Jolson • "A Man Gets Awfully Lonesome" - Frankie Laine • "Mona Lisa" - Nat King Cole • "Music, Maestro, Please" - Frankie Laine • "Music! Music! Music!" – Teresa Brewer • "My Foolish Heart, recorded by Billy Eckstine Gordon Jenkins



During a period of about ten years between the tail end of the 1960s and that of the 1970s, youth culture had been hit by a wave of nostalgia. From the Beatles with their faux-Victorian bandleader costumes on the cover of the Sgt Pepper LP, to the 1930s stylings of groups like Fox and Sailor, to the fifties pastichery and revival, which can be seen in rock groups as diverse as Roxy Music and Mud.

The revival of interest in the 1950s was particularly interesting, as not only was it the only one that revived a period of youth culture, but it also ushered in a (mostly brief) revival in the careers of many fifties stars. This period also brought about the return of the Teddy Boys in the UK, who had been a peculiarly British cult, although other countries had similarly rebellious youth cults, such as Les Blousons Noirs in France.

The cult of the Teddy Boy had actually preceeded Rock’n’Roll in Britain by several years, and had started when a Saville Row tailor had decided to do a line in ‘Edwardian’ style suits for young, well-heeled gentlemen. The style was, however, hijacked by young working class men instead, which, like many cults since, had the blame for many of society’s ills laid squarely at its feet.

The cult of the Teddy boy had all but died out at the turn of the sixties, being replaced by the Rocker, ostensibly a less image conscious version, but with the same hoodlum qualities, perceived or otherwise.

By this time, Rock’n’Roll music was in decline, with many of its artists unable or unwilling to produce material due to all sorts of factors-from the religious conversion of Little Richard and the blackballing of Jerry Lee Lewis due to his child bride (who was also his cousin), to the tragic deaths of many of the leading figures, principally Buddy Holly and Eddie Cochran among other lesser names.

By 1960, rock and roll was a pale shadow of itself, with such lightweight idols such as Fabian and Pat Boone hitting it big. And by 1963, the Beatles and their antecedents were seen as confirmation that the old wave of Rock’n’roll was all but dead, despite the fact that many of these acts were heavily influenced by the fifties groups.


Sgt Pepper LP


Music has always been a significant part of history, including local history. Recent media coverage of the 50th Anniversary of Buddy Holly’s untimely death in an airplane crash in 1959 has certainly brought back vivid memories of that era for many of us. The various musical groups, the individual performers, the songs all tend to stir up thoughts and recollections of the past.

The memories music might invoke could include friends from the past, our family and childhood, clothing styles, major events, and more of what took place at that time in history, including in our personal lives.

Poodle skirts, pony tails, slicked back hair, and black leather jackets were all part of the fun spirit of the fifties music of Buddy Holly and Elvis Presley. By the late 1950’s Rock & Roll began to fizzle out in America.

This was due primarily to a congressional committee review of the payola scandal that swept the nation at that time. But in spite of its many detractors here in the United States, Rock & Roll began to thrive in Great Britain. Born from the ashes of this early form of American Rock & Roll of the 1950’s came a new music, a music that soon became known as the “British Invasion.” Dozens of British music groups exploded on the American musical landscape.

Paul McCartney, one of the Beatles, was the driving force behind this resurgence. The Beatles appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show in February of 1964 changed the American youth culture forever.


Buddy Holly


For Ronnie Scott and Pete King, the dream finally came true on Friday October 30th, 1959. That was the day they opened their jazz club in basement premises at 39 Gerrard Street, in London's Soho. The dream had started taking shape some 12 years earlier when Ronnie, then 20, a highly promising tenor saxophonist, blew his savings on a trip to New York to see for himself what the jazz scene there was all about. For a young jazzman from London, particularly in those early post-war years, it was like reaching Mecca.

Because of Musicians' Union restrictions, British jazz addicts in the late 1940s and 1950s had virtually no chance of hearing American jazzmen in person. And to hear them even on record meant paying out vast sums for imported 78 rpm performances of Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker and the others. For Ronnie Scott, it was "a fantastic experience."

