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RMS Titanic was a British passenger liner that sank in the North Atlantic Ocean on 15 April 1912 after colliding with an iceberg during her maiden voyage from Southampton, UK to New York City, US.

The sinking of Titanic caused the deaths of 1,502 people in one of the deadliest peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. The RMS Titanic was the largest ship afloat at the time of her maiden voyage.

She was the second of three  Olympic class ocean liners operated by the White Star Line, and she was built by the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast with Thomas Andrews, who perished with the ship, as her naval architect. On her maiden voyage, she carried 2,224 passengers and crew.

March 31, 1909 Construction of the Titanic begins with the building of the keel, the backbone of the ship, at Harland & Wolff's shipyard in Belfast, Ireland.
May 31, 1911 The unfinished Titanic is lathered up with soap and pushed into the water for "fitting out." Fitting out is the installation of all the extras, some on the exterior, like the smokestacks and the propellers, and a lot on the inside, like the electrical systems, wall coverings, and furniture.
June 14, 1911 The Olympic departs on its maiden voyage.
April 2, 1912 The Titanic leaves dock for sea trials, which includes tests of speed, turns, and an emergency stop. At about 8 p.m., after the sea trials, the Titanic heads to Southampton, England.
April 3-10, 1912 The Titanic is loaded with supplies and her crew is hired.
April 10, 1912 From 9:30 a.m. until 11:30 a.m., passengers board the ship. Then at noon, the Titanic leaves the dock for its maiden voyage. First stop is in Cherbourg, France, where the Titanic arrives at 6:30 p.m. and leaves at 8:10 p.m, heading to Queenstown, Ireland (now known as Cobh).

April 11, 1912 At 1:30 p.m., the Titanic leaves Queenstown and heads across the Atlantic for New York.
April 12-13, 1912 The Titanic continues on her journey as passengers enjoy life on the luxurious ship.
April 14, 1912 (9:20 p.m.) Captain Smith retires to his room.
April 14, 1912 (9:40 p.m.) The last of several warnings about icebergs is received in the wireless room. This warning never makes it to the bridge.
April 14, 1912 (11:40 p.m.) The lookouts spot an iceberg directly in the path of the Titanic. First Officer Murdoch orders a hard starboard (left) turn, but the Titanic's right side still scrapes the iceberg. Only 37 seconds passed between the sighting of the iceberg and hitting it.
April 15, 1912 (12:05 a.m.) Captain Smith orders the crew to prepare the lifeboats and get the passengers and crew up on deck.

April 15, 1912 (12:45 a.m.) The first lifeboat is lowered into the freezing water.
April 15, 1912 (2:18 a.m.) The Titanic snaps in half.
April 15, 1912 (2:20 a.m.) The Titanic sinks.
April 15, 1912 (4:10 a.m.) The Carpathia picks up the first of the survivors.
April 15, 1912 (8:30 a.m.) The Carpathia picks up survivors from the last lifeboat.
April 17, 1912 The Mackay-Bennett is the first of several ships to travel to the area where the Titanic sank to search for bodies.
April 18, 1912 The Carpathia arrives in New York with 705 survivors.
April 19 - May 25, 1912 The United States Senate holds hearings about the disaster.
May 2 - July 3, 1912 The British hold an inquiry about the Titanic disaster.
September 1, 1985 Robert Ballard's expedition team discovers the wreck of the Titanic.

Fashion in the years 1910-1919 is characterized by a rich and exotic opulence in the first half of the decade in contrast with the somber practicality of garments worn during the Great War. Men's trousers were worn cuffed to ankle-length and creased. Skirts rose from floor length to well above the ankle, women began to bob their hair, and the stage was set for the radical new fashions associated with the Jazz Age of the 1920s. crazy hatsDuring the early years of the 1910s the fashionable silhouette became much more lithe, fluid and soft than in the 1900s.

When the Ballets Russes performed Scheherazade in Paris in 1910, a craze for Orientalism ensued. The couturier Paul Poiret was one of the first designers to translate this vogue into the fashion world. Poiret's clients were at once transformed into harem girls in flowing pantaloons, turbans, and vivid colors and geishas in exotic kimono.

The Art Nouveau movement began to emerge at this time and its influence was evident in the designs of many couturiers of the time. Simple felt hats, turbans, and clouds of tulle replaced the styles of headgear popular in the 1900s.

It is also notable that the first real fashion shows were organized during this period in time, by the first female couturier, Jeanne Paquin, who was also the first Parisian couturier to open foreign branches in London, Buenos Aires, and Madrid.

Two of the most influential fashion designers of the time were Jacques Doucet and Mariano Fortuny. The French designer Jacques Doucet excelled in superimposing pastel colors and his elaborate gossamery dresses suggested the Impressionist shimmers of reflected light. His distinguished customers never lost a taste for his fluid lines and flimsy, diaphanous materials.

While obeying imperatives that left little to the imagination of the couturier, Doucet was nonetheless a designer of immense taste and discrimination, a role many have tried since, but rarely with Doucet's level of success.

The Venice-based designer Mariano Fortuny y Madrazo was a curious figure, with very few parallels in any age. For his dress designs he conceived a special pleating process and new dyeing techniques. He patented his process in Paris on 4 November 1909. He gave the name Delphos to his long clinging sheath dresses that undulated with color. The name Delphos came from the bronze statue of the Delphic Charioteer.

Fashion in the years 1910

Each garment was made of a single piece of the finest silk, its unique color acquired by repeated immersions in dyes whose shades were suggestive of moonlight or of the watery reflections of the Venetian lagoon. Breton straw, Mexican cochineal, and indigo from the Far East were among the ingredients that Fortuny used.

Among his many devotees were Eleanora Duse, Isadora Duncan, Cleo de Merode, the Marchesa Casati, Emilienne d'Alencon, and Liane de Pougy. The extravagances of the Parisian couturiers came in a variety of shapes, but the most popular silhouette throughout the decade was the tunic over a long underskirt. Early in the period, waistlines were high (just below the bust), echoing the Empire or Dir?ctoire styles of the early 19th century. Full, hip length "lampshade" tunics were worn over narrow, draped skirts. By 1914, skirts were widest at the hips and very narrow at the ankle.

These hobble skirts made long strides impossible. Waistlines were loose and softly defined. They gradually dropped to near the natural waist by mid-decade, where they were to remain through the war years. Tunics became longer and underskirts fuller and shorter. By 1916 women were wearing a calf-length dress over an ankle-length underskirt. When the Paris fashion houses reopened after the war, styles for 1919 showed a lowered and even more undefined waist.

The Tailleur or tailored suit of matching jacket and skirt was worn in the city and for travel. Jackets followed the lines of tunics, with raised, lightly defined waists. Fashionable women of means wore striking hats and fur stole or scarves with their tailleurs, and carried huge matching muffs. Most coats were cocoon or kimono shaped, wide through the shoulders and narrower at the hem. Fur coats were popular.

Changes in dress during World War I were dictated more by necessity than fashion. As more and more women were forced to work, they demanded clothes that were better suited to their new activities; these derived from the shirtwaists and tailored suits. Social events were postponed in favor of more pressing engagements and the need to mourn the increasing numbers of dead, visits to the wounded, and the general gravity of the time meant that darker colors and simpler cuts became the norm. 

A new monochrome look emerged that was unfamiliar to young women in comfortable circumstances. Women dropped the cumbersome underskirts from their tunic-and-skirt ensembles, simplifying dress and shortening skirts in one step. By 1915, the Gazette due Bon Ton was showing full skirts with hemlines above the ankle. These were called the "war crinoline" by the fashion press, who promoted the style as "patriotic" and "practical".

Furthermore people were dressing less extravagantly due to funds being put toward the war effort. According to Elieen Collard, Coco Chanel took notice of this and created the new innovation of costume jewelry. She replaced expensive necklaces with glass or crystal beads. "Without grading them to size, she mixed pearls with other beads to fashion original jewelry to be worn with her designs" that were inspired by women joining the workforce. Shoes had high, slightly curved heels.

Shorter skirts put an emphasis on stockings, and gaiters were worn with street wear in winter. "Tango shoes" inspired by the dance craze had criss-crossing straps at the ankles that peeked out from draped and wrapped evening skirts. During the war years, working women wore sensible laced shoes with round toes and lower wedge heels.

Isadora Duncan

Large hats with wide brims and broad hats with face-shadowing brims were the height of fashion in the early years of the decade, gradually shrinking to smaller hats with flat brims. Bobbed or short hair was introduced to Paris fashion in 1909 and spread to avant garde circles in England during the war. Dancer, silent film actress and fashion trendsetter Irene Castle helped spread the fashion for short hairstyles in America.

The sack coat or lounge coat continued to replace the frock coat for most informal and semi-formal occasions. Three-piece suits consisting of a sack coat with matching waistcoat (U.S. vest) and trousers were worn, as were matching coat and waistcoat with contrasting trousers, or matching coat and trousers with contrasting waistcoat. Trousers were ankle length with turn-ups or cuffs, and were creased front and back using a trouser press.

The gap between the shorter trousers and the shoes was filled with short gaiters or spats. Waistcoats fastened lower on the chest, and were collarless. The blazer, a navy blue or brightly-colored or striped flannel coat cut like a sack coat with patch pockets and brass buttons, was worn for sports, sailing, and other casual activities. The Norfolk jacket remained fashionable for shooting and rugged outdoor pursuits.