He'd never really heard an American group as such in a proper club atmosphere. The nearest experience had been some informal London sessions featuring musicians from the Glenn Miller and Sam Donahue bands during the later war years. Scott took in most of the New York clubs during his two-week stay.

When it was finally time to return to London, the seeds of ambition were well and truly sown within his mind. He was high on American music and basked in the tremendous impression that the Three Deuces and the other clubs had made on him. There were other trips across the Atlantic, with the inevitable visits to the local jazz clubs.

There was one especially memorable night when Ronnie Scott heard the great Charlie Parker Quintet with Miles Davis at the Three Deuces. Playing next door was the Dizzy Gillespie Big Band and, late into the night, Davis sat in and blew with Gillespie. The atmosphere was electric and Ronnie Scott carried on dreaming his dreams of setting up a similar kind of club in London.


Ronnie Scott and Pete King


Scott hit his 32nd birthday early in 1959 and he and fellow tenor saxophonist and personal friend, Pete King, started looking round for suitable premises to establish a club and came up with 39 Gerrard Street, Soho. For a while it had been used as a kind of rest room for taxi drivers, and had occasionally, as a tea-bar, also been a haunt for local musicians. To begin with, the plan was simply to provide a place where British jazz musicians could jam. A loan of £1,000 from Ronnie Scott's stepfather helped Scott and King meet the immediate commitments once the lease was signed.

They took out a small advertisement in Melody Maker to announce the grand opening performance: "Tubby Hayes Quartet; the trio with Eddie Thompson, Stan Roberts, Spike Heatley. A young alto saxophonist, Peter King, and an old tenor saxophonist, Ronnie Scott. The first appearance in a jazz club since the relief of Mafeking by Jack Parnell".

The long-time Scott policy of mixing jazz ideals with light comedy relief was already showing through In the summer of 1965 Scott and King found the ideal place, at 47 Frith Street, only a short walk from the "old place".

Where £1,000 had covered the bulk of the expense of setting up the original premises, they were now faced with having to find around £35.000 to convert and decorate the new hall.. Then some of the light went out of British Jazz on December 23rd 1996. Ronnie Scott at age 69 unexpectedly died. A long-time heavy smoker, Scott suffered from considerable ill health during his last two years. A thrombosis and two operations on his legs, before he suffered teeth problems. For a saxophone player teeth troubles can be a disaster.

He was advised to have teeth implants, a painful and time-consuming course of treatment, which if successful can be very effective. Scott expected to be out of action for about a year but there were unforeseen complications, which extended the time he was unable to blow and practice.

The final straw was when they came to put the top teeth in and the bone structure wasn't large enough to take them. He started to drink Brandy coupled with the ultra strong sleeping tablets prescribed by his dentist, although most of his life he had been teetotal. This dangerous combination was eventually to cause his untimely death. Despite the speculation in the press at the time, due to the fact that Ronnie did sometimes suffer from depression, the coroner's verdict was Death by misadventure.



R&B music can be traced back to spirituals and blues. Musically, spirituals were a descendant of New England choral traditions, and of Isaac Watts's hymns, mixed with African rhythms. Spirituals or religious chants in the African-American community are much better documented than the "low-down" blues. Spiritual singing developed because African-American communities could gather for mass or worship gatherings, which were called camp meetings.

Early country bluesmen such as Skip James, Charley Patton, Georgia Tom Dorsey played country and urban blues and had influences from spiritual singing. Dorsey helped to popularize Gospel music. Gospel music developed in the 1930s, with the Golden Gate Quartet.

As the recording industry grew, country blues performers like Bo Carter, Jimmie Rodgers (country singer), Blind Lemon Jefferson, Lonnie Johnson, Tampa Red and Blind Blake became more popular in the African American community. Kentucky-born Sylvester Weaver was in 1923 the first to record the slide guitar style, in which a guitar is fretted with a knife blade or the sawed-off neck of a bottle.

The first blues recordings from the 1920s are categorized as a traditional, rural country blues and a more polished 'city' or urban blues. Country blues performers often improvised, either without accompaniment or with only a banjo or guitar. Regional styles of country blues varied widely in the early 20th century. The (Mississippi) Delta blues was a rootsy sparse style with passionate vocals accompanied by slide guitar.

This rapidly evolving market was mirrored by the Billboard Rhythm and Blues Chart. This marketing strategy reinforced trends within urban blues music such as the progressive electrification of the instruments, their amplification and the generalization of the blues beat, the blues shuffle, that became ubiquitous in R&B. This commercial stream had important consequences for blues music which, together with Jazz and Gospel music, became a component of the R&B wave.

After World War II and in the 1950s, new styles of electric blues music became popular in cities such as Chicago, also used saxophones, but these were used more as "backing" or rhythmic support than as solo instruments. Little Walter and Sonny Boy Williamson are well known harmonica (called "harp" by blues musicians) players of the early Chicago blues scene. Muddy Waters and Elmore James were known for their innovative use of slide electric guitar.

Howlin' Wolf and Muddy Waters were known for their deep, "gravelly" voices. Bassist and composer Willie Dixon played a major role on the Chicago blues scene. He composed and wrote many standard blues songs of the period. Most artists of the Chicago blues style recorded for the Chicago-based Chess Records and Checker Records labels.

During the early 1950s, the dominating Chicago labels were challenged by Sam Phillips' Sun Records company in Memphis, which recorded B. B. King and Howlin' Wolf before he moved to Chicago in 1960. In the 1950s, blues had a huge influence on mainstream American popular music. In the late 1950s, a new blues style emerged on Chicago's West Side pioneered by Magic Sam, Buddy Guy and Otis Rush on Cobra Records.

Other blues artists, such as John Lee Hooker had influences not directly related to the Chicago style. John Lee Hooker's blues is more "personal", based on Hooker's deep rough voice accompanied by a single electric guitar. Though not directly influenced by boogie woogie, his "groovy" style is sometimes called "guitar boogie". White performers had brought African-American music to new audiences, both within the US and abroad.

However, the blues wave that brought artists such as Muddy Waters to the foreground had stopped. Bluesmen such as Big Bill Broonzy and Willie Dixon started looking for new markets in Europe. Dick Waterman and the blues festivals he organized in Europe played a major role in propagating blues music abroad.

Blues performers such as John Lee Hooker and Muddy Waters continued to perform to enthusiastic audiences. John Lee Hooker blended his blues style with rock elements and playing with younger white musicians. B. B. King's virtuoso guitar technique earned him the eponymous title "king of the blues". many Rock and Roll artists such as Elvis Presley were greatly influenced by the blues and incorperated it into their music.


Tom Dorsey


Today, people are crazy about music. They want to listen their favourite music whenever they have leisure time. Music is created to give you pleasure. The fascinating world of music lets you enjoy music in one form or other. There are various types of music these days: pop music, folk music, jazz music and rock music. All these type of music are enjoyable to hear. The songs take you through different emotions. Rock music is loud and fast than anything you've heard before.

In 1960, British and American rock bands became popular. Bands like Alice Cooper, Judas Priest, Queen, Black Sabbath, etc. are some of the famous bands. In 1980,the genre that was quite popular was glam metal. The various artists like Twisted Sister, Guns N' Roses, Bon Jovi, Queen, Kiss, Sweet and the New York Dolls were the artists of 1980's.

This type of music became popular in the 1950s in America and Europe. This famous music is mainly based on older musical styles like the rhythm and blues music originated by African American performers such as Chuck Berry and Little Richard. The music has a heavy focus on guitar, drums and powerful vocals. The most popular artist of rock music in the early days was Elvis Presley.