It was made of sturdy tweed or similar fabric and featured paired box pleats over the chest and back, with a fabric belt. Worn with matching breeches or (U.S. knickerbockers), it became the Norfolk suit, suitable for bicycling or golf with knee-length stockings and low shoes, or for hunting with sturdy boots or shoes with leather gaiters. The cutaway morning coat was still worn for formal day occasions in Europe and major cities elsewhere, with striped trousers.

The most formal evening dress remained a dark tail coat and trousers with a dark or light waistcoat. Evening wear was worn with a white bow tie and a shirt with a winged collar. The less formal dinner jacket or tuxedo, which featured a shawl collar with silk or satin facings, now generally had a single button. Dinner jackets, worn with a white shirt and a dark tie, were gaining acceptance outside of the home.

Knee-length topcoats and calf-length overcoats were worn in winter. Fur coats were worn in the coldest climates. Formal dress shirt collars were turned over or pressed into "wings". Collars were overall very tall and stiffened, with rounded corners.

The usual necktie was a narrow four-in-hand. Ascot ties were worn with formal day dress and white bow ties with evening dress. Silk top hats remained a requirement for upper class formal wear; soft felt Homburgs or stiff bowler hats were worn with lounge or sack suits. Flat straw boaters were acceptable for a wider range of activities than previously, and Panama hats were worn for travel.

Marya Sklodowska was born in 1867, in Russian-occupied Warsaw, Poland. Marya loved school, especially math and science courses, but higher education opportunities for women in Poland were limited. At age 17, she and her older sister enrolled in an illegal, underground “floating university” in Warsaw. After completing her studies, she worked for three years as a governess.

Her employer allowed her to teach reading classes to the children of peasant workers at his beet sugar factory, although this was forbidden under Russian rule.

At the same time, she took chemistry lessons from the factory’s chemist, studied independently, and took math lessons from her father by mail. By fall 1891, she had saved enough money to enroll in a master’s degree program at the University of Paris (also called the Sorbonne). She earned two degrees, in physics and mathematics.

A Polish friend introduced Marie, as she was called in French, to Pierre Curie, the laboratory chief at the Sorbonne’s Physics and Industrial Chemistry Schools. Pierre Curie’s early research centered on properties of crystals. He and his brother Jacques discovered the piezoelectric effect, which describes how a crystal will oscillate when electric current is applied. The oscillation of crystals is now used to precisely control timing in computers, watches, and many other devices.

Pierre Curie and Marie Sklodowska found that despite their different nationalities, they had the same passion for scientific research and a desire to use their discoveries to promote humanitarian causes. Their friendship deepened and they married in 1895. Pierre continued his pioneering research in crystal structures while Marie decided to pursue a physics doctorate. As her research topic, she chose uranium rays.

Marya Curie

After reading Becquerel’s report that uranium compounds emitted some sort of ray that fogged photographic plates, Marie decided to research the effect that these rays had on the air’s ability to conduct electricity.

To measure this effect, she adapted a device that Pierre and Jacques Curie had invented 15 years earlier. Madame Curie confirmed that the electrical effects of uranium rays were similar to the photographic effects that Becquerel reported—both were present whether the uranium was solid or powdered, pure or in compound, wet or dry, or exposed to heat or light.

She concluded that the emission of rays by uranium was not the product of a chemical reaction, but could be something built into the very structure of the uranium atoms.

The Siege of Sidney Street

The Siege of Sidney Street, popularly known as the "Battle of Stepney", was a notorious gunfight in London's East End in 1911. It ended with the deaths of two members of a politically-motivated gang of burglars supposedly led by Peter Piaktow, a.k.a. "Peter the Painter", and sparked a major political row over the involvement of the Home Secretary, Winston Churchill.

On 16 December 1910, a gang of Latvian revolutionaries attempted to break into the rear of a jeweller's shop at 119 Houndsditch, EC3, working from 9, 10 and 11 Exchange Buildings in the cul-de-sac behind. An adjacent shopkeeper heard their hammering, informed the City of London Police (in whose area the shop was), and nine unarmed officers — three sergeants and six constables (two in plain-clothes) — converged on Exchange Buildings.


Alexander’s Ragtime Band’ could be heard playing on Victrolas and everyone danced new dances like the fox trot, turkey trot, bunny hug, lame duck, chicken scratch, and the kangaroo dip. Silent movies were shown in Nickelodeon theaters – it cost a nickel to get in.  WWI began in 1914 and the Edwardian Era ended.  Thousands of American “dough” boys were shipped “Over There.”  The war ended on November 11, 1918.  More women than ever joined the work force, wore makeup, smoked cigarettes, drove automobiles, flew airplanes, and marched for the right to vote! Prohibition was ushered in after the signing of the Volstead Act of 1919.

Fashion:  At the beginning of the decade, skirts were still floor length.  The higher, looser waistline saw the end of the corset, but the hemline was still narrow.  The remedy was slits which then made it easier to walk and dance. More emphasis was placed on shoes, boots and hose.  Bodices and blouses sported collarless V and square necklines called “pneumonia” blouses.  This was the last decade of complicated construction of inner bodices consisting of countless snaps and/or hooks and eyes. 

Hemlines were five to eight inches above the floor in 1916!  The waistline was about normal and looser.  The bobbed “Dutch Boy” hairstyle came in along with the permanent wave. Hats: The Gainsborough and large picture hat were popular at the beginning of the decade but smaller, taller hats were soon the rage.  The second half of the decade, saw small hats with vertical trims.  The picture hat with a wide brim but smaller crown was flattering.  Wire basket frames were last used in this decade.  The forerunner of the cloche hat of the ‘20’s made it’s appearance in 1917.

Alexander’s Ragtime Band

Alexander's Ragtime Band.
Come on and hear, come on and hear,
It's the best band in the land!
They can play a bugle call like you never heard before.
So natural that you want to go to war.
That's just the bestest band what am, honey lamb.
Come on along, come on along,
Let me take you by the hand.
Up to the man, up to the man,
Who's the leader of the band!
And if you care to hear the Swanee River played in ragtime,
Come on and hear, come on and hear,
Alexander's Ragtime Band!

Verse 2:
Oh ma honey, oh ma honey,
There's a fiddle with notes that screeches.
Like a chicken, like a chicken.
And the clarinet, is a coloured pet.
Come and listen, come and listen,
To a classical band what's peaches.
Come now, somehow,
Better hurry along!

Verse 1:
Oh ma honey, oh ma honey,
Better hurry and let's meander.
Ain't you goin', ain't you goin'?
To the leader man, ragged meter man?
Oh ma honey, oh ma honey,
Let me take you to Alexander's
Grand stand brass band,
Ain't you comin' along?

Come on and hear, come on and hear................

Police Officer William L. Potts of Detroit, Michigan, decided to do something about the problem caused by the ever increasing number of automobiles on the streets. What he had in mind was figuring out a way to adapt railroad signals for street use.

Potts used red, amber, and green rail-road lights and about thirty-seven dollars worth of wire and electrical controls to make the world’s first 4-way three colour traffic light. It was installed in 1920 on the corner of Woodward and Michigan Avenues in Detroit. Within a year, Detroit had installed a total of fifteen of the new automatic lights.

traffic light officer

Traffic police officers operated semaphores and early traffic lights by hand. City officials didn't think drivers would obey the signals otherwise. The traffic officers judged the traffic and decided when to change the signal. To alert traffic that the signal was about to change, they blew a whistle.

Besides cars and trucks, traffic included street cars (vehicles traveling on rails) and horse-drawn vehicles. With all this traffic, one problem that officers had was being able to see and be seen by drivers, especially at congested intersections.

To give traffic officers a wider view, many cities in the United States started using traffic towers in the late 1910s and 1920s. These towers were small booths several feet above street level on street corners or on concrete islands in the middle of a street or intersection. The officers inside the towers operated colored lights or semaphores or waved their arms. 

Detroit was a hotbed of innovation for traffic signals. In 1917, Detroit installed the first traffic tower in the United States at the intersection of Woodward Avenue and Michigan Avenue. In 1920, Detroit became the first city to use red, green, and yellow lights to control traffic. And a Detroit police officer named William L. Potts invented the 4-way, 3-color traffic signal.

During the 1920s inventors came up with plenty of different designs for traffic signals. One thing these signals usually had in common was that someone had to push a button or flip a switch to change the signal. Imagine the thousands of police officers whose job it was to operate signals and enforce traffic laws at intersections. Once automated signals were invented, traffic officers were freed up for other duties.
The first automated signals used timers to set the length of time the red, green, and yellow lights would be on.

Charles Adler, Jr. invented a signal that detected a vehicle's horn honk. A microphone was mounted on a pole at an intersection. The driver had to stop and honk. Sonic vibrations made the mechanism shift electrical circuits and change the light. Then the driver had 10 seconds to get through the intersection. In 1928 a horn-actuated signal was installed near Baltimore, Maryland.

Another type of traffic detector was invented about the same time as the sonic detector. Henry A. Haugh developed a detector that sensed the pressure of passing vehicles. The pressure caused two metal strips to touch, which sent electrical impulses to the signal controller. 