His dance and powerful music can surprise anyone. "The Beatles" became successful in the 1960's. This group was inspired by Blues and rhythm. Rock music is evolving itself and coming in a variety of styles. Other music forms like heavy metal are also a form of rock music. Some of the heavy metal bands include Metallic and Megadeth. Rock music comes in a wide range of forms like soft pop and heavy metal. This "Rock 'N Roll" type of music became popular in 1950s and 1960s.

This new sound came from many musical styles. In the initial days, this music was admired only in small clubs and on radio. Afterwards, it became famous with the programs like American Bandstand. Then, people could view their favourite bands on the television. Many people criticised about this type of music as they did not like the loud and fast lyrics. Rock music began with jazz music, blues tunes, etc.

It also featured electrically amplified guitars, drummers and harmonicas. By the mid-1950, performers like Chuck Berry, Little Richard and Joe Turner became famous with the white audiences. Radio disc jockeys named this music rock 'n roll. One of the best musical album, "Sticks and Stones" has everything from fun to catchy guitar riffs.

It covers a range of emotions and depicts the depth of their talent. The album grabs attention with the song "Cathedral.". The catchy rock beat combines with a variety of instrumentation. The title track "Sticks and Stones" is also worth listening.

The hard to resist lyrics would make your day. The instrumental track "ZOZ" is a classic jam track with brilliant double guitar interface. Another noteworthy feature of this track is the striking beats. Another beautiful track is "All Roads Lead to Home".

This track shows the fast and catchy style of the band. Lastly, there is a song that most college students can appreciate. "Raise a Glass", an old Irish folk song has people singing along in the background. The album is a mixture of a broad variety of the music in the history of rock. This rock album is definitely worth listening and deserves a space on your iPod.


Alice Cooper


Oldies music celebrates the history, trivia and charts of the music of the fifties, sixties and seventies. It is still alive and well. In fact, many rap artists use oldies as their background music while the rapper sings his lyrics over the oldie song...which is called sampling. Oldies is a generic term commonly used in the United States and Canada to describe a radio format that usually concentrates on Top 40 music from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.

Oldies stations as we know them today did not really come into existence until the early 1970s. The music also overlaps with classic rock which focuses on the rock music of the late 1960s and 1970s as well as newer music in a similar style. The songs are typically from the R&B, pop and rock music genres but may also include country, movie soundtrack, novelty, and other types of popular music from around 1950-on.

Oldies music, which typically feature bands and artists such as Elvis Presley, Bill Haley, Little Richard, Pat Boone, Sam Cooke, the Beatles, the Beach Boys, the Rolling Stones, the Rascals, the Association, the Temptations, the Who, Elton John, and Fleetwood Mac, cover a wide variety of styles including early rock and roll, rockabilly, doo-wop, surf rock, girl groups, the British Invasion, folk rock, psychedelic rock, baroque pop, soul music, Motown, and bubblegum pop.

The music has some overlap with the classic rock format, which concentrates on the rock music of the late-'60s and '70s and also plays newer material made in the same style. The Oldies return to the era of doo-wop harmonizers, crew cut folk trios, suited balladeers, and rock 'n' roll wildmen. The songs encompass a wide range of musical styles. They often get dismissed as too tame for sophisticated modern palates, but for some, that's the genre's biggest value -- it harks back to a time that now seems innocent.


The Who


This is a list of some of the world’s music genre and their definitions African Folk - Music held to be typical of a nation or ethnic group, known to all segments of its society, and preserved usually by oral tradition. Afro jazz - refers to jazz music which has been heavily influenced by African music. The music took elements of marabi, swing and American jazz and synthesized this into a unique fusion.

The first band to really achieve this synthesis was the South African band Jazz Maniacs. Afro-beat - is a combination of Yoruba music, jazz, Highlife, and funk rhythms, fused with African percussion and vocal styles, popularized in Africa in the 1970s. Afro-Pop – Afropop or Afro Pop is a term sometimes used to refer to contemporary African pop music.