 Modern signals also still use the red, yellow, and green colours. These were standardized in 1935 in an early edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Making traffic signals look basically the same all across the country meant that drivers didn't have to figure out an unfamiliar signal. They could recognize a standard signal and react appropriately, which made driving safer.

Although the three colours in signals have stayed the same, the size of the lenses or heads has changed. Potts's original 4-way, 3-color signal used 4-inch lenses. Today heads are 8 inches or 12 inches in diameter. The larger size makes them much more visible in all kinds of weather and lighting.

At just 10-25 watts, today's LED traffic lights are far more energy-efficient than old-fashioned incandescent light bulbs which used 175 watts.


Russia and the West had harboured mutual suspicions of one another since before the Bolshevik revolution. Russia had aggressively sought territory from European states during the long demise of the Ottoman Empire. In the mid-twentieth century the anti-Russian role that in the past been had played by Britain, France and Austria was now adopted by the US.

The seeds were sown during the inter-war years - Western intervention in the Russian civil war and the view that had been adopted by many in the West that Nazism would be a bulwark against Bolshevism increased Stalin's hostility to the Western democracies. What cemented this resentment was the fact that the West had dithered for so long to open a second front, leaving the Russians to face the full brunt of the Reich's armies, indeed many considered it to be intentionally done in order that the Germany and Russia would destroy one another.

In turn the West were deeply suspicious of Russia's belligerent expansive policies and Stalin's treatment of Poland caused this divide to open even further. Poor old Poland, if you look at a map of Europe over the past centuries you will see that it has moved about quite a lot, parts have been chopped off and parts have been added on. In the post World War II talks, Stalin insisted that Eastern Poland, seized as part of the Nazi-Soviet Pact in 1939 should remain Russian territory, Churchill and Roosevelt agreed and compensated Poland with former German territories in the West.

But Stalin also wanted the type of government that he chose to be in power in Poland, hence his refusal to help the Poles who rose in the Warsaw Rising in 1944. In January 1945 Stalin recognised the Communist dominated Lublin committee as the government of Poland as opposed to the elected body.

Later that year at the Yalta conference it was agreed that the Lublin committee would be expanded to include non-communists in a Provisional Government. However, by mid-1945 all key posts were held by Communists and in a dubious election in 1947, the Communists won an overwhelming majority.

KingGeorge V

George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. As well as being King of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth Realms, George was the Emperor of India and the first King of Ireland post independence. George reigned from 1910 through World War I (1914–1918) until his death in 1936.

From the age of twelve George served in the Royal Navy, but upon the unexpected death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, he became heir to the throne and married his brother's fiancée, Mary of Teck (known as "May" to her family after her birth month). Although they occasionally toured the British Empire, George preferred to stay at home with his stamp collection and lived what later biographers would consider a dull life because of its conventionality.

George became King-Emperor in 1910 on the death of his father, King Edward VII. George was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar, where he appeared before his Indian subjects crowned with the Imperial Crown of India, created specially for the occasion. During World War I he relinquished all German titles and styles on behalf of his relatives who were British subjects; and changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha to Windsor.

During his reign, the Statute of Westminster separated the crown so that George ruled the dominions as separate kingdoms, preparing the way for the future development of the Commonwealth. His reign also witnessed the rise of socialism, fascism, Irish republicanism and the first Labour ministry, all of which radically changed the political spectrum.

Georges Melies

To animate is to infuse life into something that is inanimate or without life. An animation film breathes life into painted or sketched characters. The hero and heroines are not real life movie stars or animals and birds.

Animation films involve the quick display of a series of images to give the illusion of movement. It is a kind of optical illusion of movement. The phenomenon is known as vision persistence. Animation effects began long time ago and not some new invention of the movie world. In the cave paintings of the Old Stone Age the animals were having many legs on superimposed positions in an attempt to capture movement. In the 1800 flip books became popular when by rapidly thumbing through these special books the viewer got the impression of movement.

However it was not until the debut of motion picture films that animation films really took off. No one person can be credited to be the creator of animation films. It involved several people in several projects.
Georges Melies was the first one to dabble with special effects in movies by using animation techniques. Accidentally he discovered it - the stop-motion animation, when his camera happened to break down. He was shooting a bus.

But when he fixed the camera a horse came in the view and the net result was that the bus changed into a horse! J. Stuart Blackton came to combine the techniques of hand-drawn animation and stop-motion for the first time at the turn of the 20th century. Blackton is often referred to as the first successful animator.

French artist Emile Cohl made a film from hand painted cartoon strips name Fantasmagorie in 1908. The film depicted a stick moving and meeting other objects like a wine bottle that becomes changed into a flower. Sometimes the hands of the animator entered the scene. Each frame was drawn on paper and then each was shot on to a negative film that gave a blackboard effect.