The term does not refer to a specific style or sound, but is used as a general term to describe African popular music. Apala - Originally derived from the Yoruba people of Nigeria. It is a percussion-based style that developed in the late 1930s, when it was used to wake worshippers after fasting during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. Assiko - is a popular dance from the South of Cameroon.

The band is usually based on a singer accompanied with a guitar, and a percussionnist playing the pulsating rhythm of Assiko with metal knives and forks on an empty bottle. Batuque - is a music and dance genre from Cape Verde. Bend Skin - is a kind of urban Cameroonian popular music. Kouchoum Mbada is the most well-known group associated with the genre. Benga - Is a musical genre of Kenyan popular music. It evolved between the late 1940s and late 1960s, in Kenya's capital city of Nairobi. Biguine - is a style of music that originated in Martinique in the 19th century.

By combining the traditional bele music with the polka, the black musicians of Martinique created the biguine, which comprises three distinct styles, the biguine de salon, the biguine de bal and the biguines de rue. Bikutsi - is a musical genre from Cameroon. It developed from the traditional styles of the Beti, or Ewondo, people, who live around the city of Yaounde. Bongo Flava - it has a mix of rap, hip hop, and R&B for starters but these labels don't do it justice.

It's rap, hip hop and R&B Tanzanian style: a big melting pot of tastes, history, culture and identity. Cadence - is a particular series of intervals or chords that ends a phrase, section, or piece of music. Calypso - is a style of Afro-Caribbean music which originated in Trinidad at about the start of the 20th century.

The roots of the genre lay in the arrival of African slaves, who, not being allowed to speak with each other, communicated through song. Chaabi - is a popular music of Morocco, very similar to the Algerian Rai. Chimurenga - is a Zimbabwean popular music genre coined by and popularised by Thomas Mapfumo. Chimurenga is a Shona language word for struggle. Chouval Bwa - features percussion, bamboo flute, accordion, and wax-paper/comb-type kazoo. The music originated among rural Martinicans. Christian Rap - is a form of rap which uses Christian themes to express the songwriter's faith. Coladeira - is a form of music in Cape Verde.

Its element ascends to funacola which is a mixture of funanáa and coladera. Famous coladera musicians includes Antoninho Travadinha. Contemporary Christian - is a genre of popular music which is lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. Country - is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. It has roots in traditional folk music, Celtic music, blues, gospel music, hokum, and old-time music and evolved rapidly in the 1920s. Dance Hall - is a type of Jamaican popular music which developed in the late 1970s, with exponents such as Yellowman and Shabba Ranks.

It is also known as bashment. The style is characterized by a deejay singing and toasting (or rapping) over raw and danceable music riddims. Disco - is a genre of dance-oriented pop music that was popularized in dance clubs in the mid-1970s. Folk - in the most basic sense of the term, is music by and for the common people.

Freestyle - is a form of electronic music that is heavily influenced by Latin American culture. Fuji - is a popular Nigerian musical genre. It arose from the improvisation Ajisari/were music tradition, which is a kind of Muslim music performed to wake believers before dawn during the Ramadan fasting season. Funana - is a mixed Portuguese and African music and dance from Santiago, Cape Verde.

It is said that the lower part of the body movement is African, and the upper part Portuguese. Funk - is an American musical style that originated in the mid- to late-1960s when African American musicians blended soul music, soul jazz and R&B into a rhythmic, danceable new form of music.

Gangsta rap - is a subgenre of hip-hop music which developed during the late 1980s. 'Gangsta' is a variation on the spelling of 'gangster'. After the popularity of Dr. Dre's The Chronic in 1992, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip-hop. Genge - is a genre of hip hop music that had its beginnings in Nairobi, Kenya.

The name was coined and popularized by Kenyan rapper Nonini who started off at Calif Records. It is a style that incorporates hip hop, dancehall and traditional African music styles. It is commonly sung in Sheng(slung),Swahili or local dialects. Gnawa - is a mixture of African, Berber, and Arabic religious songs and rhythms. It combines music and acrobatic dancing. The music is both a prayer and a celebration of life. Gospel - is a musical genre characterized by dominant vocals (often with strong use of harmony) referencing lyrics of a religious nature, particularly Christian. Highlife - is a musical genre that originated in Ghana and spread to Sierra Leone and Nigeria in the 1920s and other West African countries.

Hip-Hop - is a style of popular music, typically consisting of a rhythmic, rhyming vocal style called rapping (also known as emceeing) over backing beats and scratching performed on a turntable by a DJ. House - is a style of electronic dance music that was developed by dance club DJs in Chicago in the early to mid-1980s.

House music is strongly influenced by elements of the late 1970s soul- and funk-infused dance music style of disco. Indie - is a term used to describe genres, scenes, subcultures, styles and other cultural attributes in music, characterized by their independence from major commercial record labels and their autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing. Instrumental - An instrumental is, in contrast to a song, a musical composition or recording without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments.

Isicathamiya - is an a cappella singing style that originated from the South African Zulus. Jazz - is an original American musical art form which originated around the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States out of a confluence of African and European music traditions. Jit - is a style of popular Zimbabwean dance music.

It features a swift rhythm played on drums and accompanied by a guitar. Juju - is a style of Nigerian popular music, derived from traditional Yoruba percussion. It evolved in the 1920s in urban clubs across the countries. The first jùjú recordings were by Tunde King and Ojoge Daniel from the 1920s. Kizomba - is one of the most popular genres of dance and music from Angola. Sung generally in Portuguese, it is a genre of music with a romantic flow mixed with African rhythm. Kwaito - is a music genre that emerged in Johannesburg, South Africa in the early 1990s.

It is based on house music beats, but typically at a slower tempo and containing melodic and percussive African samples which are looped, deep basslines and often vocals, generally male, shouted or chanted rather than sung or rapped. Kwela - is a happy, often pennywhistle based, street music from southern Africa with jazzy underpinnings. It evolved from the marabi sound and brought South African music to international prominence in the 1950s.

Lingala - Soukous (also known as Soukous or Congo, and previously as African rumba) is a musical genre that originated in the two neighbouring countries of Belgian Congo and French Congo during the 1930s and early 1940s Makossa - is a type of music which is most popular in urban areas in Cameroon. It is similar to soukous, except it includes strong bass rhythm and a prominent horn section.

It originated from a type of Duala dance called kossa, with significant influences from jazz, ambasse bey, Latin music, highlife and rumba. Malouf - a kind of music imported to Tunisia from Andalusia after the Spanish conquest in the 15th century. Mapouka - also known under the name of Macouka, is a traditional dance from the south-east of the Ivory Coast in the area of Dabou, sometimes carried out during religious ceremonies. Maringa - is a West African musical genre.

It evolved among the Kru people of Sierra Leone and Liberia, who used Portuguese guitars brought by sailors, combining local melodies and rhythms with Trinidadian calypso. Marrabenta - is a form of Mozambican dance music.

It was developed in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique, formerly Laurenco Marques. Mazurka - is a Polish folk dance in triple meter with a lively tempo, containing a heavy accent on the third or second beat. It is always found to have either a triplet, trill, dotted eighth note pair, or ordinary eighth note pair before two quarter notes. Mbalax - is the national popular dance music of Senegal.

It is a fusion of popular dance musics from the West such as jazz, soul, Latin, and rock blended with sabar, the traditional drumming and dance music of Senegal. Mbaqanga - is a style of South African music with rural Zulu roots that continues to influence musicians worldwide today. The style was originated in the early 1960s. Mbube - is a form of South African vocal music, made famous by the South African group Ladysmith Black Mambazo.

The word mbube means "lion" in Zulu Merengue - is a type of lively, joyful music and dance that comes from the Dominican Republic Morna - is a genre of Cape Verdean music, related to Portuguese fado, Brazilian modinha, Argentinian tango, and Angolan lament. Museve - is a popular Zimbabwe music genre. Artists include Simon Chimbetu and Alick Macheso Oldies - term commonly used to describe a radio format that usually concentrates on Top 40 music from the '50s, '60s and '70s.