Thus it can be said that Fantasmagorie was the first animated film to make its debut. Soon many other artists began to experiment. One was newspaper cartoonist Winsor McCay who began to work with a team. He came to produce some noted films like Little Nemo and Gertie the Dinosaur. In the 1910`s cartoon animated films began to rule the scene. The technique came to known as cel-animation.

Warner Bros and Walt Disney studio came to be legendary names associated with full animation industry in the film world. Limited animation uses less detail. Japan and United Productions of America produced animated films using this method. Another popular technique is rotoscoping. In 1917 Max Fleischer patented it. Here the animators copy frame-by-frame live actions.

The other methods are stop-motion-animation, clay-animation (using clay figures), cutout-animation (using paper and cloth), silhouette-animation, graphic-animation, model-animation, object-animation and puppet animation. In pixilation human beings are used in stop motion roles. This allows for surreal effects like disappearances and appearance. The latest technique of computer animation includes many kinds of techniques. These are made digitally on a computer machine.

Thus we find that in animated films drawings and or paintings are photographed individually by stop-frame cinematography. One frame is slightly different from the other thus giving the illusion of movement. These are moved in rapid succession - about 24 frames in each second. Animation can be regarded as a film technique and not a distinct category of film. These films were ideal for depicting fairy tales and captured the hearts of children for all times to come. It is difficult to find an adult who will not admit enjoying animation films.

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was a pioneer of the nursing field. She was first publicly noticed as an administrator during the Crimean War. Her unwavering determination to provide the best, sanitary care possible cut the death rate considerably for her side. She continued to contribute to the field of nursing throughout her life and continued to open doors for nurses and women in general. In 1893, Mrs. Lystra E. Gretter and the Farrand Training School for Nurses wrote an adaptation of the physician's Hippocratic Oath for nurses. It was named the Florence Nightingale Pledge in honor of the esteemed founder of nursing.

This pledge is most often recited at graduation/pinning ceremonies for nurses. It is also often included in programs honouring nurses during Nurses Week (May 6-12) or on Nurses Day (May 6). May 12 is the birth date of Nurse Nightingale.

The Florence Nightingale Pledge

I solemnly pledge myself before God and in the presence of this assembly, to pass my life in purity and to practice my profession faithfully. I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, and will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I will do all in my power to maintain and elevate the standard of my profession, and will hold in confidence all personal matters committed to my keeping and all family affairs coming to my knowledge in the practice of my calling. With loyalty will I endeavour to aid the physician in his work, and devote myself to the welfare of those committed to my care.

In the 1910s the chic silhouette was lithe compared to clothes of the 1900s. Soon the trend for Orientalism began, however, with Paul Poiret one of the early designers to introduce this to the fashion world. He also made the earliest outfit which enabled women to put it on without relying on the assistance of someone else.

Also emerging at this point was the Art Deco movement. Many couturiers showed how much the movement influenced them. Headgears in the 1900s were soon replaced by simple felt hats. During this period too, the first fashion show was organized by Jeanne Paquin, considered to be the first female couturier. She likewise opened foreign couturier branches in other parts of the world like Madrid, London, and Buenos Aires.

Jacques Doucet, like Mariano Fortuny, was an influential designer of the era. The former was known for placing pastel colors, and his clients were impressed with his preference for using delicate materials. Fortuny meanwhile was known for his dyeing techniques as well as a unique pleating process. He called his long, tight fitting dress “Delphos.” Each cloth was manufactured from the finest silk, while the colors were made from continued immersions in dyes. He also made use of a lot of ingredients in his dyeing techniques.

By the time of World War II, trends in the way people wore and designed clothes were influenced more by necessity. Clothes were manufactured to help women in their work. In 1915, fashionable skirts had grown above the ankle.

Emmeline Pankhurst

Emmeline Pankhurst, c.1908 © 'Deeds not words' was the motto of the Women's Social and Political Union founded by Emmeline Pankhurst. It is a motto that could also serve well to sum up Pankhurst's life, both as a woman and as a suffragette. She worked her entire life for the cause of women's suffrage, and was certainly not afraid to back up her words with action.

In 1879 she married Richard Pankhurst, who was a Manchester lawyer and a radical. He was the author of the first women's suffrage bill in Britain, as well as the Married Women's Property Acts of 1870 and 1882, which allowed women to keep earnings or property acquired before and after marriage.

In 1889 Emmeline Pankhurst founded the Women's Franchise League, which fought to allow married women to vote in local elections. In October 1903, together with her daughter Christabel, she helped found the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) - an organisation that gained much notoriety with their militant actions.