Oldies are typically from R&B, pop and rock music genres. Pop - is an ample and imprecise category of modern music not defined by artistic considerations but by its potential audience or prospective market.

Quadrille - is a historic dance performed by four couples in a square formation, a precursor to traditional square dancing. It is also a style of music. R&B - is a popular music genre combining jazz, gospel, and blues influences, first performed by African American artists. Rai - is a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture.

Ragga - is a sub-genre of dancehall music or reggae, in which the instrumentation primarily consists of electronic music; sampling often serves a prominent role in raggamuffin music as well.

Rap - is the rhythmic singing delivery of rhymes and wordplay, one of the elements of hip hop music and culture. Rara - is a form of festival music used for street processions, typically during Easter Week. Reggae - is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. A particular music style that originated following on the development of ska and rocksteady. Reggae is based on a rhythm style characterized by regular chops on the off-beat, known as the skank. Reggaeton - is a form of urban music which became popular with Latin American youth during the early 1990s.

Originating in Panama, Reggaeton blends Jamaican music influences of reggae and dancehall with those of Latin America, such as bomba, plena, merengue, and bachata as well as that of hip hop and Electronica. Rock - is a form of popular music with a prominent vocal melody accompanied by guitar, drums, and bass.

Many styles of rock music also use keyboard instruments such as organ, piano, synthesizers. Rumba - is a family of music rhythms and dance styles that originated in Africa and were introduced to Cuba and the New World by African slaves. Salegy - is a popular type of Afropop styles exported from Madagascar.

This Sub-Saharan African folk music dance originated with the Malagasy language of Madagascar, Southern Africa. Salsa - is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. Samba - is one of the most popular forms of music in Brazil.

It is widely viewed as Brazil's national musical style. Sega - is an evolved combination of traditional Music of Seychelles,Mauritian and Réunionnais music with European dance music like polka and quadrilles. Seggae - is a music genre invented in the mid 1980s by the Mauritian Rasta singer, Joseph Reginald Topize who was sometimes known as Kaya, after a song title by Bob Marley. Seggae is a fusion of sega from the island country, Mauritius, and reggae. Semba - is a traditional type of music from the Southern-African country of Angola.

Semba is the predecessor to a variety of music styles originated from Africa, of which three of the most famous are Samba (from Brazil), Kizomba (Angolan style of music derived directly from Zouk music) and Kuduro (or Kuduru, energetic, fast-paced Angolan Techno music, so to speak). Shona Music - is the music of the Shona people of Zimbabwe.

There are several different types of traditional Shona music including mbira, singing, hosho and drumming. Very often, this music will be accompanied by dancing, and participation by the audience. Ska - is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was a precursor to rocksteady and reggae. Ska combined elements of Caribbean mento and calypso with American jazz and rhythm and blues. Slow Jam - is typically a song with an R&B-influenced melody. Slow jams are commonly R&B ballads or just downtempo songs.

The term is most commonly reserved for soft-sounding songs with heavily emotional or romantic lyrical content. Soca - is a form of dance music that originated in Trinidad from calypso. It combines the melodic lilting sound of calypso with insistent (usually electronic in recent music) percussion. Soukous - is a musical genre that originated in the two neighbouring countries of Belgian Congo and French Congo during the 1930s and early 1940s, and which has gained popularity throughout Africa. Soul - is a music genre that combines rhythm and blues and gospel music, originating in the United States.

Taarab - is a music genre popular in Tanzania. It is influenced by music from the cultures with a historical presence in East Africa, including music from East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, the Middle East and Europe.

Taarab rose to prominence in 1928 with the rise of the genre's first star, Siti binti Saad. Tango - is a style of music that originated among European immigrant populations of Argentina and Uruguay. It is traditionally played by a sextet, known as the orquesta típica, which includes two violins, piano, doublebass, and two bandoneons. Waka - is a popular Islamic-oriented Yoruba musical genre.

It was pioneered and made popular by Alhaja Batile Alake from Ijebu, who took the genre into the mainstream Nigerian music by playing it at concerts and parties; also, she was the first waka singer to record an album. Wassoulou - is a genre of West African popular music, named after the region of Wassoulou.

It is performed mostly by women, using lyrics that address women's issues regarding childbearing, fertility and polygamy. Ziglibithy - is a style of Ivorian popular music that developed in the 1970s. It was the first major genre of music from the Ivory Coast.

The first major pioneer of the style was Ernesto Djedje. Zouglou - is a dance oriented style of music from the Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) that first evolved in the 1990s. It started with students (les parents du Campus) from the University of Abidjan. Zouk - is a style of rhythmic music originating from the French islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. It has its roots in kompa music from Haiti, cadence music from Dominica, as popularised by Grammacks and Exile One.


Jazz Maniacs


Reggae music inspires its listeners to relax in its tranquil rhythms and leave the modern everyday worries behind. Reggae also empowers its listeners to connect to the unique oneness of the earth and creation with the power of music. By way of its international recognition Reggae music has proven that it is among the most listened to genres of music in the world since it has continued to motivate its followers hit after hit, decade after decade through the vibrant Caribbean beat and modest tempo.

As reggae has evolved, there has been many international musical superstars such as Sizzla, Buju Banton, Burning Spear and the late great Bob Marley - The King of Reggae. When reggae first entered the music arena in the 1960's, Reggae transformed an ancestral beat unlike any other similar type of music.

But where did it come from? For such a powerful mountain moving class of music it is ironic that the music comes from a small island in the Caribbean - Jamaica. Reggae also comes from the collaboration of earlier Caribbean music like ska, and rocksteady combined with blues & rock and roll, and driven by the roots and soul of African heritage. Related Articles Music Genres Bob Marley Posters are in Demand Till Today!

Bob Marley - Legend of Reggae Bob Marley Posters Passion And Pride Jamaica emerged as an exotic island retreat destination in the 1950's and 1960's. Combine the raw beauty of the lustrous island with smooth sounds of reggae music and it is no wonder why Jamaica is still a top travel destination for vacationers worldwide. But there is another side of Jamaica and history that goes back further than the 1950's. Jamaica was one of the first areas that was first discovered by European explorers in the late 1400's. Jamaica was a central distribution center during the African slave trade.

With a long history of cultural integration, Jamaican Reggae music is deeply rooted in the history of Jamaica and the black experience of the African-American descendants of slaves. Jamaica was founded by the English in 1655 and at that time housed African slaves that were under English rule.

Throughout the generations, these slaves although stripped from their original roots and culture, kept their identity as black Africans for centuries to come. The music of reggae was sparked by a reincarnation of traditional African music that involved rhythmic drums and percussion to a set rhythm under harmony.

Reggae music brings to its listeners a message. No better song describes the prophetic nature of Reggae than the Bob Marley classic "Redemption Song". In Redemption Song Marley pleads to his listeners by quoting an earlier Jamaican leader Marcus Garvey to, "Emancipate yourselves from mental slavery" symbolizing that slavery may have ended but black people are still in bondage until they re-establish their original African roots and culture. Redemption Song promotes salvation, unity amongst men, peace and love throughout the world, and it condemns war, racism, poverty and oppression.

Redemption Song captures the heart and soul of the message of reggae music. As reggae music became more popular and musical technology began to advance, the younger generation of Jamaicans began turning their own twist on the popular music. With the message put in place that you can cure hate with love and music, reggae artists have continued the tradition of Bob Marley and have shown that there doesn't need to be war in your life and that you can live peacefully.

That is the true message of reggae. Jamaica is the capital of the Caribbean, the home of Reggae music and the birthplace of Bob Marley. Reggae music is the type of music that brings optimism in people's lives in times of oppression, personal trials and tribulations, and dark sadness. Reggae music is peace and love, light and hope. That is the message it brings.


Reggae Bob Marley

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