From 1906 onwards, Pankhurst would lead the WSPU against the Liberal Party, whom she felt were the main obstacles standing in the way of women's suffrage. From 1908 to 1909, she was arrested three times, once after calling on people to 'rush the House of Commons' for the suffrage cause.

WSPU members were frequently arrested over the next few years, sometimes in response to a spate of arson attacks orchestrated by Christabel Pankhurst. In 1912 Emmeline herself was arrested monthly, over a period of a year.

The series of incarcerations followed a regular pattern: Once in prison, Emmeline would go on a hunger strike, and she would eventually be released in order for her to regain her health. She would then be put back in jail, where she would again starve herself. This way of dealing with hunger strikers was named the Cat and Mouse Act.

This period of militancy was abruptly ended by the start of World War One, when Emmeline turned her skills to supporting the war effort. Post-war, she moved around, from the US to Bermuda to Canada.

Upon her return to Britain in 1926, she was hailed as a leader of the women's rights movement and asked to stand as Conservative candidate for an East London constituency. She would die before she could be elected, yet she lived long enough to see the Voting Rights for Men and Women Act passed, only weeks before her death.


The history of Korea stretches from Lower Paleolithic times to the present. The earliest pottery period lead to Neolithic period and then to Bronze Age followed by Gojoseon Kingdom. By 3rd century BC, it disintegrated into many successor states.

In the early Common Era, the three kingdoms of Silla, Goguryeo and Baekje, conquered the states of Gojoseon and dominated the peninsula. Goguryeo became the most powerful and defeated massive Chinese invasion. Silla extended across Korea and established the first unified state of Korean peninsula.

This unified Silla fell apart in late 9th century, giving way to three kingdom period that came to an end with establishment of Goryeo Dynasty. Even the Balhae was added into the same after the fall. During the Goryeo rule, laws were codified, Buddhism flourished and a civil service system was introduced.

Then, it was invaded in 993-1019 by Khitan Liao Dynasty, which in turn was invaded by Mongolian Empire in 1238 and then a peace treaty was signed after thirty long years of war.

In 1392, the Joseon Dynasty was established by General Yi Seong-gye. It lasted from 1392- 1910. King Sejong the Great (1418-1450) promulgated hangul, the Korean alphabet. Japan invaded Korea between 1592-1598, but all its efforts were in vain as it was eventually repelled with the efforts by the Navy led by Admiral Yi Sun-shin, resistance armies. Manchu Qing Dynasty invaded Joseon in the 1620s and 1630s.

After it, some of the main events that took place in history of Korea are year wise mentioned below.

    * In the beginning of 1870s, Japan started forcing Korea out of China's sphere of influence into its own.

    * In 1895, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by three of the Japanese agents.

    * In 1905, Japan forced Korea to sign the Eulsa Treaty making Korea a protectorate

    * In 1910 annexed Korea, although neither is considered to be legally valid

    * In 1919, Korean resistance to the Japanese occupation was manifested in the massive nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919.

Thereafter the Provisional Government of Korean Republic coordinated the Korean liberation movement, which was largely active in neighboring Manchuria, China and Siberia.

In 1945, Japan was defeated and then the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration by the Soviet Union and the United States, but the plan was soon abandoned. In 1948, new governments were established, the democratic South Korea and Communist North Korea divided at the 38th parallel. The Korean war of 1950 brought forward the unresolved tensions of the division when finally North Korea invaded South Korea.


From an early age, Shackleton knew he would become an explorer: 'I seemed to vow to myself that some day I would go to the region of ice and snow and go on and on till I came to one of the poles of the earth, the end of the axis upon which this great round ball turns.'

This dream explains why he didn't become a doctor as his father wanted. Instead, he went to sea at the age of 16, travelling through the Far East and America and by the age of 24 had qualified to become a Master, making him able to captain a British ship on any sea.

On leave in London in 1900, Shackleton volunteered for Scott's National Antarctic Expedition. Shackleton, having impressed those close to the expedition with his personality, was chosen to go with Scott to the South Pole on the famous Discovery expedition in the summer of 1901.

The trip would be a bitter sweet one, as Shackleton became seriously ill on the journey and had to be returned home. It was not an empty journey, however, as Shackleton gained invaluable experience in Antarctic expedition. Once recovered, he was asked to take a ship to rescue Scott and dissuade him from continuing for another winter at the Pole. Shackleton declined, wanting not to save Scott, but 'prove himself a better man' with his own expedition.

His dream was realised as commander of the Nimrod Expedition (1907-09), during which his team climbed Mount Erebus, made numerous important scientific discoveries and set a record by coming within 97 miles of the South Pole.

Knighted in 1909, he commanded another voyage from 1914-1916 on the Endurance. The ship was crushed in the ice in 1915, yet he led his men to safety against all odds-making an incredible journey across 800 frozen miles to South Georgia to get aid - a testament to his skill as a leader of men.

Shackleton's last journey would be with the goal of circumnavigating the Antarctic continent. Under great mental and physical stress, Shackleton died on South Georgia Island in 1922 of natural causes and was buried at a whaling station at the insistence of his wife. 

Agnes Baden-Powell

Agnes Baden-Powell (1858-June 2, 1945) became the first president of the Girl Guides when it was formed in 1910. She was sister to Robert Baden-Powell, the founder of the world scouting movement, and was asked by him to organise Girl Guides in the United Kingdom. She stepped down as president of the Girl Guides in 1917 and was replaced by Princess Mary.

She remained as vice-president of the Girl Guides until her death at age 86. Female equivalent of the Scout organization, founded in 1910 in the UK by Robert Baden-Powell and his sister Agnes. There are three branches: Brownie Guides (age 7–11); Guides (10–16); Ranger Guides (14–20); they are led by Guiders (adult leaders). The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (as they are known in the USA) has some 9 million members (1998).

 To begin the story of Miss Agnes, it is important to understand that she and Lord Baden-Powell were only two of a family of ten.  Their father was the Reverend Baden Powell who was professor of Geometry at Oxford University in England.  Their mother was a woman gifted in music and arts as well as mathematics and science.  She was widowed when she was 36 and raised the ten children on her own.  The family was of the upper class and that usually meant that money was not a problem.

Agnes was older than her brother Robert, and at the time she agreed to take over the Guides, this new experience for girls, she was already in her early 50's.  I have always thought of her as a much younger woman.  However, once you read of her accomplishments you might wonder how she had any extra time for Guides.

Agnes was known to be a good musician who played organ, piano and violin.  As an artist she was described as excelling in all handcrafts and specifically metalwork, the making of lace and needlework.  Being most interested in natural history, Miss Agnes always insisted on an "open air" movement in Guiding.  Nor is that all!  She was a recognized expert in astronomy, could bicycle, swim, drive and skate.  Her nursing ability was described as first rate, and she was an excellent cook.

In her home, she kept a beehive and produced prize honey, and YES, you did read that correctly! The bees had access to the outside by a pipe through the wall.  There was also a colony of butterflies living in the home and several small birds who were not caged.  When Miss Agnes agreed to sponsor the fledgling Guide movement she became the President, even though this was not official until September 24, 1915 on the granting of a Charter of Incorporation.

  By April 1910, she, with two of her friends, saw the need to have an office for Guides and so she undertook to rent a room in the building where the Boy Scouts had their offices.   There were by this time already 6,000 girls registered with the Boy Scouts.  As Baden-Powell desired to keep the two groups entirely separate he advance them 100 pounds to become established.

In the early part of this century, which was part of the Victorian era, young girls and women had to be "Ladies".   Many parents were afraid that Guides would be tomboys, but those who knew Miss Agnes declared that a more gentle lady could not be found. 

She would overcome this tomboy image.  In the next several years Miss Agnes worked to adapt the handbook "Scouting for Boys" to the "Handbook of the Girl Guides" or "How Girls can Help to Build up the Empire".   She encouraged and co-ordinated Guiding throughout the world, established the 1st Lone Company in 1912, wrote articles for the Girl Guide Gazette, and with her committee made all the decisions large and small that helped create the organization we now have.

In 1917 Miss Agnes resigned the Presidency in favour of Her Royal Highness, Princess Mary, who was an enthusiastic supporter of the Guides.  Miss Agnes remained in the office of Vice-President until her death in June 1945 at age 86.

Oxo cube

In 1899, the company introduced the trademark Oxo for a cheaper version; the origin of the name is unknown, but presumably comes from the word ox; or it may have been a mark made on crates of the extract at the docks. In 1908 Oxo sponsored the London Olympic Games (despite claims by Coca Cola to being the 'first' commercial sponsor of the Games) and supplied athletes with Oxo drinks to fortify them.

The first Oxo cubes were produced in 1910 and further increased Oxo's popularity as the cubes were cheaper than the liquid. During the first half of the 20th century, Oxo was promoted through issues of recipes, gifts and sponsorships before fading into the background as a part of the fabric of British life in the latter parts of the century. For the beginning of the 21st century a new image was promoted with modern television advertising and sensibilities.

In the UK between 1983-1999 there was a famous Oxo campaign "The Oxo Family", which featured a family eating a meal selling the Oxo product. In 1999 the campaign stopped and the Oxo family shared their meal on TV for the last time, when the family moved out of the house after 23 years.

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